The Center for
Messianic Learning 

Unapologetically Pro-Torah
Unashamedly Pro-Israel
Irrevocably Zionist
“… out of Tziyon will go forth Torah, the word of ADONAI from Yerushalayim.”
(Isaiah 2:3)

If your life is not in jeopardy for what you believe, you’re probably on the wrong side!
“Indeed, all who want to live a godly life united with the Messiah Yeshua will be persecuted.” (2Tim 3:12)
It is what you actually believe that determines how you walk out your faith, “but avoid stupid controversies, genealogies, quarrels and fights about the Torah; because they are worthless and futile.” (Titus 3:9)

Please Note: Nothing on this website should be taken as anti-Church. I am not anti-anything or anyone. I am only pro-Torah and pro-Truth. Sometimes the Truth upsets our long-held beliefs. Why isn’t my theology consistent throughout this website?

Cults and World Religions


The Vocabulary of


See also An Overview of Islam


Abu Bakr: The first Muslim caliph (reigned 632-634 C.E.), according to Sunni Muslims. The Shi’ite Muslims reject this and instead consider the fourth caliph, ’Ali, as the first true successor to Mohammad.

Adhan: Call for formal Islamic prayer (more here)

Allah: The name of the Islamic “supreme being,” derived form the Arabic Al-Ilah. Allah is sometimes thought to be but another name for the one true God, but do not be deceived — that is far from the truth. Allah is the ancient Arabian moon god, only one out of the many thousands of jinni, or desert demons, that were worshipped by the sons of Ishmael before Mohammed rose to power. Mohammad chose to make Allah the “god” of his tribe. The Bible teaches that all false “gods” are actually demons; therefore, Allah is a demon posing as a god, and Islam is therefore a religion of demon worship. As clearly specified in the Qur'an, Allah is most definitely not the God of the Bible, the God of Avraham, Yitz’chak, and Ya'akov (Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob). Allah may well in fact be Satan himself.

Ahadith: Plural of Hadith.

Ahzab: Parties; Ahzab is a description of the various tribes that fought the Muslims in the Battle of the Ditch in 627 C.E., 5 A.H.

Al-Asharatu Mubashshirun: Ten companions which were given the glad tidings of assurance of entering Paradise. They included Hadhrat Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali, Abdur Rahman ibn Awf, Abu Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrah, Talhah ibn Ubaydullah, az-Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas, and Sa'id ibn Zayd.

Alhamdulillah: Praise be to Allah

Alaihi Salam (AS or A.S. - with or without perios): Peace be on him

Alim: Scholors or Learned persons in Islam

Allaho [or Allahu] Akbar: Allah is the greatest (among the djinni)

Ameen: So be it (Amen)

Amir ul Mu'mineen: Leader of the Faithful believers

Anbiya: (sg. nabi) prophets

Arabic: Mother language of Saudi Arabia and most of the Middle East

Al Asma'aullah Husna: the names or attributes of Allah (swt)

Asr: 3rd prayer of five daily, offered in the afternoon. Fajr, Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib and Isha are the 5 time daily prayers of Islam.

As-salaamo alaykum: Peace be on you

Astughfarullah: a prayer for forgiveness; I ask Allah's forgiveness

Aurah: ahe way a Muslim should dress

Ayah: 1. A verse in the Quran. 2. A miracle or sign.


Badr: Battle of Badr; first “holy” battle between Meccans and Muslims

Bin, ibn: son of

Bismillah: in the name of Allah

Barakhallah: may Allah’s blessings be upon you


Caliph: (alt. khalif) the title given to office of the spiritual and political leadership which took over after Mohammad’s death.


Dai-ilallah: caller towards Allah

Dars-ul-Quran: a reading from the Quran accompanied by its explanation

Dars-ul-Hadith: a reading from the Hadith Books accompanied by its explanation

Djinn: See jinn

Dua: prayer, supplication

Durood: invocation of blessings upon Mohammad


Eid-ul-Adhia: Muslim Festival commemorating the obedience to Allah, by Prophet Ibrihim (as), and his son, Prophet Ishmael (as).

Eid-ul-Fitr: Muslim festival concluding the fasting after Ramadhan


Fajr: 1st of the five daily prayers. Offered during dawn. Fajr, Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib and Isha are the 5 time daily prayers of Islam.

Farsi: Persian. Language of Iran and neighboring countries.

Fatima: The daughter of Mohammad and his first wife, Khadija; and the wife of ’Ah, the fourth Caliph.

Fatwa: Religious verdict/ruling

Fardh: Obligatory to Muslims

Fawatih: (Arabic: “prefatory ones”) also called hawamim (the letters ha and mim), or hurūf al-muqattaʿah (Arabic: the “detached letters”), letters of the alphabet appearing at the beginning of 29 of the sūrāhs (chapters) of the the Qur'an. The 14 letters thus designated occur singly and in various combinations of two to five. As the letters always stand separately (muqattaʿah), they do not form words and are read by their alphabetic names, as hā mīm, alif lām mīm, tā sīn mīm.

The original meaning and function of the fawātih, which are associated principally with sūrāhs dating from the late Meccan period (before 622 C.E.), has not been preserved. Scholars have given several theories for the fawātih: the letters might be assigned mystical numerical values; or they could indicate abbreviations for the individual words of a sentence. Most popularly, since the sūrahs preceded by the same combination of letters are grouped together in the Qurʾān, a third theory might imply that these clusters were originally part of private Meccan manuscripts before they were assembled by Muhammad’s secretary, Zayd ibn Thābit, into an authoritative recension; the fawātih could then be construed as the initials of the Meccan owners.

Fiqh: A comprehension, interpretation or understanding in the Islamic Sharia.

Firqa / Madhahib: Division, schism, or sectism.

Fitna: war, strife or riots


Gabriel: the chief angel who “appeared” to Mohammad in a cave; some Muslims believe that Gabriel delivered the Qur’an to Mohammad, others believe that Allah delivered the Qur’an to him.


Hadith: The “sacred” sayings of Mohammad, handed down by oral tradition, for generations after Mohammad’s death until finally transcribed.

Hadhrat or Hazrat: An honorific title equivalent to “His Holiness.”

Hafiz: One who memorizes the entire Qur'an.

Hajj: A pilgrimage to Mecca. One of the five pillars of the Islamic faith.

Hajr-e-Aswad: Black Stone (a meteorite) found in Mecca, which is kissed because of Sunnah, during Hajj.

Halal: that which is allowed in Islam (see also Tayyab and Halaal Food)

Haram: unlawful; prohibited in Islam

Hazrat: Hadhrat; His Holiness.

Hegira: migration; Mohammad’s flight (“migration”) from Mecca to present day Medina in 622 C.E.

Hijaab: The veil of the women, or Muslimah to cover the head.

Hijirah: Hegira

Hijri: the Islamic calendar or era


Ibaadat: worship

Iblees, iblis: synonym for Satan, or Shaytaan

Ibn, bin: son of

Ibrihim: The father of Yitz’chak (Isaac) and Yishma'el (Ishmael); Avraham or Abraham.

Ihram: clothing for hajj

Ihsan: moral actions

Ijtihad: the ability of one to independently arrive at Allah's rulings in all areas of fiqh

Imam: 1. Muslim leader; 2. leader of prayers; 3. A Muslim who is considered by Sunnis to be an authority in Islamic law and theology or the man who leads the prayers. Also refers to each of the founders of the four principal sects of Islam. The Shi’ites accept 12 great Imams. (See Twelfth Imam)

Iman: faith

Injeel: Bible; the Gospels

Insha Allah: Allah willing

Iqamaat / Iqama'ah: A shortened version of the Adhan, said immediately before each prayer.

Isa Ibn Maryam: “Jesus,” son of Myriam (Mary) [The Isa of Islam bears extremely little resemblance to the Yeshua of the Bible.]

Isha: 5th of the five daily prayers, offered before midnight (during night-time). Fajr, Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib and Isha are the 5 time daily prayers of Islam.

Ishmael: Son of Ibrihim and brother of Yitz’chak (Isaac); progenitor of the Arabic peoples.

Islam: Literally, “submission to the will of Allah.”

Itikaf: A continuous series of worship in the last ten days of Ramadhan.


Jamaat, Jama'ah: religious organization or community

Jannah: paradise or heaven

Jazakallah: May Allah reward you

Jehad / Jihad: holy war; a struggle for Islam

Jehannam / Jahannam: Hell

Jihad / Jehad: holy war; a struggle for Islam. When any Muslim anywhere declares a jihad, all Muslims everywhere are duty-bound to join the jihad. When Osama bin Laden declared a jihad against the United States, all Muslims everywhere, including all American citizens who are Muslims, were duty bound to participate in the jihad against America.

Jinn: [alt. djinn, pl. djinni] A desert demon. One of a class of spirit beings that according to Muslim demonology inhabit the earth, assume various forms, and exercise supernatural powers. This is virtually the Bible’s definition of demons, except the Bible specifies that demons are fallen angels. They often take human form and serve their summoner (as in Aladdin's lamp). Allah is only one of them. The plural form is jinni. The Bible teaches that all false “gods” are actually demons; therefore, Allah is a demon posing as a god. Islam is therefore a religion of demon worship.

Jum'ah: Friday; Muslim holy day


Ka'aba, Kaaba: first Islamic worship house; the Grand Mosque; a small stone building located in the court of the great mosque at Mecca containing the black stone (a meteorite) supposedly given to Abraham by Gabriel.

Kafir / Kufr: one who rejects and are disbelieves in Allah and his religion

Kalima, Kalima Tayyaba: pronouncement that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger; the first pillar of Islam.

Khadija: Mohammed's first wife

Khalif: (pl. Khulafa)  Caliph; leader; Khalifa al Rashideen, successor to the Mohammed

Khataman Nabiyyan: Seal of Prophets; entitled to Mohammed (Sura 33:41)

Khulafa: plural of khalifa.

Khutba: Friday sermon

Koran: Qur’an

Koraish: Quraish

Kufr: Kafir


Lailat-ul-Qadr: blessed nights among the odd last ten days of Ramadhan, when Qura'an began revelation.

La-illaha-illulahu; Muhammadur-rasullulah: there is no god but Allah; Muhammad is the messenger of Allah


Maghrib: fourth prayer offered in five daily prayers: after sunset. Fajr, Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib and Isha are the 5 time daily prayers of Islam.

Madhahib: see Firqa

Mahdi: “The guided one.” A leader who will cause righteousness to fill the earth. The Sunnites are still awaiting his initial appearance while the Shi’ites hold that the last Imam, who disappeared in 874 C.E. will someday reappear as the Mahdi. (See Twelfth Imam)

Mahram: unlawful for women to marry because of blood relationship or otherwise

Marwah: a mound found near the Ka'aba

Masih: messiah; chosen one

Masjid: mosque

Mecca / Makkah: The birthplace of Mohammad. This city, located in Saudi Arabia, is considered the most holy city by the Muslims; location of the the Grand Mosque (Kaaba)

Medina: A holy city of Islam named for Mohammad. It was previously named Yathrib. It is the city to which Mohammad fled in 622 C.E. Called the “the city of the prophet.”

Mihrab: recess in the mosque which indicates the direction to the Ka'aba

Minaret: a tower of a mosque, usually where the Adhan is called

Mohajireen: those who migrate from Makkah to Medina

Mohammad / Muhammad: The “prophet” and founder of Islam. Born around 570 C.E., died 632 C.E.

Mo'min: one who accepts Allah and his form of religion

Moslem (Muslim): A follower of Mohammad. Literally, “one who submits.”

Mosque: Muslim temple; an Islamic place of worship.

Mufti: learned scholar in Islam; one who would give fatwa

Muezzin: a Muslim cleric who calls Adhan (announces the hour of prayer)

Muhammad: Mohammed

Mujaddid: restorer

Mulla: A teacher of Islamic laws and doctrines.

Mushaf: a copy of the Qur’an

Muslim (Moslem) (m.), Muslimah (f.): a follower of Mohammad. Literally, “one who submits.”

Mut'akaif: one who performs Itikaf


Na'uozho billah: (a prayer) “Allah forbid this from happening”

Nabi: prophet

Nabiyullah: prophet of Allah

Niqaab: the face covering of women, used in Hijaab


Omar: According to the Sunnites, the second Muslim caliph and principal advisor to the first caliph, Abu Bakr.

Omura / Umrah: A pilgrimage to Mecca besides in the month of Hajj.


PBUH: Peace be unto him

Purday: A veil or covering used by Muslim women to ensure them privacy against public observation, and to indicate their submission.


Qadah: offering a missed prayer

Qari; Al Qari: one who learns and teaches the Qur'an

Qasida: Arabic ode usually involving praise of patron lyrics, prelude

Quraish / Koraish: Arab tribe to which Mohammed belonged

Qur’an (Koran): (lit.) that which is often read, recited, or rehearsed — Religious text or Law of Islam; claimed by Islam to be the final and complete inspired word of God transmitted to the “prophet” Mohammad by the angel Gabriel. Some Muslims claim that it was Allah who delivered the Qur'an to Mohammed. (Read the Qur'an in English here)


R.A. / RA: Radhiallau anho; May Allah be pleased with him.

Ramadan / Ramadhan: The ninth month of the Muslim year, allegedly when Mohammad received the Qur’an from heaven, and now devoted to fasting.

Raka'a: a series of postures from standing to prostration. (The Muslim prayers are made into Raka'as)

Rasul: messenger

Rasulullah: messenger of Allah

Radhiallau anho (R.A., RA): May Allah be pleased with him.


S.A.W.: Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam. Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him (also pbuh)

S.W.T.: Subhanahu Wa Tha'ala — holy is he the glory, the highest

Sadaqah: charity given voluntarily

Sa'ee: slow running or pilgrimage between Mt. Safa and Marwa

Sahabah: companions of a Prophet

Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam: (S.A.W. or saw) peace and blessings of Allah be upon him (also pbuh)

Salat: The Muslim daily prayer ritual. One of the five pillars of Islamic faith. Formal Prayer offered according to prescribed procedure. Fajr, Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib and Isha are the 5 time daily prayers of Islam.

Saum / Siyyamah: fasting

Shahada: To seek death for Allah. Palestinian leaders are now brainwashing children as young as 12 or 13 years old to actively seek to die as Shaheedin (martyrs) for Allah in the jihad against Israel. They are taught that not only is Shahada their duty, it is something sweet to be pursued. Yasser Arafat and the Palestinian Authority actively praise these young Shaheedin and hold them up as an example to be followed by all Palestinian children. Click here for a video from Zola Levitt.

Shaheed: martyr; witness

Shari'a: The total sum of injunctions, that address those who qualify for being obligated to regard the religious duties. It details the way of life that the “creator” (Allah) intends for the created, who believe in him, to abide by and to follow.

Shaitan: Satan; in Muslim mythology, Shaitan is a jinn (demon), not the equivalent of a Biblical fallen angel; in Biblical theology, demons are fallen angels. The Great Shaitan is the United States; the Little Shaitan is Israel.

Shaytaan: Satan. (See Shaitan)

Shi’ites: A Muslim sect which rejects the first three caliphs, insisting that Mohammad’s son-in-law ’Ah was Mohammad's rightful initial successor. (Presently Syria, Lebanon, Pakistan, Iran, and Hezbollah are predominantly Shei'ite; Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Hamas, and the Muslim Brotherhood are predominantly Sunni.)

Shirk: the Islamic sin of idolatry or polytheism, i.e. the deification or worship of anyone or anything other than Allah, or more literally the establishment of "partners" placed beside Allah.

Siha-e-Sitta: Six most authentic Hadith Books: Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi, Abu Daud, Sunan Nasai, Ibn Mahja

Siyyamah / Saum: fasting

Sufis: Iranian (Persian) philosophical mystics who have largely adapted and reinterpreted Islam for themselves.

Sunnah: a practice of Mohammed

Sunnites: The largest Muslim sect which acknowledges the first four caliphs as Mohammad’s rightful successors. (Presently Syria, Lebanon, Pakistan, Iran, and Hezbollah are predominantly Shei'ite; Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Hamas, and the Muslim Brotherhood are predominantly Sunni.)

Surahs: (Sura, Sura-ul) what the chapters of the Qur’an are called; ex. Sura-ul Fathiha = Chapter Fathiha

SWT: Subhanahu Wa Tha'ala; Holy is he the Glory, the Highest


Tabligh: preaching, propagation

Tafseer: interpretation and commentary (of the Qur'an etc.)

Tahmeed: expressing thanks to Allah by reciting Alhamdolillah

Talawat: recitation from the Qur'an

Talim / taleem: education

Takbeer: proclaiming the greatness of Allah by reciting Allahu Akbar, Allah is the greatest (among the djinni)

Taqwa: righteousness

Taraweeh: special prayer offered after Isha prayer during the month of Ramadhan

Tarbiyyat: training

Tasbeeh: glorification of Allah by reciting Subhan Allah (Holy is Allah) or other phrases

Tawaf: preforming seven circuits of Ka'aba

Taweed: affirmation of the “oneness” of Allah

Tawwuth: prayer recited silently seeking the protection of Allah from Satan

Tayyab and Halaal food: lawful and pure food for Muslims

Twelfth Imam: In Islamic belief, the ultimate savior of humankind and the final Imām of the Twelve Imams. “Twelver” Shī‘a believe that al-Mahdī was born in 869 and did not die but rather was hidden by God in 941 (this is referred to as the Occultation) and will later emerge with Isa (Jesus Christ) in order to fulfill their mission of bringing peace and justice to the world. He assumed the Imamate at 5 years of age. Some Shi‘īte schools do not consider ibn-al-Hasan to be the Mahdī, although the majority sect Twelvers do.

Followers of Sunni Islam and other minority Shi'ites believe that the Mahdi has not yet been born, and therefore his exact identity is only known to Allah. Aside from the Mahdi's precise genealogy, Sunnis accept many of the same hadiths Shias accept about the predictions regarding the Mahdi's emergence, his acts, and his universal Caliphate. (For additional information see the Wikipedia article.)

What is important for Bible believers to understand is that the Twelfth Imam, according to Islamic belief, will establish a universal Caliphate (a one-world government under Sharia law) and will defeat Isa in the world’s final battle. His description in Islamic theology is an almost-identical match for the biblical Antichrist.


Ummah: the followers and people of Mohammed

Umrah, Omura: A pilgrimage to Mecca besides in the month of Hajj.

Urdu: language of Pakistan

Uswa-e-Hasna: an excellent example to follow - given to the Mohammed


Wahi: divine revelation

Wa'laykum Salaam: 1. And be with you peace. 2.The reply to the greeting of As-slaamo Alaykum

Wudhu: ablution, cleaning of ones self before Salat

Waqf: an inalienable (non-cancellable) religious endowment in Sharia law, typically denoting a building or plot of land for Muslim religious or charitable purposes; the permanent dedication by a Muslim of any property for any purpose recognized by the Muslim law as religious, pious, or charitable. What is important for non-Muslims to understand is that once property has been declared a waqf, it can never be transferred to an “infidel” (non-Muslim) for any reason. Islam considers of of the Nation of Israel to be an Islamic waqf, therefore under Islamic law Israel can never be allowed to exist as a non-Muslim state. Also, of greater importance to Americans, any property purchased by any Muslim within the United States becomes forever the property of Islam, and is no longer part of America according to Islamic law. As this is being written, the current presidential administration views the U.S. Constitution and American laws as subordinate to Sharia and international law.  See also the Wikipedia article.


Yarham kumullah: may Allah bless You

Yathrib: former name for Medina


Zakat: donations, charity

Zaamzam: a historical well close to the Ka'aba

Zikr-e-Elahi: remembrance of Allah

Zuhr: second of five daily prayers offered. Fajr, Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib and Isha are the 5 time daily prayers of Islam.

For more Islamic terms, go to:

Page last updated on Saturday, 23 September 2023 11:33 AM
(Updates are generally minor formatting or editorial changes.
Major content changes are identified as "Revisions”)

Anxiously awaiting Mashiach’s return