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ב״ה
“… out of Tziyon will go forth Torah, the word of ADONAI from Yerushalayim.”
(Isaiah 2:3)

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Please read the Introductory Notes to this commentary.

For a glossary of unfamiliar terms, CLICK HERE. For assistance in
pronouncing Hebrew terms, a pronunciation guide is located HERE.


Sections of the Apostolic Writings
The Gospels and Acts • The “Pauline” Letters • General Letters • End Times


Acts: Introductory Notes and Outline
Chapters:   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14
15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28


P’yilut HaSh'liakim
The Acts of the Emissaries

~ 1 ~

I. The Waiting Disciples (ch 1)

A. Introduction: Messiah’s 40-day Resurrection Ministry (1:1-7)

1Dear Theophilos,[1a]

In my first cephermissive, document, writing, book,[1b] I wrote about everything Yeshua set out to do and teach,[1c] 2until the day He was taken up, after He had given instructions through Ruach HaKodeshthe Holy Spirit to the Sh'liachimEmissaries, Apostles He had chosen.

3After His death, He also showed Himself to them, through many convincing proofs, that He was still alive.[3a] He appeared to them over a period of forty days, speaking about the Kingdom of God[3b].

[Jerusalem, Thursday, 10 June 28 CE*]

 4Finally, when they were all together, He instructed them, “Don’t leave YerushalayimJerusalem, but wait for HaAbbathe Father’s promise, which you heard about from Me. 5Because Yochanan used to immerse in water,[GN] but in a few days you will be immersed in Ruach HaKodesh.[GN]

6When they had all come together, they asked Him, “Lord, are you going to restore the kingdom to Yisra'elIsrael now?”[6]

7He said to them, “It isn’t for you to know times or seasons; HaAbba has kept them under His own authority.

B. The Shliachim Commissioned (1:8-9; Mt 28:18-20; Mk 16:15-18; Lk 24:47-48; Jn 20:21-22)

 8But you will receive power when Ruach HaKodesh has come upon you. You will be My witnesses in Yerushalayim, in all Y'hudahJudea and ShomronSamaria, even to the ends of the earth.[8] 9After saying these things, He was taken up while they watched, and a cloud[9] hid Him from their sight.

C. The Promise of Yeshua’s Return (1:10-11)

 10As they were staring into heaven[10a] after Him, they noticed two men[10b] in white clothing standing near them. 11The men said, “You Galileans, why are you standing there looking into heaven? This Yeshua, who was taken up from you into heaven, will come back the same way you saw him go into heaven.”[11]

[The Apostles wait in Jerusalem for the Feast of Shavuot
10-20 June 28 CE*]

D. Waiting for Power (1:12-14)

12Then they returned to Yerushalayim [MAP] from the Mount of Olives (it is near Yerushalayim, only a Shabbat-walk[12] away). 13Upon entering the city, they went to the upstairs room[13a] where they were staying. The names of the Sh'liachim were KefaPeter, YochananJohn, Ya'akovJacob, James,[GN] AndraiAndrew, PhilipposPhilip, T'omaThomas, Bar-TalmaiBartholomew, MattityahuMatthew, Ya'akov Ben-HalfaiJacob, son of Alphaeus, Shim'on ZelotesSimon “the Zealot”[13b] and Y'hudah Ben-Ya'akovJudah, son of Ya'akov (James). 14All of these men single-mindedly dedicated themselves to prayer, along with some women, including Yeshua’s mother Miryam, plus His brothers.[14]

E. Matthias Chosen to Take Y'hudas’s Place (1:15-26)

15At that time the talmidimdisciples numbered about one hundred twenty in all. Kefa stood up among them and said, 16“Brothers,[16] Ruach HaKodesh spoke in advance through the mouth of David about Y'hudahJudah the Sicarius (Judas Iscariot), who was the guide for those who arrested Yeshua, and these words of the Tanakh[GN] had to be fulfilled. 17He was one of us, and had been assigned his own responsibilities in this ministry.”

18(With some of the money from having betrayed Yeshua, Y'huda had purchased a field, and fell headfirst into it. His body swelled up and burst open, and all his intestines spilled out. 19The field became known to everyone who lived in Yerushalayim as “the field of blood,” or “Hakal-D'ma” in their language.)

20“Now,” said Kefa, “it is written in the scroll of Psalms,

‘Let the place where he lived be desolate,
with no one live in his tents,’[20a]

and,

‘Let someone else take his leadership role.’[20b]

21“One of the men who has been with us continually for the whole time that the Lord Yeshua travelled among us — 22from the time that Yochanan was immersing to the day that He was taken up from us — must become a witness with us to His resurrection.”[22]

23They nominated two, Yosef Bar-Sabba, surnamed[23a] Justus, and Metushelach.[23b] 24They prayed, and said, “ADONAI, You know the hearts of all men; show us which one of these two You have chosen 25to take part in this ministry and the office of Sh'likachEmissary, or Apostle which Y'hudah abandoned, to go where he belongs.” 26They drew lots to decide between them, and the lot fell on Metushelach. So he was added to the eleven Shliachim.[26]

Chapter 2

____________

   * Dates are from The Chronological Gospels ©1969 by Michael John Rood

 1a. Greek Θεόφιλε, translates as “friend of God” or “God-lover” so this letter may have been addressed to an individual or perhaps primarily to the Messianic God-fearers in the Diaspora. Refer to my introductory comments on the Luke’s Gospel for a discussion of both the writer and recipient of this letter. [RETURN]

 1b. Cepher: Hebrew rp, document, writing, book, missive, letter (of instruction), written order, commission, request, written decree. Referring to the Gospel According to Luke. [RETURN]

 1c. “Everything Yeshua set out to do and teach” is the content of the Gospel of Luke. Luke’s subject in the present book is the accomplishments of the early Believers, in particular how they succeeded in bringing Gentiles into the framework of Messianic faith without their having to convert to Judaism, so that trust in Yeshua would not be for Jews only. Today the problem is exactly the opposite; the cultural and religious superstructure of faith in Yeshua the Jewish Messiah has become so “Gentilized” that most Jews find it hard to believe that the “New Testament” is as much for them as for Gentiles.” (Stern, David H. Jewish New Testament Commentary. Clarksville, Maryland: 1992, p.215.) [RETURN]

  3a. 2 Peter 1:16. [RETURN]

  3b. Throughout the Apostolic Writings the terms “Kingdom of God” and “Kingdom of Heaven” are used interchangeably and are exactly synonymous and refer to neither time nor place, but rather to “the condition in which the rulership of God is acknowledged by humankind, a condition in which God’s promises of a restored universe free of sin and death are, or begin to be, fulfilled.” (Stern, David H. Jewish New Testament Commentary. Clarksville, Maryland: 1992, p. 16.) Although the ultimate fulfillment will be during the Messianic Kingdom, and finally in the Olam Haba, those of us who earnestly seek to live under the rulership of Messiah Yeshua can experience His kingdom in the here and now. [RETURN]

  6. Even after a whole year with Him, the disciples still didn't fully grasp His teaching about the Kingdom of God. They were expecting Him to overthrow the Romans and return self-rule to Israel. [RETURN]

 8.  The word translated “power” is δύναμις (dunamis), from which we derive “dynamite” and “dynamic.” The Holy Spirit gives us the power to be a witness of God in three phases. (1) When we were pagans (unbelivers), the Holy Spirit was with (Greek: παρά, para) us, convicting us of sin and drawing us to Yeshua. Once we come to faith in Yeshua, the Holy Spirit is in (ἐν, en) us, dwelling in us (John 14:17; 1Cor 12:3, 1Cor 6:19). Then when He comes upon (ἐπὶ, epi) us He overflows from our lives. [RETURN]

  9. “A cloud hid Him …” I rather think this “cloud” is not your typical collection of atmospheric vapor, but rather the “cloud of glory,” or Sh'khinah, that veils the presence of God (Exodus 40:34-35; Numbers 9:15-23; 1 Kings 8-11; Ezekiel 43:4; Revelation 15:8). While these passages certainly in no way prove that what the Sh'liachim saw was the Sh'khinah, they certainly allow for that interpretation. See also the next note. [RETURN]

10a. The Greek word used here for “heaven” or “sky” is οὐρανός (ouranos), which can either refer to the atmosphere in which birds fly, or to “the region above the sidereal heavens, the seat of order of things eternal and consummately perfect where God dwells and other heavenly beings” (New Testament Greek Lexicon), the “Third Heaven” (see note on 3:21). I rather believe the Sh'liachim were privileged to literally watch Yeshua enter the very Throne Room of God, from which He will return to reign and judge. [RETURN]

10b. “… two men in white clothing ...” apparently angels. [RETURN]

11. “… will come back the same way…” (i.e., in a body) in fulfillment of Daniel 7:13, Revelation 19:11-17. [RETURN]

12. A Shabbat-walk, or Sabbath day’s journey, was the distance the Sages had ruled one might travel on Shabbat without breaking Torah: 2,000 cubits — a little over a half-mile, or just slightly less than a kilometer. [RETURN]

13a. This was probably the same room in which they had recently eaten dinner with Yeshua the night before He was crucified. Some traditions hold that this was the dining room of a rooming house owned or managed by the mother of Yochanan MordichaiJohn Mark, who wrote the second Gospel account. The tourist-trap “Upper Room” in Jerusalem cannot possibly be the original building used for either the “Last Supper” or for this narrative, as it dates to no earlier than the 11th century, and is probably of Crusader construction. [RETURN]]

13b. The Zealots were a party who advocated the violent overthrow of the Roman government. [RETURN]

14. The Roman Catholic Church teaches the “perpetual virginity of Mary,” that Miryam never had a child other than Yeshua, and that she maintained her virginity for her entire life. Matthew 1:25 says only that Miryam remained a virgin until after Yeshua’s birth. Mark 6:3 specifically names four of His brothers: Ya'akov haTsaddik (James “the Just”), who assumed leadership of the Messianic Community in Yerushalayim), Yosef (Joseph or Joses), Y'hudah (Judas or Jude, who wrote the letter that appears just before the Revelation in Christian Bibles), and Shim'on (Simon). Matthew 13:56 and Mark 6:3 both assert that He also had sisters. [RETURN]

16. The word translated “brothers”, when the context permits, may also be accurately translated as “brothers and sisters,” “siblings,” or “countrymen.” [RETURN]

20a. Psalm 69:25. [RETURN]

20b. Psalm 109:8. [RETURN]

22. The Eleven felt that the requirements of Apostleship should be that the man be among the original followers of Yeshua “from the time that Yochanan was immersing to the day that He was taken up from us.” They were later to find out that it was more important that an Apostle be a witness to Yeshua’s resurrection (Acts 2:32; Acts 9:3-6) and to have been directly commissioned by Him (Matt 28:18-20; Gal 1:1). [RETURN]

23a. Surname, his secular name. Nearly all male Jews who live in the diaspora have two names, their Hebrew name and their “secular” name in the vernacular of the country in which they reside. For example, my Hebrew name is Ari ben Gavriel ha Levi (Ari [Lion] son of Gavriel [Warrior of God] the Levite), but since I live in the United States, when dealing with the non-Jewish world I use my Amercan name, Rick Sawyer. Thus Rabbi Sha'ul of Tarsus did not “change his name” (not did he “convert” to anything other than a Jewish follower of Yeshua) when he had his Damascus Road encounter with the resurrected Messiah. Born a Roman citizen in the city of Tarsus in Asia Minor, he was named Paul at his birth. At his bris (circumcision and dedication) he was given his Hebrew name, Sha'ul. When living and working in Israel he used his Hebrew name, Sha'ul, but when ministering in the Diaspora (lands outside of Israel) he used his Roman name, Paul. [RETURN]

23b. For some strange reason, most English translations render this name as Matthias. In the Greek New Testament the name is maqousala, Mathousala. The Hebrew name is xlXwtm, usually rendered as Methuselah, the same as Noah’s grandfather. [RETURN]

26. Although Metushelach presumably served faithfully in his office for the rest of his life, he is never again mentioned in the Scriptures. It is apparent that HaShem’s choice as Y'huda’s replacement was Rav Sha'ulPaul. I find it very interesting that virtually every time the people of God “vote” on anything, they consistently get it wrong. That is why I am extremely opposed to congregations voting on anything, and far prefer the decision-making responsibilities be left in the hands of the God-appointed Elders who serve as Beit-Din for the congregation. This assumes, obviously, that the Elders were spiritually qualified and appointed by other Elders as specified in the Scriptures, and not elected by the congregation. More about that here. [RETURN]

 

Page posted on Friday, 24 April 2020
Outline and dates added Friday, 04 June 2021

Page last updated on Saturday, 19 June 2021 01:58 PM
(Updates are generally minor formatting or editorial changes.
Major content changes are identified as "Revisions”)

Anxiously awaiting Mashiach’s return
ANXIOUSLY WATCHING FOR MASHIACH’S RETURN,
SPEEDILY AND IN OUR DAY. MARANA, TA!