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“… out of Tziyon will go forth Torah, the word of ADONAI from Yerushalayim.”
(Isaiah 2:3)

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Please read the Introductory Notes to this commentary.

For a glossary of unfamiliar terms, CLICK HERE. For assistance in
pronouncing Hebrew terms, a pronunciation guide is located HERE.

Sections of the Apostolic Writings
The Gospels and Acts • The “Pauline” Letters • General Letters • End Times

Acts: Introductory Notes and Outline
Chapters:   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14
15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28

P’yilut HaSh'liakim
The Acts of the Emissaries

~ 2 ~

II. From Shavuot to Rav Sha'ul’s Awakening (ch 2-8)

A. Shavuot (ch 2)

1. Ruach HaKodesh Given (2:1-13)

[Jerusalem, Sunday, 20 June 28 CE*]

1The festival of Shavu'ot[1a] had come, and all the Believers were gathered together in one place.[1b] 2Suddenly there came from the sky a sound like the rushing of a mighty wind, and it filled all the House[2] where they were sitting. 3Tongues like fire[3] appeared, separated, and came to rest on each of them.

4They were all filled with Ruach HaKodeshthe Holy Spirit, and began to speak with other languages, as the Ruach gave them the ability to speak. 5Staying in Yerushalayim were religious Jews from every nation under heaven.[5] 6When they heard this sound, a large crowd developed. They were all very confused, because everyone heard the Sh'liachimEmissaries, Apostles speaking in his own language.[6] 7They were all totally amazed, and were saying to one another, “Look, aren’t all these who are speaking Galileans? 8How do we all hear them speaking in our own native dialect?[8] 9Parthians, Medes, Elamites, and people from Mesopotamia, Y'hudahJudea, Cappadocia, Pontus, Asia, 10Phrygia, Pamphylia, Egypt, the parts of Libya around Cyrene, visitors from Rome, both Jews and proselytes[10], 11Cretans and Arabians: we hear them speaking in our languages the mighty works of God!” 12They were all amazed, and were perplexed, saying to each another, “What does this mean?” 13Others, mocking, said, “They’re all drunk!”

2. Kefa’s First Message: Yeshua is Lord and Messiah (2:14-40)

a. Explanation: Fulfillment of Joel 2:28-32 (2:14-21)

14But KefaPeter stood up with the Eleven, raised his voice, and spoke loudly to them, “You Jews and all you who are staying in Yerushalayim, let me explain this to you — listen carefully! 15These men aren’t drunk, as you assume! It's only the third hour.[15] 16This is what the prophet Yo'elJoel spoke about:

17 ‘ADONAILORD, a Hebrew circumlocution for יהוה‎ — YHWH, God’s covenant name[17] says:
“In the Acharit HaYamimLast Days
I will pour out from my Spirit upon everyone.
Your sons and daughters will prophesy,
your young men will see visions,
your old men will dream dreams.
18 Even on my slaves, both men and women,
will I pour out from my Spirit in those days;
and they will prophesy.
19I will perform miracles in the sky above
and signs on the earth below blood,
fire and thick smoke.
20 The sun will become dark
and the moon blood
before the great and fearful Day of ADONAI comes.[20]
21 And then, whoever calls on the name of ADONAI will be saved.”’[21]

b. Exposition Yeshua is Risen and Exalted as Lord and Messiah (2:22-37)

22“Men of Yisra'el, listen to this! Yeshua of Nazareth was Man confirmed to you by God through powerful works, miracles, and signs which God worked through Him among you. As you yourselves know, 23He was arrested in accordance with the predetermined will and foreknowledge of God. And through the agency of men who disregard Torah, you took Him, crucified and killed Him.[23] 24God has raised Him up, freeing Him from the agony of death, because it was not possible for death to have held Him. 25For as David says about Him:

“I saw ADONAI always before me,
for He is at my right hand, so that I will not be shaken.
26For this reason, my heart was glad; and my tongue rejoiced;
and now my body too will live on in the certain hope
27that you will not abandon me to Sheol[GN]
or let your Holy One see decay.
28You have made known to me the ways of life;
you will fill me with joy by your presence.[28]

29“Brothers, I may tell you openly about the patriarch David: he both died and was buried; and his tomb is still here with us. 30Since he was a prophet, he knew that God had sworn an oath to him that He would raise up the Messiah from his physical descendants to sit on his throne. 31Foreseeing this certainty, he spoke about the resurrection of the Messiah, that neither would his soul be left in Sheol, nor would his body decay. 32God raised up this Yeshua; we all are witnesses. 33Therefore, having been exalted to the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of Ruach HaKodesh, He has produced this that you now see and hear.

34David didn’t ascend into the heavens, but he says himself,

‘ADONAI said to my Lord, “Sit by My right hand,
35until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.”’[35]

36“Therefore, let all the house of Yisra'el know for a certainty that God has confirmed as both ADONAI and Messiah this Yeshua whom you crucified.”[36]

37Now when they heard this, they were cut to the heart, and said to Kefa and the rest of the Sh'liachim, “Brothers, what shall we do?”

c. Exhortation: Repent and be Immerssed (2:38-40)

38Kefa said to them, “Turn away from sin and back to God, and let each of you be immersed in the authority of Yeshua the Messiah into the forgiveness of sins,[38] and you will receive the gift of Ruach HaKodesh. 39For the promise is to you [the Jewish people] and to your children, and to all who are far off [the goyim, the gentiles], even as many as ADONAI Eloheinuour God will call to Himself.” 40He continued presenting many additional arguments as testimony, and pleaded with them, “Save yourselves from this perverse generation!”

3. Three Thousand Immersed (2:41-47)

41So those who accepted what he said were immersed, and that day about three thousand souls were added [to Yeshua’s TalmidimDisciples].[41]

42They remained steadfast in the teaching of the Sh'liachim,[42a] and in fellowship, communal meals, and the prayers.[42b] 43Everyone was filled with awe, as many miracles and signs took place through the Sh'liachim. 44All the Believers were together and held all things in common. 45They sold their possessions and goods, and distributed them among themselves, according to each one’s need. 46They continued faithfully and with a singleness of purpose to meet daily in the Temple[46], and sharing meals in their homes at home, they ate with gladness and singleness of heart, 47praising God, and earning the respect of all the people. The Lord added to the Messianic Community day by day those who were being saved.

Chapter 3


   * Date is from The Chronological Gospels ©1969 by Michael John Rood

 1a. It was the Feast of Shavu’ot (Feast of Weeks), the fiftieth day (thus the word Pentecost, which is the Greek term for 50 days) after the Yom Habikkurim (First Fruits) on which which Yeshua was resurrected. His core group of talmidim had gone up to the Temple for worship. In Jewish tradition, the Feast of Shavu’ot celebrates the giving of the Torah at Mount Sinai on the fiftieth day after Israel left Egypt. The talmidim at the Temple would have drawn an immediate and clear connection between the events of this day and the events at Sinai. [RETURN]

 1b. They most certainly were not gathered in an “upper room” somewhere. On this important feast day they would have been gathered in the Temple complex, probably on a set of steps somewhere within the Temple precincts. [PICTURE] Read my understanding of the events of this day HERE. [RETURN]

  2. Again, please carefully notice that the Sh'liachimEmissaries, Apostles were not in some “upper room” that day. Bible teachers who are not familiar with life in Israel during the Second Temple Period do not understand that the term “the House” was a very familiar shortened form of “the House of Prayer” — a common euphemism referring to the Temple (Isaiah 56:7; Matthew 21:13; Mark 11:17; Luke 19:46) — and Yeshua referred to the Temple as “My Father’s house” (Luke 2:49; John 2:16). Modern archaeology has recently uncovered a section of the Temple previously unknown. Leading up from one of the main streets adjacent to the temple is a very wide flight of steps with a large platform at the top. [PICTURE] Read more HERE (with pictures). [RETURN]

  3. The symbolism of this event is incredibly important, and is grossly misunderstood and virtually always misinterpreted by the Church. Please read my extended commentary on this event HERE. [RETURN]

  5. The Torah lists 70 descendants of Noah after the Great Flood, and tells us, “These are the families of the sons of Noah … the nations were separated on the earth after the flood” (Gen 10:32). From here the sages learn that humanity comprises 70 nations, each with its own language. [MORE HERE] Thus when God spoke the summary of Torah (the Ten Commandments) from Mount Sinai it was heard in all 70 languages so that none could say he didn’t hear it. It does not stretch the imagination, therefore, to assume that of the 120 who were speaking this day, there were 70 languages spoken, representing all the languages of mankind. [RETURN]

  6. The Sh'liachim were all speaking in known human languages that were readily understood by those who had come from foreign lands to attend the festival. There was no ecstatic gibberish, no “angelic tongues” or “prayer languages” being spoken. The Scriptures are very clear that whenever the “gift of languages” is to be used in public assembly there must be present in the assembly someone who understands and can accurately translate that language (1Cor. 14:26-28). I worshipped and taught in charismatic assemblies for over 14 years, and not once in all that time did I observe this spiritual gift manifested according to the Scripture. So sad! [RETURN]

  8. The word that is used in the Greek New Testament is dialektoß (dialektos), which can be translated generally as “language,” or more specifically as “dialect,” which includes regional variations on the base language. [RETURN]

10. Proselytes are former Gentiles who have been “adopted” as Jews and undergone a formal conversion to Judaism. The process involves foreswearing their former religion, embracing the God, the Torah, the people, and the Land of Israel, adopting a Hebrew name, circumcision for men, and tevilah (ritual self-immersion in “living water” under the supervision of a rabbi). Upon arising from the water, the person is said to be “born again” as a Jew. Prior to the Jerusalem Council in chapter 15 of Acts, any Gentile wishing to have a relationship with the Messiah was required to become a proselyte. If the author of this letter was not an ethnic Jew, he was most certainly a prostelite (more HERE). [RETURN]

15. About 9:00 a.m. In the Second Temple Period time was calculated from sunrise. See the global note on “Hebrew Timekeeping.” [RETURN]

17. ADONAI, or LORD (either all uppercase or small capitals), is a Hebrew circumlocution (a way of talking around a word to be avoided) for יהוה‎, the four Hebrew letters (yud-hey-vav-hey, YeHoVaH or YHWH) that form God’s Covenant Name, which is considered by traditional Judaism as too sacred to be pronounced except by a Cohen (a person directly descended from Aaron, the first High Priest) when pronouncing the Aaronic Benediction. See my article “Some Thoughts on the Sacred Name.” Many Gentiles (and, unfortunately, some uneducated Messianic Believers) try to pronounce His name as Jehovah, a totally nonsensical word that is grammatically impossible in either Hebrew or Aramaic since neither language has the “jay” sound. See Where Did the Word Jehovah Come From?  [RETURN]

20. For “the great and fearful Day of ADONAI,” see the following: Isaiah 13:6, Isaiah 13:9, Lamentations 2:22, Ezekiel 13:5, Joel 1:15, Joel 2:1, Joel 2:11, Joel 2:30-31, Joel 3:14, Amos 5:20, Obadiah 1:15, Zephaniah 1:7-8, Zephaniah 1:14,18, Zephaniah 2:2-3, Malachi 4:5, Acts 2:20, 1 Corinthians 5:5, 1 Thessalonians 5:1-2, 2 Thessalonians 2:2, 2 Peter 3:10. See also the note on Revelation 1:10. How can the Day of ADONAI be both “great” and “fearful”? For unbelievers it will be terrible and fearful; for Believers it’s going to be great! [RETURN]

21. Joel 2:28-32. “… whoever calls on the name of ADONAI [יְהוָֹה] will be saved.” For over 1,700 years the Church has taught that in order to be “saved,” one must call upon the name of “Jesus,“ and only the name of “Jesus.” But that simply is not what the Scriptures say! We need to remember that Yeshua is ADONAI [יְהוָֹה] from all eternity past. This means that the One Who walked in the Garden of Eden with Adam and Eve, the One Who appeared to Avraham and Sarah to announce the birth of Yitzchak, the One Who made the eternal Covenants with Avraham, Yitzchak, and Ya`akov, the One Who appeared to Moshe in the burning bush, and One Who wrote the Torah in stone with His finger, and the One Who took Israel as His eternal Bride was Yeshua in His pre-incarnate form. And the “The Holy One of Israel” Whom “non-Messianic” Jews worship and to Whom they have directed their daily prayers for 4,000 years is Yeshua! When Gentile Christians call upon the name of “Jesus” they are actually calling upon the name of ADONAI [יְהוָֹה]. (More HERE.) [RETURN]

23. The Jews to whom KefaPeter was speaking did not actually crucify Yeshua, neither had their leaders directly crucified Him. However the leaders requested it, and God holds the entire nation accountable for the actions of their leaders. Perhaps we should keep this in mind when we elect ungodly leaders and allow them to make ungodly decisions. God will surely hold us accountable for their actions. [RETURN]

28. Psalm 16:8-11. [RETURN]

35. Psalm 110:1. [RETURN]

36. Yeshua already had been ADONAI (יְהוָֹה, YHWH, the LORD) from all eternity past. It was the Resurrection that confirmed Him as the Messiah. [RETURN]

38. “…let each of you be immersed in the authority of Yeshua the Messiah into the forgiveness of sins.” They were, and we are, to be immersed in the authority of Yeshua into the forgiveness of sin. The Greek word translated “immersed” is βαπτίζω (baptizó), to be completely submerged into a substance so that the nature of that which is submerged in forever changed. For example, when a cucumber is immersed in pickling solution, it comes out a pickle. It can never again return to being a pickle. We are to be immersed in Yeshua’s authority into the forgiveness of our sin. We go into that forgiveness as a sinner and come out of that forgiveness as a saint, a child of God, never to return to being a sinner. Once we are forgiven, it is then up to us to become a disciple of Yeshua. [RETURN]

41. Please, please, please note that “there were three thousand souls added.” Added to what? Obviously added to something that already existed! God did not create anything new that day! This was not the birth of the “Church”! It was the restoration of three thousand individuals to the faithful remnant of Israel! Yeshua did not come to start a new religion; He came to restore the ancient religion.

At the time of the original Sinai experience, the Levites killed three thousand of those who had bowed to the golden calf (Exodus 32:23-28). On this Shavuot, God restored (added) three thousand souls to Israel.

Thus a careful examination of the Scriptures will clearly reveal that the “Pentecost experience” does not mark the “birth of the Church” as I erroneously taught for over 35 years. There is absolutely no evidence anywhere in either the biblical record or in any secular historical record to support the idea that on that day in history either the original Talmidim (estimated to be about 120 in number) or the three thousand who had just became Talmidim that day suddenly stopped being Jews and were “converted” or otherwise transformed into anything called either “the church” or “Christians.” Though it has been taught for the past seventeen centuries, that concept is totally unbiblical. They retained their ethnic identity and simply became Jews who believed and trusted in Yeshua as the Messiah, and who had been filled with Ruach HaKodesh, and who were now restored to the faithful remnant of Israel. [RETURN]

42a. “The teaching of the Sh'liachim” was that Messiah had come and brought the Kingdom of God to Israel as prophesied in the Tanakh. They also passed on the interpretation of the Tanakh that Messiah had taught them. [RETURN]

42b. “The prayers” refers to the traditional liturgical prayers of the Temple and synagogue (both ancient and modern, which should be nearly identical). Note the four activities of the Messianic Community: (1) Attention to the Apostles’ teaching (i.e., Bible study/teaching), (2) regular fellowship, (3) communal meals (or oneg Shabbat), and (4) corporate worship. These four activities should mark the core of the modern Messianic Community. [RETURN]

46. They absolutely did not abandon the Temple, as the Church traditionally teaches. Nor is there any evidence, either here or elsewhere in the Apostolic Writings, that they abandoned the Shabbat (Sabbath), the seventh day of the week, which HaShem commanded all who believe Him to keep separated as the appointed day of worship, in favor of worship on the first day of the week. [RETURN]

Page posted on Friday, 24 April 2020
Outline and dates added on Friday, 04 June 2021
Additional comments added on Sunday, 05 June 2022

Page last updated on Sunday, 05 June 2022 01:11 PM
(Updates are generally minor formatting or editorial changes.
Major content changes are identified as "Revisions”)

Anxiously awaiting Mashiach’s return

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