The Center for
Messianic Learning 

Unapologetically Pro-Torah
Unashamedly Pro-Israel
Irrevocably Zionist
“… out of Tziyon will go forth Torah, the word of ADONAI from Yerushalayim.”
(Isaiah 2:3)

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Please read the Introductory Notes to this commentary.

For a glossary of unfamiliar terms, CLICK HERE. For assistance in
pronouncing Hebrew terms, a pronunciation guide is located HERE.

Sections of the Apostolic Writings
The Gospels and Acts • The “Pauline” Letters • General Letters • End Times

Introduction to the Gospels (Good News of the Kingdom) and Acts
Mattityahu (Matthew)  •  Mordichai (Mark)  •  Lukas (Luke)  • Yochanan (John)
Crucifixion Week Chronology3-Year Harmony of the Gospels1-Year Harmony of the Gospels  
Hitgalut (Revelation)  •  P’yilut HaShliyakim (Acts of the Emissaries)  •  The Chosen (Video Series)

Acts Index
Chapters:   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14
15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28

P’yilut HaSh'liakim
The Acts of the Emissaries

~ 7 ~

Stephanos’ Defense

1The Cohen HaGadolHigh Priest asked, “Are these charges true?”

2Stephanos said, “Brothers and fathers, listen to me. The God of glory appeared to Avraham avinuour father Abraham when he was in Mesopotamia, before he lived in Haran, 3and said to him, ‘Leave your land and your family, and go into a land that I will show you.’[3] 4Then he came out of the land of the KasdimChaldaeans and lived in Haran. After his father had died, God moved him into this land where you are living now. 5He gave him no inheritance in it, not even space for one foot, yet He promised to give it to him as a possession, and to his descendants after him, even though at the time he was childless. 6God said it like this: ‘Your descendants will live as aliens in a foreign land, and they will be slaves and be persecuted for four hundred years. 7But I will judge the nation that enslaves them,’ said God, ‘and after that will they come out, and serve me in this place.’[7] 8And He gave him the b'rit-milahcovenant of circumcision. So Avraham became the father of YitzchakIsaac, and circumcised him the eighth day. Yitzchak became the father of Ya'akovJacob, and Ya'akov became the father of the twelve patriarchs.

The Patriarchs in Egypt

9“The patriarchs, because of their intense jealousy of YosefJoseph, sold him into Egypian slavery. But ADONAI was with him, 10rescued him out of all his troubles, and gave him favor and wisdom before Pharaoh, king of Egypt, who appointed him governor over Egypt and all his household. 11Now a famine came over all the land of Egypt and Kena'anCanaan, causing great suffering. 12But when Ya'akov heard that there was grain in Egypt, he sent our fathers there the first time. 13The second time, Yosef identified himself to his brothers, and Yosef’s family was introduced to Pharaoh. 14Yosef then sent for his father Ya'akov and all his relatives, seventy-five people. 15So Ya'akov went down into Egypt. He died there, and so did our other ancestors. 16Their bodies were brought back to Shechem, and buried in the tomb that Avraham had bought from from the family of Hamor of Shechem for a certain price.

Moshe, a Rejected Savior

17“But as the time approached for the fulfillment of the promise God had sworn to Avraham, the numbers of our people in Egypt had greatly increased 18until a different king rose to power, one who didn’t know about Yosef. 19This king persecuted our people and badly mistreated our fathers, forcing them to throw their babies outside so they would die. 20It was during this time that MosheMoses was born, and he was beautiful. For three months he was reared in his father’s house. 21When he was finally thrown out, Pharaoh’s daughter took him and reared him as her own son. 22Moshe was educated in all wisdom of the Egyptians, and became a powerful man in both word and deed. 23But when he was forty years old, he decided to visit his brothers,[23] the people of Yisra'elIsrael. 24When he saw one of them being abused, he came to his defense and avenged the victim by striking down the Egyptian. 25He assumed that his brothers understood that God was using him to deliver them, but they didn’t understand.

26“The following day he saw them fighting and urged them to make peace, saying, ‘Sirs, you are brothers. Why are you mistreating each other?’ 27But the one who was mistreating his fellow pushed him away, saying, ‘Who made you a ruler and a judge over us? 28Do you want to kill me, like you killed that Egyptian yesterday?’[28] 29When he heard this, Moshe fled the country and became an exile in the land of Midyan, and had two sons there.

30“After forty years there, an angel of ADONAI appeared to him in the desert near Mount Sinai, as fire in a bush. 31When Moshe saw it he was amazed, and as he came closer to see, the voice of ADONAI came to him: 32‘I am the God of your fathers, the God of Avraham, the God of Yitzchak, and the God of Ya'akov.’[32] Trembling with fear, Moshe didn’t dare to look. 33ADONAI said to him, ‘Take off your sandals; the place where you are standing is holy ground. 34I have clearly seen the affliction of my people who are in Egypt, I have heard their crying out, and I have come down to rescue them. Now I’m going to send you into Egypt.’[34]

35“This Moshe, the same man they rejected and told ‘Who made you a ruler and a judge?’ — this is the same man that God sent as both a ruler and a redeemer by the power of the angel who appeared to him in the bush. 36This man led them out, performing miracles and signs in Egypt, at the Red Sea[36], and for forty years in the desert. 37This is the same Moshe who said to the people of Yisra'el, ‘ADONAI our God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among your brothers.[37] 38This is the same man who was in the assembly in the wilderness with the angel that spoke to him on Mount Sinai, and with our fathers, who received living oracles to pass on to us.

Israel’s Rebellion

 39But our fathers wouldn’t obey him, but rejected him, and in their hearts they turned back to Egypt, 40saying to Aharon, ‘Make gods for us to lead us; this Moshe, who led us out of Egypt, we don’t know what has become of him.’[40] 41That was when they made a calf-shaped idol, sacrificed to it, and took great pleasure in the works of their own hands. 42So God turned away from them, and gave them up to serve the army of the sky,[42] — just as it is written in the book of the prophets,

‘Did you offer to me slain animals and sacrifices
forty years in the wilderness, O house of Yisra'el?
43You took up the tabernacle of Moloch,
the star of your god Reiphan,
the figures which you made to worship.
I will send you into exile beyond Bavel.’[43]
The True Tabernacle

44“Our fathers had the Tent of Witness in the wilderness. It had been made exactly as He Who spoke to Moshe commanded him to make it, according to the pattern that he had seen. 45Later our fathers brought it with Y'hoshuaJoshua when they conquered the lands of the nations that God had driven out before them, clear down to the days of David. 46He found favor with God, and asked if he might be allowed to provide a dwelling place the God of Ya'akov. 47But it was ShlomoSolomon built Him a House. 48However, the Most High doesn’t dwell in man-made temples, as the prophet says,

49‘Heaven is My throne,
and the earth is My footstool.
What kind of house will you build me?’ says ADONAI;
‘or what is the place of my rest?
50Didn’t I Myself make all these things?’[50]
Resisting Ruach HaKodesh

51“You stiff-necked people with uncircumcised hearts and ears! You continually resist Ruach HaKodesh! You do just as your fathers did! 52Which one of the prophets didn’t your fathers persecute? They killed those who foretold the coming of the Righteous One; and now you have become His betrayers and murderers! 53You accept the Torah as having been delivered by angels, but you haven’t kept it!”

Stephanos Martyred

[Traditional Date: ca 33 CE]

54When they heard these things, they were cut to the heart, and they gnashed their teeth at him. 55But He, full of Ruach HaKodesh, stared up into heaven and saw God’s Sh'khinahvisible Glory, with Yeshua standing at the right hand of God. 56“Look!” he said, “I see the heavens opened, and the Son of Man standing at the right hand of God!”

57When they heard this they began shouting, stopped up their ears so they could’t hear him, and rushed at him with one intent. 58They threw him out of the city and began stoning him. The witnesses placed their garments at the feet of a young man named Sha'ul. 59As they stoned him, Stephanos cried out with a loud voice, “Lord Yeshua, receive my spirit!” 60He knelt down, and again cried out loudly voice, “Lord, don’t hold this sin against them!” Then he died.

Chapter 8


  3. Genesis 12:1. [RETURN]

  7. Genesis 15:13-14. [RETURN]

 23. The word for “brothers” here and where the context allows may be also correctly translated “brothers and sisters” or “siblings.” [RETURN]

 28. Exodus 2:14. [RETURN]

 32. Exodus 3:6. [RETURN]

 34. Exodus 3:5; Exodus 3:7-10. [RETURN]

 36. Also called the Sea of Suf. [RETURN]

 37. Deuteronomy 18:15; TR adds “You shall listen to him.” [RETURN]

 40. Exodus 32:1. [RETURN]

 42. This idiom could also be translatted “host of heaven,” or “angelic beings,” or “heavenly bodies.” [RETURN]

 43. Amos 5:25-27. [RETURN]

 50. Isaiah 66:1-2. [RETURN]

Page originally posted on Shabbat, 25 April 2020.

Page last updated on Thursday, 21 January 2021 04:15 PM
(Updates are generally minor formatting or editorial changes.
Major content changes are identified as "Revisions”)

Anxiously awaiting Mashiach’s return