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(Isaiah 2:3)

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Sections of the Apostolic Writings
The Gospels and Acts • The “Pauline” Letters • General Letters • End Times

Acts: Introductory Notes and Outline
Chapters:   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14
15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28

P’yilut HaSh'liakim
The Acts of the Emissaries

~ 10 ~

[Caesarea [MAP] 41 CE]

C. The Gospel Taken to the Gentiles (ch 10)

1. Cornelius Sends for Kefa (10:1-8)

1In Caesarea there was a man named Cornelius, a Centurion of the Roman “Italian Regiment.”[1] 2He was a devout God-fearer[GN], as was his entire household. He generously contributed to the needs of the people, and prayed to God regularly. 3One day at about the ninth hour,[GN] he clearly saw in a vision an angel of God coming to him and saying, “Cornelius!”

4Frightened, he gazed at the angel and asked him, “What is it, Sir?”

The angel answered, “Your prayers and your gifts to the needy have ascended as a memorial offering before God. 5Now send some men to Joppa, [MAP] and get Shim'onSimon KefaPeter. 6He’s staying with Shim'on the tanner at his house by the seaside.

7After the angel who spoke to him had left, Cornelius called two of his household servants and a devout soldier from his regiment. 8After explaining everything to them, he sent them to Joppa.

2. Kefa’s Vision of a Great Sheet (10:9-20)

 9The next day as they were coming close to the city on their journey, Kefa went up on the housetop to pray at about the sixth hour.[9] 10He got hungry and wanted something eat; while they were preparing his meal, he fell into a trance. 11He saw heaven opened and somethiing like a huge sheet being let to the earth down by its four corners. 12It contained every kind of four-footed animal and reptile of the earth and bird of the air. 13Then a voice spoke to him, “Get up, Kefa, kill and eat!”[13]

14But Kefa said, “Oh, no, Lord! I have never eaten anything that is common or unclean.”[14]

15The voice spoke to him a second time, “What God has purified, you must not call unclean.”[15] 16This was done three times, then suddenly the sheet was taken back up into heaven.

17Now while Kefa was very perplexed about what the vision he had seen might mean, the men whom Cornelius had sent, having asked for directions to Shim'on’s house, stood outside the gate. 18They called out and asked whether Shim'on Kefa was staying there. 19While Kefa was considering the vision, the Ruach said to him, “Hinneh,[GN] three men are asking for you. 20Get up, go downstairs, and go with them; don’t doubt anything, because I have sent them [to get you].

3. Kefa Greets Cornelius’ Messengers (10:21-22)

21Kefa went down to the men and said, “Hinneh, I’m the man you’re looking for. Why have you come?”

22They said, “Centurian Cornelius, a God-fearing tzaddik[GN] with an excellent reputation among the Jewish people, was directed by a holy angel to invite you to his house, and to listen to what you have to say.” 23So he invited them in and put them up for the night.

4. Kefa Goes to Casearea (10:23-33)

The next day Kefa got up and set out with them, with some of the brothers from Joppa going with him.

24The next day they arrived at Caesarea. Cornelius was waiting for them, having invited his relatives and close friends to join them. 25When Kefa entered the house, Cornelius met him, fell down at his feet, and began to worship him. 26But Kefa stood him up and said, I’m just a man like you.” 27While they were talking, they went into the house and saw everyone gathered there. 28Kefa told them, “You know it isn’t lawful for a Y'hudiJew to associate with anyone of another nationality or to visit him. But God has shown me that I shouldn’t call any man unholy or unclean. 29So I didn’t complain when I accepted your invitation. But I need to ask you why you sent for me.”

30Cornelius answered, “Four days ago I at this time of day, I was praying in my house at the ninth hour and hinneh, there was a man standing in front of me dressed in bright clothing, 31and he said, ‘Cornelius, your prayer has been heard, and your gifts to the needy have been remembered by God. 32So send to Joppa for Shim'on Kefa. He is a guest in the home of Shim'on the tanner by the seaside. When he comes, he will speak to you.’ 33So I immediately sent for you, and it was good of you to come. So we’ve gathered here in the sight of God to hear everything that God has commanded you.”

5. Kefa Addresses Cornelisu’ Household (10:34-43)

34Kefa began to speak, “I now truly understand that God doesn’t show favoritism; 35but in every nation anyone who fears Him and lives righteously is acceptable to Him. 36The message that He has given to the children of Yisra'el, the good news of peace through Yeshua the Messiah — He is Lord of all. 37You’ve certainly heard about the events that have taken place throughout all Y'hudahJudea, starting from the GalilGalilee, after the immersion that Yochanan proclaimed; 38how God annointed Yeshua of Nazareth with Ruach HaKodeshthe Holy Spirit and with power; and how He went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the devil, because God was with Him. 39We are witnesses of everything He did both in the countryside of Y'hudah, and in Yerushalayim; and they put Him to death by hanging Him on a tree. 40But God raised Him up the third day, and arranged for Him to be openly seen, 41not by all the people, but by witnesses who had been chosen beforehand by God; by us who ate and drank with Him after He arose from the dead. 42He commanded us to proclaim to the people and to testify that this He is the One Whom God has appointed be the Judge of both the living and the dead. 43All the prophets testify about Him, that through His name everyone who believes in Him will receive forgiveness of their sins.”

6. Gentiles Receive Ruach HaKodesh (10:44-48)

44While Kefa was still speaking these words, Ruach HaKodesh fell upon all those who had heard this message. 45All the circumcised Believers[45] who had come with Kefa were astonished, because the gift of Ruach HaKodesh was also poured out on Gentiles, 46because they heard them speaking in other languages and glorifying God.

Then Kefa asked, 47“Is there anyone here who would forbid water for tevilah[GN] for these who have received Ruach HaKodesh like we did?” 48He ordered them to be immersed in the name of Yeshua HaMeshiach. Then they asked him to stay on for a few days.

Chapter 11

  1. Regiment, σπειρης (speires), meant one-tenth of a Roman legion, which at full strength had 6,000 soldiers. So a regiment, which is also called a "cohort," had 600 soldiers. The Roman army drew regiments from across its empire; the Italian Regiment was one drawn from Italy, and was probably recruited to serve as bodyguard to the procurator of Judea. His headquarters would have been in Caesarea. Each Roman regiment/cohort's 600 soldiers were organized into 6 “centuries” of 100 soldiers, comparable to a "company" in the modern army. A centurion was the officer in charge of a century of 100 soldiers and therefore comparable to a company commander or captain in today's army. [RETURN]

  9. Noon. [RETURN]

13. Since HaShem is echad (one), and the Father is HaShem, the Son is HaShem, and the Spirit is HaShem, I have marked all the words of Deity in red, not just the words of the Son. [RETURN]

14. HaShem has provided a list of foods that are “unclean” for human consumption, that is, not “food” for mankind in Leviticus 11. Before you say, “but that is just for the Jews, and ‘Jesus’ set aside the Torah,” may I remind you that Noach knew the difference between “clean” and “unclean” animals (Genesis 7:1-3), and he lived a thousand years before the first Jew walked the earth. And, as amazing as it may sound, science agrees with HaShem. Read that article HERE. [RETURN]

15. The Church almost universally teaches that this verse means that HaShem has changed His mind about what He does and does not want us to eat. However, HaShem doesn’t change His mind (Malachi 3:6), and Kefa himself explains (v 28) that this vision has nothing to do with food, but with the acceptance of Gentiles into the Kingdom of God. [RETURN]

45. In his Jewish New Testament Commentary (pp.260-261), Stern suggests that this term might be a reference to all Jews, or only to those who were prostelites who had come to faith in Messiah, and he indicates it is probably the latter. For a Goy (Gentile) to become a Jewish prostelite one would have to undergo a formal “conversion” process which involved foreswaring all prior religious affiliation or conviction, being circumcised for men, taking a Hebrew name, undergoing tevilah (prostelite immersion), and entering a process of Torah study. This was called being “born again” as a Jew. Following this “conversion” they were considered Jews, no longer Gentiles. Before Cornelius, no Gentile (that is, none who had not previously gone through the “conversion” process) had come to faith in Messiah and it was assumed this would always be the case. Apparently the men in this category who were with Kefa were amazed that these unconverted Goyim received Ruach HaKodesh without the benefit of circumcision. [RETURN]

Page originally posted on Tuesday, 28 April 2020
Outline and some notes added of Thursday, 10 June 2021

Page last updated on Monday, 22 August 2022 04:15 PM
(Updates are generally minor formatting or editorial changes.
Major content changes are identified as "Revisions”)

Anxiously awaiting Mashiach’s return

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