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“… out of Tziyon will go forth Torah, the word of ADONAI from Yerushalayim.”
(Isaiah 2:3)

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Please read the Introductory Notes to this commentary.

For a glossary of unfamiliar terms, CLICK HERE. For assistance in
pronouncing Hebrew terms, a pronunciation guide is located HERE.

Sections of the Apostolic Writings
The Gospels and Acts • The “Pauline” Letters • General Letters • End Times

Acts: Introductory Notes and Outline
Chapters:   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14
15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28

P’yilut HaSh'liakim
The Acts of the Emissaries

~ 18 ~

[At Corinth [MAP] 1½ years, ca 52-53 CE]

O. Messianic Community Established at Corinth (18:1-11)

1After this, Sha'ulPaul left Athens [MAP] and went to Corinth. [MAP] 2There he met a Y'hudiJew named Aquila, a native of Pontus [MAP], but recently arrived from Italy with his wife Priscilla, because Claudius had expelled all the Y’hudimJews from Rome.[2] [MAP] Sha'ul went to visit them, 3and he lived and worked with them because they were tallit-makers[3] by trade, as he was. 4He reasoned in the synagogue every ShabbatSabbath, trying to persuade both Y’hudim and GoyimGentiles, non-Jews. 5When SilaSilas and TimotheusTimothy arrived from Macedonia, [MAP] Sha'ul devoted himself entirely to the message, testifying to the Y’hudim that Yeshua is the Messiah. 6When they resisted and blasphemed, he shook out his clothing and told them, “Your blood is on your own heads! I am innocent of it. From now on, I will go to the GoyimGentiles, non-Jews!”

7So he left the synagogue and went next door to the house of a God-fearer[GN] named Titius Justus. 8Crispus, the president of the synagogue, came to trust in the Lord along with all his whole household. Many of the Corinthians who heard the message also trusted and were immersed. 9One night in a vision the Lord said to Sha'ul, “Don’t be afraid, but speak out and don’t stop; 10for I am with you, and no one will lay a hand on you to hurt you, because I have many people in this city.”

11He lived there a year and six months, teaching the word of God among them.

[Sha'ul‘s First Letter to Thessalonica Written, 52 CE]

P. Gallio’s Indifference (18:12-17)

 12But while Gallio was proconsul of Achaia, [MAP] the Y’hudim made a united attack against Sha'ul and brought him before the judge, 13saying, “This man persuades people to worship God contrary to the law.”[13]

14Just as Sha'ul was about to open his mouth, Gallio said to the Y’hudim, “If it were a matter of a crime or moral evil, it would be reasonable for me to put up with you Y’hudim; 15but if these are questions about words, names, or your own law, take care of it yourselves. I don’t want to be a judge of such matters.” 16So he drove them from the judgment bench.

17At this, all the crowd seized Sosthenes, the president of the synagogue, and beat him in front of the judgment bench. But Gallio wasn’t concerned about any of these things.

[Sha'ul‘s Second Letter to Thessalonica Written, 53 CE]

Q. Rav Sha'ul Takes a Nazirite Vow, Goes to Syria, Ephesus, and Caesarea; Returns to Antioch (18:18-22)

18Sha'ul, stayed there for quite some time before saying goodbye to the brothers.[18a] He shaved his head in Cenchreae [MAP] because he had taken a vow,[18b] and sailed from there to Syria [MAP] with Priscilla and Aquila.

[Ephesus 54 CE — Sha'ul’s Second Missionary Journey Concludes]

 19When he arrived at Ephesus, [MAP] he left them there; but he himself went into the synagogue and reasoned with the Y’hudim. 20When they asked him to stay with them a while longer, he declined. 21But as he was leaving hd said his good-byes and said, “I have to keep this coming feast in Yerushalayim, but I’ll come back again to you if God wills,” Then he set sail from Ephesus.

22When he had landed at Caesarea, [MAP] he went up and greeted the assembly [at Jerusalem [MAP] during the Feast], then went on to Antioch. [MAP]

VII. Third Missionary Journey (18:23-21:14) [54-58 CE]

A. Into Galatia and Phyrgia (18:23)

23After spening some time there [in Antioch], he left and traveled from place to place through the region of Galatias [MAP] and Phrygia, [MAP] strengthing all the talmidim.

[Ephesus 54 CE]

B. Apollos Teaching at Ephesus and Corinth (18:24-28)

24Meanwhile, a Y'hudi named Apollos, a native of Alexandria, [MAP] came to Ephesus. [MAP] He was an eloquent man, well-learned in the TanakhHebrew Scriptures. 25He had been instructed in the way of the Lord and was fervent in spirit. He spoke and taught accurately about Yeshua, although he knew only the immersion of Yochanan. 26He began to speak boldly in the synagogue. But when Priscilla and Aquila heard him, they took him home, and explained the Way of God[26] in fuller detail.

27When he had decided to cross over into Achaia, [MAP] the brothers eencouraged him and wrote to the talmidim there to welcome him. When he had arrived, he greatly helped those who had trusted through grace; 28for he powerfully refuted the Y’hudim in public, demonstrating through  the Tanakh that Yeshua is the Messiah.

Chapter 19


  2. Claudius reigned 41-54 CE. This expulsion probably occured in 49. See Wikipedia, “Claudius' expulsion of Jews from Rome” [RETURN]

Tallit Gadol as a Personal Tent  3. Tallit-maker (tent-maker), Greek skenopoioß, skenopoios: one who makes small portable tents, of leather or cloth of goat's hair or linen, for the use of travellers. The function of the tallit, particularly the tallit gadol (large tallit) is provide the worshiper with a “tent” or personal private space for communion with the Almighty.

“Some scholars have also suggested that when the scriptures identify Paul as a “tent-maker,” they were actually referring to his being a Tallit maker. A tallit being likened to a tent. I am also inclined to believe this because Paul had been an observant Jew, dedicated, highly educated, and the scriptures infers he continued being observant when it did not pose a stumbling block to his gentile converts. However, I have been unable to conclusively prove this by any concrete evidence. The Greek texts do not seem to have a proper word for Tallit and the Greek word denoting tentmaker when addressed to believers may have been something understood in that day as representing the Tallit, but is lost to us now. We also have to think who were his customers, the early believers. Primarily urbane and to my thinking without the need of a tent, but very much in need of a Tallit for the Hebrew congregations.” (, The Tallit in the NT, accessed 4 May 2020) [RETURN]

13. The claim wasn’t true. Sha'ul was teaching Messianic Judaism. Under Roman law, Judaism was a protected, or “legal” religion, and at this time Messianic Judaism, or HaDerek (The Way) was still a recognized sect of Judaism. [RETURN]

18a. The word for “brothers” here and where the context allows may also be correctly translated “brothers and sisters,” “siblings,” or “countrymen.” [RETURN]

18b. A Nazirite Vow. A nazirite (or nazarite) is one who voluntarily took a vow described in Numbers 6:1–21. “Nazirite” comes from the Hebrew word נזיר nazir meaning “consecrated” or “separated.” This vow required the person during this period of time to:

  • Abstain from all wine and anything else made from grapes. (Traditional Rabbinic authorities state that all other types of alcohol were permitted.)
  • Refrain from cutting the hair on one's head; but to allow the locks of the head's hair to grow.
  • Not to become ritually impure by contact with corpses or graves, even those of family members.

After following these requirements for a designated interval (which would be specified in the individual’s vow), the person would immerse (tevilah) in a mikveh and make three offerings: a lamb as a burnt offering (olah), a ewe as a sin-offering (hatat), and a ram as a peace offering (shelamim), in addition to a basket of unleavened bread, grain offerings and drink offerings, which accompanied the peace offering. They would also shave their head in the outer courtyard of the Jerusalem Temple and then place the hair on the same fire as the peace offering. (Numbers 6:18)

The nazirite is described as being “holy unto God,” yet at the same time must bring a sin-offering. This has led to divergent approaches to the nazirite in the Talmud, and later authorities, with some viewing the nazirite as an ideal, and others viewing him as a sinner. (Wikipedia, “Nazirite”) [RETURN]

26. The members of the Messianic Community called their sect of Judaism HaDerek, The Way. Perhaps what they explained to Apollos was the finer points of their sect. Whatever the case, Apollos knew only of Yochanan’s immersion and was able to readily present from the Tanakh that Yeshua was the Messiah. Therefore he would not have known of, or received, the indwelling of the Ruach HaKodesh. If everything held true to pattern, after having HaDerek fully explained to him, it is reasonable to asume that Apollos then received immersion into Yeshua and the indwelling Ruach, as his later history testifies. More HERE. [RETURN]

Originally posted on Monday, 04 May 2020
Revised some text; added historical notes and outline on Monday, 14 June 2021

Page last updated on Wednesday, 01 June 2022 12:52 PM
(Updates are generally minor formatting or editorial changes.
Major content changes are identified as "Revisions”)

Anxiously awaiting Mashiach’s return

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