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Messianic Learning 

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“… out of Tziyon will go forth Torah, the word of ADONAI from Yerushalayim.”
(Isaiah 2:3)

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Please read the Introductory Notes to this commentary.

For a glossary of unfamiliar terms, CLICK HERE. For assistance in
pronouncing Hebrew terms, a pronunciation guide is located HERE.

Sections of the Apostolic Writings
The Gospels and Acts • The “Pauline” Letters • General Letters • End Times

Acts: Introductory Notes and Outline
Chapters:   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14
15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28

P’yilut HaSh'liakim
The Acts of the Emissaries

~ 28 ~

[Malta [MAP] November 60 CE]

5. Shipwrecked on Malta (28:1-6)

1Once we were safely ashore, we learned that the island was called MelitaMalta. 2The local people showed us uncommon kindness. They kindled a fire and welcomed all of us because it was cold and raining. 3But when Sha'ulPaul had gathered a bundle of sticks and laid them on the fire, a viper driven out by the heat, fastened inself onto his hand. 4When the locals saw the creature hanging from his hand, they said to one another, “No doubt this man is a murderer. Even though he has escaped from the sea, Justice will not allow him to live.” 5But Sha'ul shook off the creature into the fire, and wasn’t harmed. 6They expected him to swell up or suddenly drop over, but when they watched him for a long time and saw nothing bad happen to him, they changed their minds and said that he was a god.

6. Father of Publius Healed (28:7-10)

7Near that place was an estate belonging to the leading man of the island, named Publius, who welcomed us, and hospitably entertained us for three days. 8Publius’ father was in bed sick with fever and dysentery. Sha'ul went to him, prayed, laid his hands on him, and healed him. 9After that, everyone else on the island who had diseases came were cured. 10So they bestowed many honors upon us, and when we sailed they gave us everything that we needed.

[Tyrrhenian Sea [MAP] February 61 CE]

7. Sha'ul Arrives in Rome (28:11-16)

11After three months, we set sail in an Alexandrian ship named “The Twin Brothers” that had wintered in the island. 12Putting in at Syracuse, [MAP] we stayed there three days. 13From there we circled around and arrived at Rhegium. [MAP] After one day, a south wind sprang up, and on the second day we arrived Puteoli, [MAP] 14where we found Believers,[14] and were invited to stay with them for seven days. And so we came to Rome. 

[Rome [MAP] March 61 CE]

15When the Believers from Rome heard of our arrival, they came to meet us from as far as the Forum of Appius [MAP] and Three Taverns. [MAP] When Sha'ul saw them, he thanked God and was encouraged. 16When we entered Rome, the centurion delivered the prisoners to the captain of the guard, but Sha'ul was allowed to stay by himself witha soldier to guard him.

IX. Dr. Luke’s Account Ends in Rome (28:17-31)

A. Sha'ul Witnesses to the Jews in Rome (28:17-24)

17After three days Sha'ul called together the leaders of the Jews.[17] When they had come together, he said to them, “Brothers, though I had done nothing against either our people or the traditions of our Fathers, I was still taken prisoner in Yerushalayim and handed over to the Romans. 18After they had tried me, they wanted to release me because I had done nothing to deserve a death sentence. 19But when the Judeans[19] spoke out against my release, I was forced to appeal to Caesar, even though I had done nothing against my people. 20This is why I asked to see you and to speak with you. I am bound in these chains because of the Hope of Yisra'elIsrael.”[20]

21They said to him, “We haven’t received any letters from Y'hudahJudea about you, and none of the brothers have come here to report or say anything bad of you. 22But we want to hear directly from you what you think, because concerning this sect, we are aware that it is spoken against everywhere.”

23After they had arranged a day to meet with him, many people came to see him at his lodging. From morning until evening he explained everything to them, testifying about the Kingdom of God and persuading them concerning Yeshua, both from the Torah of Moshe and from the Prophets.

B. Some Jews Believe, Others Reject (28:24)

 24Some were convinced by what he said, but others refused to believe.

C. Sha'ul Turns to the Gentiles in Rome (28:25-29)

 25Disagreeing among themselves, they began leaving after Sha'ul had said this: “Ruach HaKodesh spoke correctly to our fathers through Isaiah the prophet 26when He said,

‘Go to this people, and say,
in hearing, you will hear,
but will in no way understand.
In seeing, you will see,
but will in no way perceive.
27For this people’s heart has grown callous.
Their ears are dull of hearing.
Their eyes they have closed.
Lest they should see with their eyes,
hear with their ears,
understand with their heart,
and would turn again,
and I would heal them.’ [27]

28“So let it be known to you that HaShem’s salvation is being offered to the Goyim;[28] they will listen!” 29When he had said these things, the Jews went away, having a great dispute among themselves.

C. Two Years in Rome Under House Arrest (28:30-31)

30Sha'ul stayed two whole years in his own rented house, welcoming everyone who came to see him, 31boldly and openly proclaiming the Kingdom of God, and teaching about  the Lord Yeshua the Messiah without interference.

[Sha'ul writes letters to Philemon (61), Colossae (61), Ephesus (63), Philippi (63) ]

[Rome [MAP] 64 CE — Sha'ul Released from prison]
[Luke pens the Book of Acts]

[Rav Sha'ul’s Later Ministry, 64-67 CE]
It is believed that Rav Sha'ul was released from this imprisonment and conducted one more missionary journey into Europe, perhaps as far as Spain.
Sha'ul writes letters to Timothy (64), Titus (64)
See “Rav Sha'ul, the Letter Writer: Latter Ministry.”

Kefa writes 1 Peter (64)
Letter to the Messianic Jews (Hebrews) written by Sha'ul or Appolos (65)
Kefa writes 2 Peter; Y'huda (Jude) writes his letter (67)

Rav Sha'ul Imprisoned, 67 CE
final letter to Timothy written

Sha'ul and Kefa Martyred, 67 or 68 CE

Temple and Jerusalem Destroyed (70)

Yochanan (John) writes:
His Gospel (95); 1 John (95); 2 John (95); 3 John (95);
The Revelation of Yeshua (96-100)
Yochanan dies (ca 100)


14. The word for “Believers” here may also be correctly translated “brothers,” “brothers and sisters,” “siblings,” or “countrymen,” depending on the context. It may also refer to “brothers in the faith.” [RETURN]

17,19. Please note that in verse 17 I have translated Y'hudim as “Jews” and in verse 19 as “Judeans,” referring to the corrupt leaders in Jerusalem. I believe that this letter was originally written in Hebrew and later translated into Greek. The Greek language lacks the vocabulary to distnguish between these two groups of people. I believe that the distinction is clear from the context. [MORE INFO] [RETURN to 17] [RETURN to 19]

20. “The Hope of Israel” is one of many titles of the Messiah. [RETURN]

27. Isaiah 6:9-10. [RETURN]

28. The literal translation of Goyim (גּוֹיִֽם) is “nations.” It is generally used to refer to all of the nations of the world and their inhabitants, outside of Israel. It is also sometimes used to refer to the nation of Israel. In ancient Israel (and sometimes today) there were only two classes of people, “us” and ”them.” Since only Israel had been granted to know anything at all about the one true God, all other groups of humanity were totally pagan, worshipping idols that were actually demons (Deut. 32:17). The very idea of wasting the treasures of HaShem with demon-worshipping pagans was totally repugnant to the Jews. [RETURN]

Originally posted on Monday, 12 May 2020
Revised some text; added historical notes, map references, and outline on Friday, 25 June 2021
Final historical notes added Shabbat, 26 June 2021

Page last updated on Tuesday, 29 June 2021 04:43 PM
(Updates are generally minor formatting or editorial changes.
Major content changes are identified as "Revisions”)

Anxiously awaiting Mashiach’s return