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“… out of Tziyon will go forth Torah, the word of ADONAI from Yerushalayim.”
(Isaiah 2:3)

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WARNING: The text used for my commentary is my own paraphrase and must not be
considered “a translation” or authorative in any way. It is, in fact, simply my commentary Sometimes the paraphrase is the only comment necessary for a particular passage.

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Please read the Introductory Notes to this commentary.

For a glossary of unfamiliar terms, CLICK HERE. For assistance in
pronouncing Hebrew terms, a pronunciation guide is located HERE.

Introduction to the Gospels and Acts
Mattityahu (Matthew)  •  Mordichai (Mark)  •  Lukas (Luke)  • Yochanan (John)
3-Year Harmony of the Gospels1-Year Harmony of the GospelsCrucifixion Week Chronology
Hitgalut (Revelation)  •  P’yilut HaShliyakim (Acts of the Emissaries)  •  The Chosen (Video Series)

To find a passage‘s place in the One-Year Chronology, click on the hourglass.

The Good News of the Kingdom According to
Yeshua HaMashiach, the Son of Man

Introductory Notes and Outline

Author: Lucas, the Beloved Physician
Theme: Yeshua is Ben Adam, the Son of Man[GN]
Date of Writing: approximately 60 CE
Target Audience: Theophilus (Friend of God or God-Lover)

Lucas (Luke), the author of this Gospel account, was known as “the beloved physician” (Col. 4:14). He was a companion and fellow-worker with Rav Sha'ul (the Apostle Paul, Philemon 1:24), and author of the companion volume to this work, “The Acts of the Apostles.” Many believe that Dr. Lucas was a Gentile, specifically a Greek, because he had a Greek name and was apparently fluent in the Greek language. The Greek version of his letter is considered by most scholars to be the finest example of the Greek language in all the Apostolic Writings. But Dr. Lucas was a well-educated man, a physician, and Greek has been the language of physicians since Hippocrates; so his fluency with the language cannot be used to prove that he was a Gentile.

He may have been born a Greek, but he wasn’t a Gentile; he accompanied Rav Sha'ul into the Temple on several occasions, which carried the death penalty for a Gentile. Rav Sha'ul was a Pharisee, and one of their ideals was to make at least one proselyte to Judaism every year. Thus, Dr. Lucas was very likely a proselyte, a Gentile convert to Judaism and disciple of Rav Sha'ul, which would make him as Jewish as if he had been born a Jew, and Greek was probably his primary language.

This letter is the longest of the four Gospel accounts and was written to someone named Theophilus (Θεόφιλε), which means “friend of God” or “lover of God” — hence, “God-lover.” Conventional scholarship has long held that Theophilus was a prominent Greek individual, probably an executive at some level of the Roman government, because of the way Lucas addresses him as “most excellent Theophilus” or “your excellency” in Lk. 1:3. Recent scholarship[1] has discovered that archeological evidence found among the Herodian Mansions in the Jewish quarter of Jerusalem, and supported by Josephus (Antiquities XVII, 78, 164-165), show that Theophilus ben Ananus was High Priest from 37 to 41 C.E. (see a list of High Priests). Rav Sha'uls active ministry was 48-61, but his encounter with Yeshua was in 36, so it is likely that Sha'ul and Theophilus were in the Sanhedrin together, so Dr. Luke may well have known him at the time. This Theophilus may very well have been the original recipient of these two letters.

I think, however, that it is also possible that he wrote the letter primarily to the Goyim (Greeks, Gentiles) that he and Rav Sha'ul had discipled on their missionary journeys that he discusses in his work “The Acts of the Apostles.”

Goyim (Gentiles) who accepted the “yoke of Torah” — i.e. a Torah-pursuant Jewish lifestyle” — but who had not gone through a process of formal “conversion” to Judaism were called “God-fearers.” HaDerek, or The Way, as the early Messianic sect of Judaism was known, especially in the Diaspora, consisted primarily of “God-fearers,” and I consider it appropriate that Dr. Lucas might write a global letter addressing these people as “Excellent God-Lover.”

The letter’s emphasis is upon the perfect humanity of Yeshua, Whom it presents as the Son of Man (Ben-Adam),[GN] the human-divine Person, and traces His genealogy to Adam through His adopted father Yosef. Dr. Lucas’ narrative of the birth and infancy of the Messiah is from the point of view of His virgin mother, from whom he most likely received much of his information first-hand. He alone tells of Yeshua’s childhood and reveals more of His prayer life than do the other Synoptics. The parables included in this account show Yeshua’s great concern for lost humanity. In the accounts of certain miracles the trained observation of the physician is evident.

Dr. Lucas’ Gospel account is in many ways a gospel of compassion, stressing Yeshua’s sympathy for the brokenhearted, the sick, the mistreated, and the bereaved. It also shows the ministry of women to Him. Along with the presentation of the Son of Man, the letter emphasizes the world-wide scope of salvation. Lucas alone records the parables of the lost sheep, the lost coin, and the lost son (Lk. 15:3-32) and the mission of the Seventy (Lk. 20:2-24)

Of the four Gospel accounts, only this one claims to have been “carefully investigated” from the primary sources and written “in orderly sequence” (chronological order).[2]

Read Chapter 1


I. Introduction (Lk 1:1-4)

II. The Birth of Yochanan the Immerser and the Pregnant Virgin (Lk. 1:5-80)

A. Gavri'elGabriel appears to Z'kharyahZacharias and announces the birth of YochananJohn (Lk 1:5-25)

B. Gavri'elGabriel appears to MyriamMary and announces the virgin birth of Yeshua (Lk 1:26-33)

C. The Miraculous Conception of the Son of Man (Lk 1:34-38)

D. MyriamMary visits ElishevaElizabeth (Lk 1:39-45)

1. The “Magnificat” of MyriamMary (Lk 1:46-56, cp. 1Sam. 2:1-10)

E. Birth and B'rit-milahcovenant of circumcision of YochananJohn (Lk 1:57-66)

1. The “Benedictus” of Z'kharyahZacharias (Lk 1:67-80)

III. Birth and Childhood of the Son of Man (Chapter 2)

A. Birth of Yeshua in a sukkahbooth, temporary dwelling at Beit LechemHouse of Bread, Bethlehem  (Lk 2:1-7) (Mt 1:18-25; Jn 1:14)

1. Angels announce His birth to shepherds (Lk 2:8-14)

2. Shepherds visit sukkahbooth, temporary dwelling (Lk 2:15-20)

B. Presentation in the Temple (Lk 2:21-38)

1. Yeshua’s B'rit-milahcovenant of circumcision (Lk 2:21) (Gen 17:11-12; Exod 13:12-15)

2. MyriamMary’ purification (Lk 2:22-24) (Lev 12:2-6)

3. Shim`on’sSimeon  Adoration and Prophecy (Lk 2:25-35)

4. Hannah’s testimony to HaMashiachthe Anointed One (Lk 2:36-38)

5. The Return to NatzeretNazareth (Lk 2:39-40)

C. Yeshua’s bar mitzvahson of the commandments, becoming an adult man in Jerusalem  (Lk 2:41-50)

D. Silent years from age 12 to age 30 (Lk 2:51-52)

IV. Ministry of Yochanan the ImmerserJohn the Baptizer; Anointing of HaMashiachthe Anointed One; genealogy of Myriam; Testing of the Son of Man

A. Ministry of YochananJohn (Lk 3:1-20) (Mt 3:1-11; Mk 1:1-8; Jn 1:6-8; Jn 1:15-37)

B. Anointing of HaMashiachthe Anointed One (Lk 3:21-22)

C. Physical manifestation of Trinity (Lk 3:22)

D. Genealogy of MyriamMary (Lk 3:23-38) (MyriamMary was a descendant of Dovid HaMelekhKing David, v. 31 — compare the Genealogy of Yosef, Mt 1:1-16)

E. Temptation of the Son of Man (Lk 4:1-13) (Mt 4:1-11; Mk 1:12-13)

V. Public Ministry of the Son of Man (Lk 4:14-19:27)

A. First tour of the GalilGalilee (Lk 4:14-9:62)

1. Rejected by the synagogue at NatzeretNazareth (Lk 4:14-30)

2. Casting out demons in K'far-NachumCapernaum (Lk 4:31-37) (Mk 1:21-28)

3. KefaPeter’s mother-in-law and others healed (Lk 4:38-44) (Mk 1:29-34)

4. The Son of Man calls His first talmidimdisciples (Lk 5:1-11) (Mt 4:18-22; Mk 1:16-20; Jn 1:35-51)

5. A man cleansed of tzara`ata malignant skin diesease, not Hasnesn’s disease (Lk 5:12-15) (Mt 8:2-4; Mk 1:40-45)

6. A paralytic healed (Lk 5:16-26) (Mt 9:2-8; Mk 2:1-12)

7. Call of MattityahuMatthew Levi (Lk 5:26-28) (Mt 9:9-15; Mk 2:13-20)

8. Contronted by SoferimScribes and P'rushimPharisees (Lk 5:30-35)

9. Parable of cloth and wineskins (Lk 5:36-39) (Mt 9:16-17; Mk 2:21-22)

10. The Son of Man is Lord of Shabbatthe Sabbath (Lk 6:1-5) (Mt 12:1-8; Mk 2:23-28)

11. Healing on Shabbat (Lk 6:6-12) (Mt 12:9-14; Mk 3:1-6)

12. The Twelve chosen (Lk 6:13-16) (Mt 10:2-4; Mk 3:13-19)

13. The Son of Man’s only sermon of record (Lk 6:17-49) (Mt 5-7)

a. The Beatitudes (Lk 6:20-38)

b. Three illustrative parables (Lk 6:39-45)

c. Parable of two builders and two foundations (Lk 6:46-49)

14. Healing a centurion’s (Cornelius?) servant (Lk 7:1-10) (Mt 8:5-13)

15. A widow’s son raised (Lk 7:11-18)

16. YochananJohn the ImerserBaptizer eulogized (Lk 7:19-35) (Mt 11:2-19)

17. Anointed in the home of a ParushPharisee (Lk 7:36-39)

18. Parable of two debtors (Lk 7:40-50)

19. Women who ministered to the Son of Man (Lk 8:1-3)

20. Parable of the sewer and the soil (Lk 8:4-15) (Mt 13:1-23; Mk 4:1-20)

21. Parable of the lighted lamp (Lk 8:16-18) (Mt 5:15-16; Mk 4:21-23; Lk 11:33-36)

22. New relationships (Lk 8:19-21) (Mt 12:56-50; Mk 3:31-35)

23. The Son of Man stills the storm (Lk 8:22-25) (Mt 8:23-27; Mk 4:35-41)

24. Demons at Gerasa (Gadara) cast out (Lk 8:26-40) (Mt 8:28-34; Mk 5:1-20)

25. Two healing miracles (Lk 8:41-56) (Mt 9:18-26; Mk 5:21-43)

25. The Twelve commissioned (Lk 9:1-11) (Mt 10:1-15; cp. Mk 6:7-13)

26. Five thousand fed (Lk 9:12-17) (Mt 14:15-21; Mk 6:32-44; Jn 6:5-13)

27. The Son of Man announces His death and resurrection (Lk 9:22; Mt 16:21-27; Mk 8:31-33)

28. Cost of being a talmiddisciple (Lk 9:23-26) (Mt 16:24-27; Mk 8:34-38)

29. The transfiguration (Lk 9:27-36) (Mt 17:1-8; Mk 9:2-8)

30. Demon cast out from a son (Lk 9:37-43) (Mt 17:14-21; Mk 9:14-29)

31. The Son of Man again predicts His death (Lk 9:44-45) (Mt 17:22-23; Mk 9:30-32)

32. The test of greatness (Lk 9:46-50) (Mk 9:38-40)

33. The Son of Man passes through ShomronSamaria (Lk 9:51-56)

34. Test of a talmiddisciple (Lk 9:57-62) (Mt 8:19-22)

B. On Way to YerushalayimJerusalem (Chapters 10-18)

1. The Seventy commissioned (Lk 10:1-12)

2. Indifference denounced (Lk 10:13-24) (Mt 11:20-24)

3. A Torah expert questions the Son of Man (Lk 10:25-29) (Mt 22:34-40; Mk 12:28-34)

4. Parable of the Good Samaritan (Lk 10:30-37)

5. At home with MyriamMary and Marta (Lk 10:38-42)

6. Instructions on prayer (Lk 11:1-4) (compare Mt 6:9-15)

a. Parable of the persistent friend (Lk 11:5-10)

b. Parable of and a good father (Lk 11:11-13)

7. A demoniac boy healed (Lk 11:14)

8. P'rushimPharisees blaspheme Ruach HaKodesh (Lk 11:15-16) (Mt 12:24-30; Mk 3:22-30)

9. Warning about unclean spirits (Lk 11:17-23)

10. The sign of YonahJonah (Lk 11:29-32) (Mt 12:38-41)

11. Parable of the lamp (Lk 11:33-36) (Mt 5:14-16; Mk 4:21-22; cp. Lk 8:16-18)

12. P'rushimPharisees, SofrimScribes, and Torah experts denounced (Lk 11:37-54) (Mt 23:12-35)

a. Talmidimdisciples warned of the false doctrine of the P'rushimPharisees (Lk 12:1-15) (Mt 16:6-12; Mk 8:14-21)

13. Three parables

a. Parables of a rich fool (Lk 12:16-34)

b. Parable and warning of HaMashiachthe Anointed One’s return (Lk 12:35-40) (Mt 24:37-51; Mt 25:1-30)

c. Parable of testing servants (Lk 12:41-48)

14. HaMashiachthe Anointed One is a divider of men in spiritual matters (Lk 12:49-59)

15. A call to repent (Lk 13:1-5)

16. Parable of the fig tree (Lk 13:6-9) (Mt 21:18-21; Mk 11:12-26)

17. Woman with infirmity healed on Shabbat (Lk 13:10-17)

18. Parables of mustard seed and leaven repeated (Lk 13:18-21)

19. Teaching on the way to YerushalayimJerusalem (Lk 13:22-33)

20. Yeshua weeps over YerushalayimJerusalem (Lk 13:34-35) (Mt 23:37-39; Lk 19:41-44; cp. Ps 118:26; Jer 22:5)

21. Dinner and healing at home of a ParushPharisee (Lk 14:1-6) (Mt 12:9-13)

a. Parables of impolite guests (Lk 14:7-14)

b. Parable of the great supper (Lk 14:15-24) (Mt 22:1-14)

22. Discipleship tested (Lk 14:25-27) (Mt 10:37-39)

23. Three parables about the cost of discipleship (Lk 14:28-35)

a. Building a tower (Lk 14:28-30)

b. A king planning warfare (Lk 14:31-33)

c. Salt that loses its savor (Lk 14:34-35)

24. Three parables of joy over repentance (Lk 15:1-32)

a. Lost sheep (Lk 15:3-7) (Mt 18:23-24)

b. Lost coin (Lk 15:8-10)

c. Two lost sons (Lk 15:11-32)

25. Parable of the unjust steward (Lk 16:1-13)

26. Covetousness denounced (Lk 16:15-17)

27. Teaching on divorce (Lk 16:18) (Mt 5:31-32; Mt 19:1-9; Mk 10:1-12; cp. Rom 7:1-3; 1Cor 7:10-16)

28. The rich man and Lazarus (Lk 16:19-31)

29. Instruction on offending, forgiveness, and faith (Lk 17:1-6) (Mt 18:1-7; Mt 18:18-35)

30. Instruction on faithful service (Lk 17:7-10)

31. Ten with tzara`ata malignant skin diesease, not Hasnesn’s disease healed (Lk 17:11-19)

32. P'rushimPharisees instructed on the Kingdom (Lk 17:20-21)

33. The Son of Man foretells His second coming (Lk 17:22-37)

34. Two parables on prayer (Lk 18:1-14)

a. Persistence rewarded (Lk 18:1-8)

b. Proper attitude for prayer (Lk 18:9-14)

35. The Rabbi blesses little children (Lk 18:15-17)

36. A  rich young leader confronted (Lk 18:18-27)

37. Reward for sacrifice (Lk 18:28-30)

38. Yeshua again fortells His death and resurrection (Lk 18:31-34) (Mt 20:17-19; Mk 10:32-34)

39. Bar-Timaison of Timai receives his sight near YerichoJericho (Lk 18:35-43) (Mk 10:46-52)

C. Ministry of the Son of Man in YerichoJericho (Lk 19:1-27)

1. Yeshua enters Jericho and home of Zakkai (Lk 19:1-7)

2. ZakkaiZacchaeus repents (Lk 19:8-10)

3. Parable of ten manima maneh is about three months’s wages (Lk 19:11-27)

VI. Rejection of the Son of Man (Lk 19:28-23:56)

A. The Son of Man enters Yerushalayim (Lk 19:28-40) (Mt 21:1-9; Mk 11:1-10; Jn 12:12-19; Zech 9:9)

1. He weeps over city (Lk 19:41-44) (Mt 23:37-39; Lk 13:34-35)

2. He cleanses temple (Lk 19:45-48) (Mt 21:12-13; Mk 11:15-18; Jn 2:13-16)

B. Yeshua’s authority challenged (Lk 20:1-8) (Mt 21:23-27; Mk 11:27-33)

1. Parable of the vineyard owner (Lk20:9-18) (Mt 21:33-46; Mk 12:1-9; cp. Isa 5:1-7)

2. The Herodians instructed on paying tribute to Caesar (Lk 20:19-26) (Mr 22:15-22; Mk 12:13-17)

3. Tz'dukimSadducees instructed about resurrection (Lk 20:27-38) (Mt 22:23-33; Mk 12:18-27)

4. The SofimScribes, Torah Teachers silenced (Lk 20:39-47) (Mt 22:41-46;  Mt 23:1-36; Mk 12:35-40)

5. The widow’s mite (Lk 21:1-3) (Mk 12:41-44)

C. The Olivet Discourse (Lk 21:5-38) (Mt 24:1-51; Mt 25:1-46; Mk 13:1-37)

1. The Temple to be destroyed (Lk 21:5-6)

2. The talmidimdisciples ask, “When … and what…?” (Lk 21:7)

3. Daniel’a 70th week and the aḥarit ha-yamimאחרית הימים, end of days (Lk 21:8-11) (Dan 9:27; Mt 24:4-14; Mk 13:5-13)

4. Persecution before the 70th week (Lk 21:12-19)

5. Destruction of Yerushalayim foretold (Lk 21: 20-24)

6. Return of the Son of Man (Lk 21:25-28) (Mt 24:27-31; Mk 13:24-27)

7. Parable of the Fig Tree (Lk 21:29-33)

8. Watchfulness urged (Lk 21:34-38) (Mt 24:36-51; Mk 13:32-37)

D. Preparation for Pesach (Lk 22:1-38)

1. Y'huda HaSicariusJudah the Assassin agrees to betray Yeshua (Lk 22:1-6) (Mt 26:14-16; Mk 14:1-2; Mk 14:10-11)

2. Preparation for Pesach (Lk 22:7-13) (Mt 26:17-19; Mk 14:12-16)

3. Yeshua’s Last Meal (Lk 22:14-16) (Mt 26:20; Mk 14:17; Jn 13:1-17)

a. The Kiddush Celebrated (Lk 22:17-20) (Mt 26:26-29; Mk 14:22-25; cp. Jn 13:12-30; 1Cor 11:23-26)

b. Yeshua announces His betrayal (Lk 22:21-23) (Mt 26:21-25; Mk 14:18-21; Jn 13:18-20)

c. Renewed concern over who should be greatest (Lk 22:24-27) (Mk 9:33-37; Mk 10:35-45; Jn 13:1-17) 

d. The Shliachim’sEmissaries, Apostles reward in the Kingdom  (Lk 22:28-30) (Mt 19:27-30; Mk 10:28-31; cp. Rev 3:21)

e. Yeshua foretells KefaPeter’s denial (Lk 22:31-34) (Mt 26:30-35; Mk 14:26-31; Jn 13:36-38)

f. Talmidimdisciples warned of coming conflict (Lk 22:35-38) (contrast Mt 10:9-13)

4. Yeshua’s spiritual and mental anguish (Lk 22:39-46) (Mt 26:36-46; Mk 14:32-42; cp. Heb 5:7-8)

5. Y'hudahJudah’s betrayal (Lk 22:47-53) (Mt 26:47-54; Mk 14:43-47; Jn 18:2-11)

6. Yeshua’s arrest and KefaPeter’s denial (Lk 22:54-62) (Mt 26:55-58; Mt 26:69-75; Mk 14:48-54; Mk 14:66-72); Jn 18:15-18; Jn 18:25-27)

7. Yeshua mocked and beaten (Lk 22:63-65) (mt 26:67-68; Mk 14:65; Jn 18:22-23)

8. Yeshua’s Mock Trials

a. Yeshua before the Sanhedrin (Lk 22:66-71) (Mt 26:59-68; Mk 14:55-65; Mk 15:1; Jn 18:29-40)

b. Yeshua before Pilate (Lk 23:1-5) (Mt 27:2; Mt 27:11-14; Mk 15:1-5; Jn 18:28-38)

c. Pilate sends Yeshua to Herod (Lk 23:6-12)

d. Herod sends Yeshua back to Pilate; Pilate seeks to release Him (Lk 23:13-25) (Mt 27:15-26; Mk 15:6-15; Jn 18:39-40; Jn 19:1-16)

9. Yesha’s Execution

a. On the way to the place of execution (Lk 23:26-31) (Mt 27:31-32; Mk 15:20-21; Jn 19:16-17)

b. Yeshua is crucified (Lk 23:32-38) (Mt 27:33-43; Mk 15:22-32; Jn 19:17-22)

c. The repentant criminal (Lk 23:39-43) (Mt 27:44; Mk 15:32)

d. Darkness over the land (Lk 23:44-49) (Mt 27:45-56; Mk 15:33-41; Jn 19:28-30)

d. Yeshua buried (Lk 23:50-56) (Mt 27:57-61; Mk 15:42-47; Jn 19:38-42)

VII. Resurrection and Glorification of the Son of Man (Luke 24)

A. Yeshua raised from the dead; leaves YosefJoesph’s tomb (Lk 24:1-12) (Mt 28:1-15; Mk 16:1-11; Jn 20:1-18)

B. Yeshua reveals Himself to two talmidimdisciples at Emmaus (Lk 24:13-32) (Mk 16:12-13)

C. Yeshua reveals Himself to the eleven talmidim (Lk 24:33-43) (Mk 16:14; Jn 20:19-25)

D. The Kingdom offered to all (Lk 24:44-49) (Mt 28:18-20; Mk 16:15-18; Jn 17:18; Jn 20:21; Acts 1:8)

VIII. The Ascension of the Son of Man (Lk 24:50-53) (Mk 16:19-20; Acts 1:9-11)

Read Chapter 1


  1. Barag, D., and D. Flusser, “The Ossuary of Yehohana Granddaughter of the High Priest Theophilus,” Israel Exploration Journal 26, no. 1/2 (1986) 39-44. [BACK]

  2. Some of this information, as well as some of the headings of the outline, are from the Scofield Study Bible’s notes on Luke. (Obviously, this is not the only possible outline.) [BACK]

Originally posted on Monday, 01 June 2020

Page last updated on Sunday, 24 March 2024 04:50 PM
(Updates are generally minor formatting or editorial changes.
Major content changes are identified as "Revisions”)

Anxiously awaiting Mashiach’s return

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