The Center for
Messianic Learning 

Unapologetically Pro-Torah
Unashamedly Pro-Israel
Irrevocably Zionist
“… out of Tziyon will go forth Torah, the word of ADONAI from Yerushalayim.”
(Isaiah 2:3)

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Introduction to the Gospels (Good News of the Kingdom) and Acts
Mattityahu (Matthew)  •  Mordichai (Mark)  •  Lukas (Luke)  • Yochanan (John)
Crucifixion Week Chronology3-Year Harmony of the Gospels1-Year Harmony of the Gospels  
Hitgalut (Revelation)  •  P’yilut HaShliyakim (Acts of the Emissaries)  •  The Chosen (Video Series)

The Good News of the Kingdom according to
Yeshua, the Son of Man

~ 22 ~

D. Preparation for Pesach (vv 1-38)

1. Y'huda HaSicariusJudah the Assassin agrees to betray Yeshua (vv 1-6) (Mt 26:14-16; Mk 14:1-2; Mk 14:10-11)

1It was nearly time for the Feast of MatzahUnleavened Bread,[1] which is also called Pesach. 2The leading cohenimpriests and the SofrimTorah Teachers, Scribes began trying to find a way to put Yeshua to death, but they were afraid of the people. 3HaSatanthe Adversary, Satan entered Y'hudah the SicariusJudas Iscariot,[GN] who was one of the Twelve. 4He went to the leading cohenimpriests and captains of the Temple Guards and discussed how he might turn Yeshua over to them. 5They were pleased and agreed to pay him money. 6He agreed, and began looking for an opportunity to betray Him over to them without anyone knowing.

2. Preparation for Pesach (vv 7-13) (Mt 26:17-19; Mk 14:12-16)

7The day of Unleavened Bread was coming, on which the PaschalPassover Lamb had to be sacrificed,[7] 8He sent KefaPeter and YochananJohn, telling them, “Go and prepare our Pesach Seder for us, so we may eat it.”

9They asked Him, “Where do you want us to prepare it?”

10He said to them, “Hinneh, as you are entering the city a man carrying a pitcher of water will meet you. Follow him into the house he enters. 11Tell the owner of the house, ‘The Rabbi says, “Where is the guest room, where I am to eat the Pesach Seder with my talmidimdisciples?”’ 12He will show you a large, furnished room upstairs. Make the preparations there.

13They went and found everythihg just as He had told them, and they began preparing for the Passover.

3. Yeshua’s Last Meal (vv 14-18) (Mt 26:20; Mk 14:17; Jn 13:1-17)

 14When it was time, Yeshua reclined at the table with His shliachim. 15He told them, “I had really wanted to celebrate this Seder with you before my suffering. 16But I’m telling that I will not eat it until it is fulfilled in the Kingdom of God.”[16]

a. The Kiddush Celebrated (vv 19-20) (Mt 26:26-29; Mk 14:22-25; cp. Jn 13:12-30; 1Cor 11:23-26)

 17He took a cup, and after He said the ha-gafen,[17] He said, “Take this, and share it among yourselves, 18for I tell you, I will never again drink the ‘fruit of the vine’ until the Kingdom of God comes.

19He also took some matzahunleavened bread, and when He had said the ha-motzi,[19a] He broke it, and gave to them, saying, This is My body which is being given for you. Do this in memory of Me.[19b] 20Likewise, after the meal He took the Cup of Redemption[20a] and said, “This cup is the New Covenant[20b] in My blood, which is poured out for you.

b. Yeshua announces His betrayal (vv 21-23) (Mt 26:21-25; Mk 14:18-21; Jn 13:18-20)

21But hinneh, My betrayer is here with Me, his hand is on the table. 22The Son of Man is going to His death as HaShem has determined, but woe to that man by whom he is beibg betrayed!

23They began asking each other which of them would do such a thing.

c. Renewed concern over who should be greatest (vv 24-27) (Mk 9:33-37; Mk 10:35-45; Jn 13:1-17) 

24Then an argument arose among them over which of them should be considered the greatest. 25Yeshua told them, The kings of the Goyim lord it over them, and in authority over them are called ‘benefactors.’ 26But this isn’t the case with you. Let the one of you who is greater become as the younger, and one who rules like one who serves. 27For who is greater, one who is reclining at the table or the one who serves? Isn’t it the one who is reclining at the table? But here I am among you like one who serves.

d. The Shliachim’sEmissaries, Apostles reward in the Kingdom (vv 28-30) (Mt 19:27-30; Mk 10:28-31; cp. Rev 3:21)

28You are the ones who have stayed with me through my trials. 29Just as My Father gave me the right to rule over the Kingdom, so I also am conferrong on the right 30to eat and drink at My table in My Kingdom. You will sit on thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

e. Yeshua foretells KefaPeter’s denial (vv 31-34) (Mt 26:30-35; Mk 14:26-31; Jn 13:36-38)

31Shim`onSimon Peter, Shim`on, hinneh, HaSatanthe Adversary, Satan has demanded permission to sift you as wheat, 32but I prayed for you, that your faith won’t fail. When you have returned, strengthen your brothers.

33KefaPeter answered, “Lord, I am ready to go with you both to prison and to death!”

34Yeshua said, I tell you, KefaPeter, the rooster will not crow today until after you have three times denied that you know Me.

f. Talmidimdisciples warned of coming conflict (vv 35-38) (contrast Mt 10:9-13)

35He said to them, When I sent you out without a money-bag, a traveling bag, or sandals, did you lack anything?

They said, “Nothing.”

36Then he said to them, But now, whoever has a money-bag, he should take both it and also a traveling bag. Whoever doesn’t have a sword should sell his cloak and buy one.[36] 37For I tell you that this passage in the Takank has yet to be fulfilled in Me: ‘He was counted with the lawless.’[37] Everything in the Tanakh that refers to Me must have fulfillment.

38They said, “Lord, look, here are two swords.”

He said to them, That is enough.

10. Yeshua’s spiritual and mental anguish (vv 39-46) (Mt 26:36-46; Mk 14:32-42; cp. Heb 5:7-8)

39He left and went to the Mount of Olives as was His usual practice, and His talmidim followed him. 40When he had arrived, He said to them, Pray that you don’t enter into temptation.

41He withdrew about a stone’s throw from them, and He knelt down and began to pray, 42Father, if You are willing, take this cup way from me. Nevertheless, not My will, but Yours, be done.

43An angel from heaven appeared to Him, strengthening Him. 44Being in agony he prayed more earnestly. His sweat became like great drops of blood falling down on the ground.[44]

45When he got up from His prayer, He came to the talmidim and found them sleeping, exhausted from their of grief. 46He asked them, Why are you sleeping? Get up and pray that you don’t fall into temptation.

11. Y'hudahJudah’s betrayal (vv 47-53) (Mt 26:47-54; Mk 14:43-47; Jn 18:2-11)

47While he was still speaking a lynch mob[47] arrived, and the one named called Y'hudahJudah, one of the Twelve, was leading them. He came up to Yeshua to kiss him. 48But Yeshua said to him, Y'hudahJudah, are you betraying the Son of Man with a kiss?

49When those around him saw what was about to happen, they asked him, “Lord, should we attack with the swords?” 50One of them struck the Cohen HaGadolHigh Priest’s servant, cututting off his right ear.

51But Yeshua responded, Stop! No more of this!He touched the servant’s ear and healed him. 52Yeshua said to the leading cohenim, captains of the Temple Guard, and the zakenim who had come against him, Have you come out with swords and clubs as you would against a violent criminal? 53While I was with you every day in the temple, you didn’t lay a hand on me. But this hour and the power of darkness are yours.

12. Yeshua’s arrest and KefaPeter’s denial (vv 54-62) (Mt 26:55-58; Mt 26:69-75; Mk 14:48-54; Mk 14:66-72); Jn 18:15-18; Jn 18:25-27)

54They arrested Yeshua, led him away, and brought him into the Cohen HaGadolHigh Priest’s palace. But Kefa followed from a distance. 55When they had lit a fire in the middle of the courtyard and had sat down together, Kefa sat with them. 56One of the servant girls saw him sitting in the light, and staring intently at him, she said, “This man was with Him too.”

57Kefa denied it, saying, “Woman, I don’t know Him!”

58A little later someone else saw him, and said, “You’re one of them too!”

But Kefa answered, “Man, I am not!”

59About an hour later, another man started insisting, “Certainly this man was also with Him! He’s from the GalilGalilee!”

60But Kefa answered, “Man, I don’t know what you are talking about!” Immediately, while he was still speaking, a rooster crowed. 61The Lord turned, and looked straight at Kefa; and Kefa remembered what the Lord had said, Before the rooster crows you will deny Me three times. 62He went outside, and wept bitterly.

13. Yeshua mocked and beaten (vv 63-65) (mt 26:67-68; Mk 14:65; Jn 18:22-23)

63The men who held Yeshua in custody were mocking and beating him. 64They blindfolded Him, then they struck him on the face and asked him, “Prophesy! Who is the one who struck you?” 65They were saying many other things against Him, insulting him terribly.

14. Yeshua before the Sanhedrin (vv 66-71) (Mt 26:59-68; Mk 14:55-65; Mk 15:1; Jn 18:29-40)

66At daybreak, the Council of zakenimelders of the people assembled, both leading cohenimpriests and SofrimTorah Teachers, Scribes, and they led him away into their council chamber, saying, 67“If you are the Mashiach, tell us.”

But He said to them, “If I tell you, you won’t believe, 68and if I ask a question, you won’t answer. 69But from now on, the Son of Man will be seated at the right hand of HaG'vurahthe power of God.”

70They all said, “Are you then the Son of God?”

He said to them, You say I AM.[GN]

71They said, “Why do we need any more witness? For we have heard it ourselves from His own mouth!”

Chapter 23


 1.  Exodus 12:14-17 [RETURN]

 7. This phrase “The day of Unleavened Bread was coming…” The entire sentence translates the Greek Ἦλθεν δὲ ἡ ἡμέρα τῶν ἀζύμων ᾗ τὸ πάσχα ἔδει θύεσθαι Ēlthen de he hēmera tōn azymōn hē to pascha edei thyesthai, which translates literally as “Came but the day the unleavened which the Passover it is necessary be sacrificed.” Matthew 26:17 and Mark 14:12 begin with “Τῇ πρώτῃ τῶν ἀζύμων (Te prote ton azymon)” which is usually translated as “first day of Unleavened Bread,” but far better translated as “before the Feast of Unleavened Bread” and the context conveys the idea of “at the beginning of the preparation for the Feast of Unleavened Bread.” The Greek word πρώτῃ (prōtē), in this phrase conveys the idea of “first,” “before,” “principal,” or ”most important.” I believe this choice of translation certainly allowed by the text, and helps to resolve numerous difficulties in establishing the correct chronology I have of addressed in “Crucifixion Week Chronology.” Passover is at twilight (literally “between the evenings”) on 14th day of Nisan (or Aviv), Exodus 12:1-13; Numbers 9:1-5; this event was the evening of the 13th day of Nisan, so it cannot possibly be a Passover Seder. [RETURN]

16. Yeshua says that He had really wanted to be able to celebrate the Passover Seder with His disciples tomorrow evening, but since He is going to be sacrificed on Galgotha tomorrow at the same time as the Paschal Lamb is being sacrificed in the Temple, He will not be able to eat another Passover until His earthly kingdom is established. [RETURN]

17. Most English translations say that He “gave thanks,” but this is not only anachronistic, it is culturally incorrect. “Giving thanks” before a meal is a Christian, not a Jewish tradition. Jewish people recite brachot (blessings) before meals and recite the Birkat Hamazon (Grace After Meals) after the meal (the text of that blessing is HERE). The traditional brachah (blessing) recited before drinking wine is the ha-gafen: “Baruch etah ADONAI Eloheinu, Melekh ha-olam, borei p'rei ha-gafen. Omein. Blessed are you ADONAI, our God, King of the Universe, Who creates the fruit of the vine. Amen.” [RETURN]

19a. The traditional blessing recited before eating any food, particularly bread: “Baruch etah ADONAI Eloheinu, Melekh ha-olam, ha-matzi lechem min ha-aretz. Omein. Blessed are you ADONAI, our God, King of the Universe, Who brings forth our bread from the ground. Amen.” [RETURN]

19b. When Yeshua said, “Do this in memory of Me,” He was eating the Passover Seder. It is therefore my strongly-held belief that if Christians want to honor His request to “remember Him” they should do so by celebrating the Passover Seder in His memory. [RETURN]

20a. This was the ultimate Cup of Redemption. The four cups of wine that are drunk at Passover are an integral part of the Passover celebration. They stand for each of the four promises ADONAI makes to His people in Exodus 6:6-7.

20b. New Covenant (Jer 31:31-34). Please notice that this covenant is made with Yisra'elIsrael and Y'hudahJudah, not with Goyim. The Church claims to be part of this covenant, yet they also claim that, for them, the Torah has been abolished. Note that the Torah is an integral part of this covenant, so how can it possibly be done away with for the Church? If you claim to be a partaker in the New Covenant, you must also be a partaker in Torah.

“Here, the days are coming,” says ADONAI, “when I will make a new covenant with the house of Yisra'el and with the house of Y'hudah. It will not be like the covenant I made with their fathers on the day I took them by their hand and brought them out of the land of Egypt; because they, for their part, violated my covenant, even though I, for my part, was a husband to them,” says ADONAI. “For this is the covenant I will make with the house of Yisra'el after those days,” says ADONAI: “I will put my Torah within them and write it on their hearts; I will be their God, and they will be my people. No longer will any of them teach his fellow community member or his brother, ‘Know ADONAI’; for all will know Me, from the least of them to the greatest; because I will forgive their wickednesses and remember their sins no more.” [RETURN]

36. A short sword was the standard first-century personal sidearm. Yeshua clearly does not expect His people to give up the right of self-defense. [RETURN]

37. Isaiah 53:12. [RETURN]

44. Bloody sweating is called hematohidrosis. It may occur in individuals suffering from extreme levels of stress. Around the sweat glands, there are multiple blood vessels in a net-like form, which constrict under the pressure of great stress. Then, as the anxiety passes, the blood vessels dilate to the point of rupture and goes into the sweat glands. As the sweat glands produce a lot of sweat, they push the blood to the surface, which comes out as droplets of blood mixed with sweat. [Indian Journal of Dermatology. 2013 Nov-Dec; 58(6): 478–480. Accessed 16 July 2020] [RETURN]

47. Yochanan tells us in his Gospel account, “So Y'hudah went there, taking with him a detachment of Roman soldiers and some Temple guards provided by the head cohanim and the P'rushim; they carried weapons, lanterns and torches” (John 18:3). The word in the Greek text used to describe the “detachment” of Roman soldiers is speira, speira, a cohort. A cohort was the tenth part of a legion, or about 600 legionaries. So 600 Roman soldiers and an unspecified number of Temple guards, with lanterns, torches, and weapons to arrest one man who had done nothing to break any law! [RETURN]

Originally posted on Friday, 17 July 2020
Revised on Sunday, 10 January 2021

Page last updated on Tuesday, 29 June 2021 04:43 PM
(Updates are generally minor formatting or editorial changes.
Major content changes are identified as "Revisions”)

Anxiously awaiting Mashiach’s return