The Center for
Messianic Learning 

Unapologetically Pro-Torah
Unashamedly Pro-Israel
Irrevocably Zionist
“… out of Tziyon will go forth Torah, the word of ADONAI from Yerushalayim.”
(Isaiah 2:3)

If your life is not in jeopardy for what you believe, you’re probably on the wrong side!

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Please read the Introductory Notes to this commentary.

For a glossary of unfamiliar terms, CLICK HERE. For assistance in
pronouncing Hebrew terms, a pronunciation guide is located HERE.

Introduction to the Gospels (Good News of the Kingdom) and Acts
Mattityahu (Matthew)  •  Mordichai (Mark)  •  Lukas (Luke)  • Yochanan (John)
Crucifixion Week Chronology3-Year Harmony of the Gospels1-Year Harmony of the Gospels  
Hitgalut (Revelation)  •  P’yilut HaShliyakim (Acts of the Emissaries)  •  The Chosen (Video Series)

The Good News of the Kingdom
According to

Yeshua, the Righteous King

~ 5 ~

II. The “Constitution” of the Kingdom (chapters 5-7)

A. Content of the Constitution (5:1-6:20)

1. Prosperity (5:1-12; Luke 6:20-49

Rabbi Greg Hershberg teaches
the “Semon on the Mount” in
his series “Yeshua Gives the
Kingdom Manifesto”
    • Part 1 (05/21/11)
    • Part 2 (05/28/11)
    • Part 3 (06/04/11)

1Seeing the crowds, He walked up the hill.[1a] After He sat down, His talmidim[1b] came to him, 2and He began to teach them:

3How spiritually prosperous[3a] are the poor in spirit!
for the Kingdom of Heaven is theirs.[3b]
4How spiritually prosperous are those who mourn!
for they will be comforted.[4]
5How spiritually prosperous are the meek!
for they will inherit the Land![5]
6How spiritually prosperous are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness!
for they will be filled.
7How spiritually prosperous are those who show mercy!
for they will be shown mercy.
8How spiritually prosperous are the pure in heart!
for they will see God.
9How spiritually prosperous are those who make peace!
for they will be called sons of God.
10How spiritually prosperous are those who are persecuted because they pursue righteousness!
for the Kingdom of Heaven is theirs.

11How spiritually prosperous are you when[11] people insult you, and persecute you, and tell all kinds of evil lies about you because of me. 12Rejoice, and be exceedingly glad, because your reward in heaven is very great.[12] They persecuted the prophets before you in the same way.

2. Public Witness (5:13-16; Mark 4:21-23; Luke 8:16-18)

13You are salt for the earth. But if the salt has lost its strength and flavor, how can it be made salty again? It is no longer good for anything except to be thrown out for people to trample on. 14You are light for the world. A city that is built on a hill can’t be hidden. 15Nobody lights a lamp puts it under a basket; they put it on a lampstand so that it gives light for everyone in the house. 16In the same way, you need to let your light shine before men so they may see the good things you do[16] and give glory to your Father in heaven.

3. Perpetual Continuity of Torah (5:17-20)

17Don’t think that I have come to destroy the Torah or the Prophets. I haven’t come to destroy, but to fulfill.[17] 18Omein, omein[GN] I tell you that until heaven and earth pass away, not even one yud[18a] or even the tiniest pen stroke[18b] will in any way pass away from the Torah until all things are accomplished.[18c] 19Therefore, whoever breaks one of the least of the mitzvotcommandments[19a] and teaches people to do so will be called least in the Kingdom of Heaven. But whoever practices and teaches the mitzvot will be called great in the Kingdom of Heaven.[19b] 20For I tell you that unless your righteousness surpasses that of the Torah teachers and Pharisees, there is no way you will enter into the Kingdom of Heaven.[20]

4. Reconciliation (5:21-26)

21You have heard that our ancestors were told, ‘Do not murder’[21] and ‘Whoever murders will be in danger of judgment.’ 22But I tell you that anyone who is angry with his brother will be subject to judgment; and whoever calls his brother, ‘You good-for-nothing!’[22a] will be brought before the Sanhedrin; and whoever says, ‘You fool!’ is in danger of the fire of Gie-Hinnom![22b]

23So if you are offering your gift[23] at the Temple altar and remember that your brother has anything against you, 24leave your gift right there by the altar, and go and reconcile with your brother.[24] Then come back and offer your gift. 25If someone sues you, come to terms with him quickly while you are on your way to court; otherwise the prosecutor may hand you over to the judge, and the judge may hand you over to the officer of the court, who may throw you into prison. 26I’m telling you the truth, there is no way that you will get out until you have paid the very last penny.[26]

5. Marriage, Divorce, and Sexual Conduct (5:27-32; Matt 19:3-11; Mark 10:2-12; 1Cor. 7:1-16)

27“You have heard that our fathers were told ‘Do not commit adultery.’[27] 28but I tell you that everyone who gazes[28] at a woman with the intent to lust after her has already committed adultery with her in his heart. 29If your right eye makes you sin, gouge it out and throw it away! It's better for you to lose one of your parts than for your whole body to be thrown into Gie-Hinnom. 30If your right hand makes you sin, cut it off and throw it away! It's better for you to lose one of your parts than for your whole body to be thrown into Gie-Hinnom.

31“It was also said, ‘Whoever divorces his wife must give her a get.’[31] 32But I tell you that anyone who divorces his wife for any reason other than sexual immorality makes her an adulteress; and anyone who marries a divorcee commits adultery.[32]

6. Perjury and Retaliation (5:33-42)

33“Again you have heard that our fathers were told, ‘Do not break your oath, but keep your vows to ADONAI.[33] 34But I tell you not to swear at all: not by heaven, because it is God’s throne; 35not by the earth, because it His footstool; not by Yerushalayim, because it is the city of the Great King. 36And don’t swear by your head, because you can’t make one single hair white or black. 37Just let your ‘Yes’ be a simple ‘Yes’ and your ‘No’ be a simple ‘No.’ Anything more than these comes from the evil one.

38“You have heard that our fathers were told, ‘Eye for eye and tooth for tooth.’[38] 39But I tell you not to stand against one who does you wrong; if someone hits you on your right cheek, let him hit you on the left cheek, too.[39] 40If someone sues you to take your shirt, let him have your jacket, too. 41If a soldier forces you to carry his pack for one mile, carry it for two miles! 42When someone asks you for something, give it to him; when someone wants to borrow something from you, lend it to them.

7. Conduct Toward Enemies(5:43-48; Luke 6:27-36)

43You have heard that our fathers were told, ‘Love your neighbor[43a], and hate your enemy.’[43b] 44But I tell you, love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you! 45Then you will become children of your Father in heaven. For He makes His sun rise on both good and evil people, and He sends rain to both the righteous and the unrighteous. 46What reward do you get if you only love people who love you? Even the tax collectors do that! 47If you are only friendly toward your friends, how is that different from everyone else? Even the Gentiles, non-Jews, pagans; literally “nations”Goyim[47] do that! 48Therefore, you be perfect[48], just as your Father in heaven is perfect.[48]

Chapter 6


1a. This is the only sermon that Yeshua ever preached of which we have any record! And He did not preach it to the lost. He preached it only to His disciples (at one time there were thousands, not just twelve). Besides this one sermon, He gave four other significant discourses, but always to His disciples. Parables are not sermons; they are very brief illustrations of the point that He is making.

Anyone who has visited this site  in Israel knows that this teaching was given on a beautiful hillside overlooking Nof Ginosar (the Sea of Galilee). The shape of the hillside and the breeze that gently blows inland from off the lake make this a perfect natural amphitheater. However, Mattityahu is comparing Yeshua to Moshe here. As Moshe went up the mountain to receive Torah, so Yeshua went up the mountain to teach Torah! See verses 17-20 where He clearly says that He is absolutely not voiding or changing the Torah.

Many teach that in this message Yeshua was refuting the Torah and replacing it with a new set of rules; God forbid! Nothing could be farther from the truth. Yeshua was the One who wrote the Torah in stone with His finger at Sinai. The Torah is the Word of God; Yeshua is the Word that existed before creation (John 1:1-3); therefore Yeshua is the Torah made flesh. God never changes, so how can His Torah change? See verses 17-21. [RETURN]

1b. A talmid is a disciple. A true talmid does not want to know what his rabbi knows, he wants to become what his rabbi is! Remember that Yeshua was a a legitimate Rabbi and He had many disciples in addition to the twelve that we usually think about. He had thousands who followed Him around to listen to Him teach; He had hundreds who were “regulars.” Out of all of these, He selected eleven to be trained and commissioned as Emissaries (Ambassadors) of His Kingdom and one to betray Him. [RETURN]

3a. Blessed: Yeshua used the Hebrew word rXa ('ashar), to go straight, walk, go on, advance, make progress, to be advanced, be led on, to be made happy, be blessed. Kenneth Wuest’s Expanded Translation of the New Testament says “spiritually prosperous.” I believe this is a far better rendering than the traditional “blessed” because most people understand it to simply mean “happy,” which is not the primary meaning of this word [RETURN]   [RETURN TO 13:16]

3b. Isaiah 57:15; Isa. 66:2 [RETURN]

4. Isaiah 61:2; Isa. 66:10-13 [RETURN]

5. Psalm 37:11. This will be literally fulfilled when Yeshua returns to rule in Jerusalem. [RETURN]

11. Note the change from third person (they) to second person (you). Now He’s speaking directly to the twelve, not to the crowd. Notice also that he says when, not if, they would be mistreated. [RETURN]

12. This doesn’t mean “when you get to heaven” — it means that your great reward is stored up (recorded) in heaven to be awarded in the Olam Haba after the resurrection. [RETURN]

16. Literally, honorable actions. In context of the rest of Yeshua’s message, this would indicate walking in obedience to the commandments (mitzvot) of Torah. “For we are of God’s making, created in union with the Messiah Yeshua for a life of good actions already prepared by God for us to do” (Eph. 2:10) [RETURN]

17. How is it possible that the Church has completely removed Torah from the life of its people? Yeshua made it absolutely clear that Torah has not been abolished or altered in any way whatsoever, nor has a single one of the mitzvot (commandments) of Torah been set aside for those who would call themselves “Christian.”

Yeshua was a Jewish Rabbi and He taught using many of the same tools that the other Rabbis of his time used. This statement is a common teaching tool of the time. When trying to teach a correct interpretation of Torah, the Rabbi would start by asking his talmid (student) to interpret a particular passage. If the student incorrectly interpreted the passage, the Rabbi would say, “Oy vey! You have just destroyed (or abolished) Torah!” But if the student interpreted the passage correctly, the Rabbi would say, “Mazel tov! You have just fulfilled Torah!” Yeshua was saying that He had come to correctly and fully teach and interpret Torah and the Prophets to His talmidim. [RETURN]

Jot and Tittle18a. The Hebrew yud is the smallest letter of the Hebrew alphabet, and closely resembles an apostrophe. [RETURN]

18b. Pen stroke: rendered tittle in some older translations; a tiny decorative mark on Hebrew letters; may also be used to refer to the vowel points. Not even the smallest vowel or tiniest decorative mark on the letters of Torah are to be changed until all prophecy has been completely fulfilled; changing a tittle may change a letter from beth to kaph, changing the word. The last prophecy of Scripture that is to be fulfilled is the destruction of earth and its recreation as the olam haba (the world to come). Clearly, nothing in the Torah is to change until this world has burned up and been replaced! [RETURN]

18c. That is, not even the smallest pen stroke of the Torah will be done away with until every single prophecy in the Bible, both the Tanakh and the Apostolic Writings, has been absolutely and totally fulfilled; at the very earliest, at the establishment of the “new heavens and new earth,” when there is no sinful inclination left anywhere in the universe. [RETURN]

19a. Moshe ben Maimon (a.k.a. Miamonides or the Rambam, an acronym for “Rabbeinu Moshe Ben Maimon,” “Our Rabbi/Teacher Moses Son of Maimon”) was a rabbi, physician, astronomer, and philosopher who lived in Spain and Egypt from about 1135 to 1204. He is regarded as one of the most influential sages in history. His fourteen-volume Mishneh Torah is among the earliest codification of Judaism and Talmudic law. Among his body of work he compiled from the Torah a definitive list of 613 commandments (mitzvot). It is important to understand that not every mitzvah (commandment) applies to every person. About half apply only to the Levitical Priesthood in a functioning Temple. Another large portion apply only within the Land of Israel when living under a theocratic kingdom. Some apply only to men; others only to women. Some apply only to masters (employers); others only to servants (employees). Some apply only to merchants; others only to farmers. Each of us is responsible for only those mitzvot which apply to us. [RETURN]

19b. The Kingdom of Heaven has two aspects, neither of which have anything whatsoever to do with “going to heaven” when we die. In the here and now the Kingdom of Heaven (also called the Kingdom of God; both terms mean exactly the same thing; see note on 2b on chapter 3) refers to everyone who acknowledges the God of Avraham, Yitzchak, and Ya'akov (Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob) as their Sovereign King and submits their lives to His reign and rule. In the future it refers to the reign of King Messiah on earth during the thousand year Millennial Kingdom, and then after that throughout the eternal Olam Haba (the world to come). Those who practice and teach obedience to the mitzvot of Torah are called great in that Kingdom; those who break the mitzvot of Torah and teach others to do so, or those who teach that Torah has been abolished, “nailed to Yeshua’s cross,” or otherwise not for us today are called least in this Kingdom. Are you “great” or “least” in His Kingdom? Are you following a “great” pastor or a “least” pastor? [RETURN]

20. Again, this has absolutely nothing to do with “going to heaven” when we die. It means living subject to God's rule both in the present and in the olam haba, the world to come. The Scribes (Torah teachers) and Pharisees were in fact righteous, fastidious in their obedience to Torah; yet for the most part their obedience (righteousness) was only outward. God demands not only our obedience, but our cheerful obedience from the heart. Without that cheerful obedience to Torah, we cannot be a part of God’s Kingdom either now or in the future. [RETURN]

21. Exodus 20:13 [RETURN]

22a. “You good-for-nothing” (qyr, rake) is an Aramaic term of reproach that means empty, idle, ethically worthless, or a senseless, empty-headed man. [RETURN]

22b. Gei-Hinnom refers to Hell, the place of the future punishment of the wicked, also called “Gehenna” or “Gehenna of fire.” This was the valley of Hinnom, south of Jerusalem, the city trash dump where the filth and dead animals of the city were cast out and burned; a fit symbol of the wicked and their future destiny. [RETURN]

23. This is talking of a gift or freewill offering, not a sin or guilt offering. [RETURN]

24. In effect, Yeshua was saying that if you are in some conflict with a brother, don’t bother to bring Him your gift. He’s not interested in receiving anything from you until you have reconciled with your brother. [RETURN]

26. Penny: literally, kodrantes. A kodrantes was a small copper coin worth about 2 lepta (widow’s mites), about 3/8 of a current penny — not enough to buy very much of anything then, and certainly not now. [RETURN]

27. Exodus 20:14. [RETURN]

28. This word is in the imperfect tense, which indicates a present ongoing action, not a brief one-time event. For example, if you're driving down the street and a beautiful woman catches your eye, leading to an impure thought, repent and move on; you're ok. But if you drive around the block for another look, you've got a problem. [RETURN]

31. Deuteronomy 24:1. A get is a certificate of divorce issued by a Beit Din (a Rabbinical court). Traditionally, a man could obtain a get and divorce his wife for any reason whatsoever; just hand her the paper and put her out on the street. She may have burned his breakfast toast, or he may simply be tired of her. [RETURN]

32. The only reason that God accepts for divorce is sexual immorality. Anyone who divorces for any other reason is still married in the eyes of God. Any and all sexual activity afterwards is adultery. [RETURN]

33. Leviticus 19:12; Numbers 30:2; Deuteronomy 23:21; Ecclesiastes 5:4 [RETURN]

38. Exodus 21:24; Leviticus 24:20; Deuteronomy 19:21 [RETURN]

39. This is a Hebrew idiom and not to be taken literally. It means that if someone insults you, brush it off and let them insult you again and again and again. It doesn’t really affect you in any way! “Sticks and stones, …” [RETURN]

43a. Leviticus 19:18 [RETURN]

43b. Not in the Tanakh, but a part of first-century tradition; see Qumran Manual of Discipline IX, 21-26 [RETURN]

47. Goyim, Hebrew ~ywg, singluar ywg goy: nation; frequently used of the nation of Israel, but four times as often to refer to the non-Jewish nations, or Gentiles. Greek eqnoß ethnos, from which comes ethnic, ethnicity; literally refers to groups or tribes of people, as modern national political divisions; most frequently used to refer to non-Jewish people. Since before Messiah came only Israel served the one true God, by default all non-Jewish people were pagans, serving false gods. Goyim therefore frequently is used as synonymous with pagans. [RETURN]

48. Perfect does not mean without sin. The Scriptures say repeatedly that is impossible. The Greek and Hebrew words mean the same thing. Greek: teleioß (teleios), complete, mature, wanting nothing necessary to completeness; Hebrew: ~ymt, (tamiym) complete, whole, entire, sound, healthful, wholesome, unimpaired, innocent, having integrity, that which is entirely in accord with truth and fact. [RETURN]

Originally posted on Wednesday, 06 May 2020

Page last updated on Tuesday, 29 June 2021 04:43 PM
(Updates are generally minor formatting or editorial changes.
Major content changes are identified as "Revisions”)

Anxiously awaiting Mashiach’s return