The Center for
Messianic Learning 

Unapologetically Pro-Torah
Unashamedly Pro-Israel
Irrevocably Zionist
“… out of Tziyon will go forth Torah, the word of ADONAI from Yerushalayim.”
(Isaiah 2:3)

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Please read the Introductory Notes to this commentary.

For a glossary of unfamiliar terms, CLICK HERE. For assistance in
pronouncing Hebrew terms, a pronunciation guide is located HERE.

Introduction to the Gospels (Good News of the Kingdom) and Acts
Mattityahu (Matthew)  •  Mordichai (Mark)  •  Lukas (Luke)  • Yochanan (John)
Crucifixion Week Chronology3-Year Harmony of the Gospels1-Year Harmony of the Gospels  
Hitgalut (Revelation)  •  P’yilut HaShliyakim (Acts of the Emissaries)  •  The Chosen (Video Series)

The Good News of the Kingdom
According to

Yeshua, the Righteous King

~ 10 ~

B. Training the Twelve (chapters 10-12)

1. Their First Training Mission (chapter 10)

a. Instructions for the Mission (10:1-15)

1Having called to Himself His twelve disciplestalmidim,[1] Yeshua gave them authority over unclean spirits, to drive them out, and to heal every disease and every sickness. 2Now the names of the twelve shliachim[2a] are these. First, Shim`onSimon, called KefaPeter,[2b] and AndraiAndrew his brother,[2c] Ya`akovJacob Ben-ZavdaiSon of Zebedee[2d] and YochananJohn his brother,[2e] 3PhilliposPhilip[3a] and Bar-TalmaiBartholomew,[3b] T'omaThomas[3c] and MattityahuMatthew the tax-collector,[3d] Ya`akovJacob Bar-HalfaiSon of Kheleph[3e] and TaddaiThaddius,[3f] 4Shim`onSimon Zelotesthe Zealot,[4a] and Y'hudahJudah the Sicarius,[4b] who betrayed Him.

5Yeshua sent out these twelve after instructing them, “Don’t go into the area of the Gentiles, non-Jews, literally “nations”Goyim, and don’t enter into any town in SamariaShomron.[5] 6Instead, go to the lost sheep of the house of Yisra'el.[6] 7As you go you are to proclaim, ‘The Kingdom of Heaven[GN] is at hand!’[7] 8Heal the sick, raise the dead, cleanse those afflicted with tzara'at,[8] and cast out demons. You have received without payment; give without payment. 9Don’t take any gold, silver, or copper in your money belts. 10Don’t take a pack for your trip; not two coats, not shoes, not a walking stick: a worker should be given the food he needs. 11Whatever town or village you enter, find out who is worthy, and stay there until you leave. 12As you enter the household, greet it with ‘Shalom aleikhem!’[12] 13If the household is deserving, let your shalom[13] rest on it, but if it isn’t worthy, let your shalom return to you. 14If any household or town doesn’t welcome you or listen to your words, shake their dust from your feet as you leave.[14] 15Truly I tell you, on the Day of Judgment it will be more tolerable for the land of SodomS'dom and Gomorrah'Amora than for that town!

b. Warnings About Resistance to the Message (10:16-23)

16Pay attention! I’m sending you out like sheep in the midst of wolves. So be as prudent as snakes and as harmless as doves. 17But be cautious of men; they will deliver you up to courts[17] and scourge you in their synagogues. 18You will be brought before governors and kings because of Me, to be a witness to them and to the Goyimnations, Gentiles. 19But when they bring you to trial, don’t be worried about what to say or how to say it; when the time comes, you will be given what to say. 20It won't be you speaking; but the Spirit of your Father Who is speaking through you.

21A brother will betray his brother to death, and the father his child. Children will turn against their parents and have them put to death. 22Everyone will hate you because of me, but whoever holds on[22a] to the end will be preserved from harm.[22b] 23But when they persecute you in one town, flee into the next; truly I tell you, you will not have gone through all the towns of Yisra'el before the Son of Man comes.[23]

c. Cost and Benefits of Discipleship (10:24-42) [BACK TO OUTLINE]

24A talmid is not greater than his rabbi, nor is a slave greater than his master. 25It is enough for the talmid for him to become like his rabbi, and the slave like his master. Now, if they have called the master of the house Ba`al-Zibbul,[25a] how much more those of his household![25b] 26So don’t be afraid of them, for there is nothing covered that will not be revealed; and hidden that will not be known. 27What I tell you in the dark, speak in the light; and what you hear whispered in the ear, proclaim on the housetops. 28Don’t be afraid of those who kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul. Rather, fear him who is able to destroy both soul and body in Gei-Hinnom.[28]

29Aren’t two sparrows sold for an assarion?[29a] Not one of them falls to the ground without your Father’s permissive will.[29b] 30As for you, the very hairs of your head are all numbered. 31So don’t be afraid. You are worth more than many sparrows. 32Everyone who acknowledges Me in the presence of others, I will also acknowledge him in the presence of My Father in heaven. 33But whoever disowns Me in the presence of others, I will also disown him in the presence of My Father in heaven.

34Don’t think that I came to bring peace to the earth. I didn’t come to bring peace, but a sword. 35I came to set a man at odds against his father, a daughter against her mother, and a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law. 36A man’s enemies will be those of his own household.[36] 37Anyone who loves father or mother more than Me is not worthy of Me; and anyone who loves son or daughter more than Me isn’t worthy of Me. 38Anyone who doesn’t take up his stauros[38a] and follow after Me, isn’t worthy of Me.[38b] 39Anyone who seeks his own life will lose it; and anyone who loses his life for My sake will find it. 40Anyone who receives you receives Me, and anyone who receives Me receives Him who sent Me. 41Anyone who receives a prophet just because he is a prophet will receive a prophet’s reward. Anyone who receives a righteous persontzaddik just because he is a tzaddik will receive a tzaddik’s reward. 42If someone gives just a cup of cold water to one of these little ones just because he is My talmid, I’m telling you for certain, there is no way that he will lose his reward.[42]

Chapter 11


  1. Yeshua had hundreds, if not thousands, of talmidim. These twelve were selected out of all of the others to be his core group. Why twelve? Perhaps for the same reason there were twelve tribes of Israel? The 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet are also used for numerals, so each letter has a numeric value. Because every letter has a numerical value, each word, sentence, and phrase has a corresponding numerical value. Gematria (Biblical numerology) is the study of those numerical values. In Gematria, Scripture passages with the same numerical value will have a similar message. The first twelve are of particular interest:

  • One represents unity.
  • Two represents both unity and division.
  • Three represents divine completeness and resurrection.
  • Four represents creation, the world.
  • Five represents grace, or God’s goodness.
  • Six is the number of man, and represents weakness and sin.
  • Seven is the number of completeness and spiritual perfection.
  • Eight represents new beginnings.
  • Nine is the number of divine blessing, completeness, and judgment.
  • Ten is the number of law.
  • Eleven represents judgment or disorder.
  • Twelve is the number of governmental perfection. [RETURN]

2a. Emissaries: שלוחים (Shliachim, singular שלוח Shaliach). An emissary or ambassador is one sent forth with the full power and authority of the sender. Today’s ambassadors from Israel to other countries or to the United Nations are sometimes referred to as Shliachim in Hebrew. The Greek equivalent is Apostolos (apostoloß), which transliterates into English as Apostle.

There is an interesting article on the twelve shliachim HERE. In the article the author discusses the question of who replaced Judas and says “Matthias was selected to replace Judas as recorded in Acts 1:15-26.” While that may have been the intent of the eleven, God overruled their choice. Matthias is never again heard from in Scripture. God’s clear choice of replacement was Rav Sha'ul. [RETURN]

2b. Shim`on (Simon) (!w[mX, Shim`own, heard) — Kefa (@k, keph, rock) — Cephas (kefaß, kephas, rock, a Greek transliteration of Kefa) — Peter (petroß, petros, a rock or stone) [RETURN]

2c. Andrai (Andrew) (andreaß, Andreas, manly), a native of Bethsaida in the Galil, brother of Kefa, a disciple of Yochanan the Immerser, and afterwards an Shliach of Yeshua. He is said to have been crucified at Patrae in Archaia. [RETURN]

2d. Ya`akov (Jacob the elder) (Hebrew bq[y, Ya`aqob, “heel holder” or “supplanter” — named for the son of Ytzchak, grandson of Acraham, and father of the 12 patriarchs of the tribes of Israel), (Greek iakoboß, Iakobos, arbitrarily rendered — absolutely not translated — as “James”), the brother of Yochanan, he is commonly called James the greater or elder; was slain by Herod.

Ben-Zavdai, son of Zavdai (Zebedee), (Hebrew ydbz, Zabdiy, endowment or gift), (Greek zebedaioß, Zebedaios)

In January 1604, James I of England commissioned the third English translation of the Bible, which bears his name, and is often referred to as the “Authorized” Version because it was authorized for used within the Church of England. He gave the translators specific instructions to ensure that the new version would conform to the ecclesiology and reflect the episcopal structure of the Church of England, at the expense of an accurate translation of the text. See “King James’ Instructions to the Translators. There is absolutely no linguistic reason, other than to satisfy the vanity of the king, to translate Ya`akov as “Jacob” in the Old Testament and as “James” in the New Testament. [RETURN]

2e. Yochanan (John) Ben-Zavdai (Zebedee) (Hebrew !nxwy, Yowchanan) (Greek ioanneß, Ioannes), ADONAI has graced; writer of the Fourth Gospel, son of Zebedee and Salome, brother of Ya`akov (“James”) the elder. He is the disciple who (without mention by name) is spoken of in the Gospel that he recorded as especially dear to Yeshua, and is the author of the book of Revelation. [RETURN]

3a. Philip (Greek filippoß, Philippos, lover of horses), became of the seven deacons of the Messianic Community in Jerusalem. [RETURN]

3b. Bar-Talmai (Bartholomew, also called Nathanael in John’s gospel account) (Hebrew ymlt rb, Son of Talmai, furrowed) (Greek barqolomaioß, Bartholomaios) [RETURN]

3c. T'oma (Thomas) (Hebrew/Aramaic ~wat, Ta'owm, twin) (Greek qomaß, Thomas), also called Didymus (Greek didumoß, Didumos, “two fold” or “twin”) [RETURN]

3d. Mattityahu (Matthew, also called Levi) (Hebrew, מַתִּתְיָהוּ, Mattithiah, gift of YHWH) (Greek maqeteß, Mathetes, a learner, pupil, disciple); possibly named for the father of the Maccabee heroes. The story of the Maccabees can be found in 1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees, in Josephus’ Antiquities of the Jews, Book XII, Chapters 6-8) and in Talmudic references (Shabbat 21b, Shabbat 23a - related to the candles). [RETURN]

3e. Ya`akov (Jacob the younger) (see 2d); Bar-Halfai (son of Kheleph, @lx, exchange; Greek alfaioß, Alphaios, changing). [RETURN]

3f. Taddai (Thaddaeus, qaddaioß, Thaddaios, large hearted, courageous); also called Y'hudah Ben-Ya`akov [Judah the son of Jacob] in Luke 6:16 and Acts 1:13 and Labbai/Lebbeus/Lebbaeus in some translations. [RETURN]

4a. Shim`on (Simon) (see 2b) the Zealot (see next note) [RETURN]

4b. Y'hudah (Judah, Judas) (יְהוּדָה, praised or praiser of God; from יָדָה, yadah, to confess, to confess the name of God). Eight things you didn’t know about Judas [VIDEO]. [RETURN]

The Sicarius: After Israel came under the control of the Roman Empire, a group of political activists known as Zealots arose, who both advocated and attempted to bring about the overthrow of Rome. A particularly violent subgroup of the Zealots was a band of assassins known as the Sicarii (also spelled Sacarii), or assassins (also known as “dagger men”), after the Latin word for the short ice-pick-like daggers with which they dispatched (usually via a quick thrust to the base of the brain) anyone they felt to be a Roman sympathizer. Among Yeshua’s talmidim were at least two members of the party of the Zealots: Shimeon Zealotes (Simon the Zealot) and Yehudah Sicarius (or Judah the Assassin), usually translated into English as “Judas Iscariot.” Bar-Abba (Barabbas, or Son of a Father), who was released by Governor Pilate in exchange for Yeshua’s execution (Matthew 27:11-25), is thought to have been a notorious Sicarius, and was probably a close associate of Y'hudah. [RETURN]

 5. Shomron (!wrmX); Samaria; the region of northern Israel between Judea and Galilee, formerly belonging to the tribe of Ephraim and the half-tribe of Manasseh. The inhabitants of this region were called Samaritans (Shomronim, ~y!wrmX).

When the ten tribes were carried away into captivity to Assyria, the king of Assyria sent people from Cutha, Ava, Hamath, and Sepharvaim to inhabit Samaria (2 Kings 17:24; Ezra 4:2-11). These foreigners intermarried with the Israelite population that was still in and around Samaria. These “Samaritans” at first worshipped the idols of their own nations, but being troubled with lions, they supposed it was because they had not honored the God of that territory. A Jewish priest was therefore sent to them from Assyria to instruct them in the Jewish religion. They were instructed from the books of Moses, but still retained many of their idolatrous customs. The Samaritans embraced a religion that was a mixture of Judaism and idolatry (2 Kings 17:26-28). Because the Israelite inhabitants of Samaria had intermarried with the foreigners and adopted their idolatrous religion, Samaritans were generally considered “half-breeds” and were universally despised by the Jews. [Source:] [RETURN]

 6. The talmidim were specifically not to take the message of the Kingdom to anyone but Israel; not to the Gentiles, non-Jews, literally “nations”Goyim (Gentiles, not-Jewish people) or to the Samaritans (who were half-Jewish). Only after Israel had been offered the Kingdom and rejected it would it then be offered to others. [RETURN]

 7. I simply cannot stress strongly enough that neither Yeshua nor His Emissaries (Apostles) ever taught a “gospel of salvation.” Their message always was, and our should still be, “Repent, because the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand.” [RETURN]

 8. Tzara'at, Hebrew t[rc. Generally translated as “leprosy” but specifically not Hansen’s disease. It is a highly-contagious skin disease, or an infestation of mold or mildew on clothing or in a building. [RETURN]

12. Shalom aleikhem: peace be unto you. [RETURN]

13. Shalom (~wlX) is almost always usually translated as “peace.” But it is really much more than that. Shalom embodies everything in your life that promotes peace in it: completeness, soundness, welfare, peace and quiet, tranquility, safety, soundness in body, welfare, health, prosperity, contentment, friendship with others, and friendship with God (especially in covenant relationship). [RETURN]

14. Don’t take anything at all from that place with you when you leave, not even their dust. [And, in my personal opinion, when you hear heresy, anti-Semitism, supercessionism, replacement theology, anti-Torah comments, etc. being taught in any church meeting, you should make a public witness of wiping you feet as you immediately get up and leave! By remaining in that assembly, you are giving witness that you support that teaching.] [RETURN]

17. Courts; Greek sunedrion, sunedrion. Any assembly (esp. of magistrates, judges, ambassadors), whether convened to deliberate or pass judgment. This would refer to the local beit din, or house of judgment, a small tribunal or council of rabbis which every Jewish town had for the decision of halachic cases. [RETURN]

22a. Holds on, endures; Greek upomeno, hupomeno. To bear ill treatments bravely and calmly; to hold fast under misfortunes and trials to one’s faith in Messiah to preserve. [RETURN]

22b. Preserved from harm; Greek sozo, sozo, to save, keep safe and sound, to rescue from danger or destruction. Since all of the emissaries except Yochanan were eventually murdered for their faith, Yeshua was obviously referring to being preserved only for this particular mission; see verse 23. [RETURN]

23a. Amen. See Matt. 5, note 18a. [RETURN]

23. If you are reading this, it is painfully obvious that the Son of Man has not yet returned to establish His kingdom (or maybe the King will preserve the Internet in the Kingdom; I certainly don’t know.) Yeshua was therefore obviously not telling this talmidim that the kingdom would be established before they finished preaching the gospel throughout the towns of Israel. He was not misleading them; the “Son of Man” (the Messiah) was literally revealed through His crucifixion and resurrection, which indeed occurred before they had completed preaching the gospel throughout Israel. [RETURN]

25a. Ba`al-Zibbul or Ba`al-Z'vuv (manuscripts differ), Beelzebul or Beelzebub; Hebrew bwbz l[b, “lord of a fly” or “lord of the dung-heap.” In post-Biblical Hebrew, the root bwbz means “dung” (not surprising if one considers where flies prefer to hang out.) A derogatory name for the Adversary, Satan. Worshipped by the Philistines in Ekron (2Kings 1:2). There is an interesting note in Matthew: A Tabbinic Source Commentary and Language Bible by Al Garza, PhD (pages 204-205). [RETURN]   [RETURN TO 12:24]

25b. Matthew’s chronology seems to be a bit out of sequence, since he doesn’t record until 12:24-27 the event to which Yeshua is here referring. But that’s not a problem, since only Luke intentionally presented a chronological narrative, and Matthew’s narrative is thematic. [RETURN]

28. Gei-Hinnom, Hebrew ~nnh ayg; Greek geenna Geenna. Gehenna, the valley of Hinnom, the city dump south of Jerusalem, where the filth and dead animals of the city were cast out and burned. The fires of Gehenna never burned out, making it an appropriate metaphor for the Lake of Fire, the place of eternal torment for Satan, his demons, and unredeemed humanity. [RETURN]

29a. An assarion is a small coin worth one tenth of a drachma or a sixteenth of a denarius. An assarion is approximately the wages of one half hour of agricultural labor. [RETURN]

29b. We need to understand that there are two separate aspects to God’s will. Everything that happens is according to His will, yet He permits things to occur that He does not directly desire. For example, Lucifer, Adam, and Eve fell contrary to His preference, and He does not desire that anyone should die without being redeemed. Thus we can see that His determinate will speaks of those things that He decrees to come to pass, or those things He directly or indirectly causes; His permissive will speaks of those things which He allows to come to pass, whether or not He desires them. [RETURN]

36. “For a son insults his father, a daughter rises against her mother, daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law; a person's enemies are the members of his own household.” (Micah 7:6) [RETURN]

38a. Stauros, Greek stauroß, may either be the familiar upright cross, an X-shaped cross, or a single upright stake, especially a pointed one. Because of a 2,000-year history of persecution committed in the name of “the cross,” most Jewish Bible teachers translate the word as “execution stake.” I have simply chosen not to translate it. See more HERE. [RETURN]

38b. How very different this is from the "free grace, no responsibilities" message of the Church! [RETURN]

42. Be very careful of your theology; “reward” does not equal “salvation.” [RETURN]

Originally posted on Monday, 18 May 2020

Page last updated on Friday, 03 September 2021 02:19 PM
(Updates are generally minor formatting or editorial changes.
Major content changes are identified as "Revisions”)

Anxiously awaiting Mashiach’s return