The Center for
Messianic Learning 

Unapologetically Pro-Torah
Unashamedly Pro-Israel
Irrevocably Zionist
“… out of Tziyon will go forth Torah, the word of ADONAI from Yerushalayim.”
(Isaiah 2:3)

If your life is not in jeopardy for what you believe, you’re probably on the wrong side!

Subscribe to The Center for Messianic Learning
Like this page? Share it. MeWe Logo ParlerLogo WimKin Logo CloutHub Others:Bookmark and Share

Mobile Users: The page will display properly if you hold your device in “landscape”
position and use your touch gesture to resize the page to fit your screen.

Please read the Introductory Notes to this commentary.

For a glossary of unfamiliar terms, CLICK HERE. For assistance in
pronouncing Hebrew terms, a pronunciation guide is located HERE.

The summary of the entire Torah is as simple as this:
Love what HaShem loves; hate what HaShem hates. All else is commentary.

בְּרֵאשִׁ֖ית • B'resheet
(“In Beginning” or “At First”)
The First Book of Moses,
Commonly Called


~ 10 ~

Parashah 2: Noach (Continued)
(Noach, Gen. 6:9-11:32)
(Small Roman numerals in the text indicate each 'aliyah.)

F. The Beginning of Nations (10:1- 32)

1. Nations from Noah’s Sons (10:1)

1Now this is the history Noah’s sons Shemשם, shem, name, Hamחם, cham, hot, and Yefetיפת, yepheth, opened, who also had sons after the flood.

2. Descendants of Japeth (10:2-5)

2The sons of Yefet: Gomer“complete”, Magog“land of a mountain”, Madai“middle land” — Media, the Medes, YavanIonia or Greece, Tuval“you shall be brought” — a region in east Asia Minor perhaps nearly equal to Cappadocia, Meshekh“drawing out” — peoples to the north of Israel[2] , and Tiras“desire”.

3The sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz“a man as sprinkled: fire as scattered” — a northern people, perhaps of Bithynia, Riphatspan“spoken”, and Togarmah“you will break her” — probably the area known as Armenia".

4The sons of Yavan: Elishah“God of the coming (one)” — perhaps ancestor of the Aeolians, Tarshish“yellow jasper”, Kittim“bruisers” — a general term for all islanders of the Mediterranean Sea", and Dodanim“leaders”.

5aFrom these the maritime peoples separated into their territories, according to heir languages by clans within their nations.[5a]

3. Descendants of Ham (10:6-20)

Table of Nations
Map courtesy of[5b]

6The sons of Ham: Kush“black” — the southernmost peoples located in Africa, Mitzrayim“land of the Copts” — Egypt, Put“a bow” — a nation and people of northern Africa; probably Libyans, and Kena'an“lowland” — Phoenicians and the various nations who peopled the seacoast of modern Israel; the land west of the Jordan; Canaan.

7The sons of Kush: S'va“drink thou” — a nation south of Israel, perhaps Ethiopia, Havilah“circle” — probably the northeast corner of Asia Minor, near the Caspian Sea; probably the district of Kualan, in the northwestern part of Yemen, Savta“striking”, Ra'amah“horse’s mane”, Savt'kha“striking”.

The sons of Ra'amah: Sh'vaSheba, “seven” or “an oath” and D'dan“low country”.

8Kush became the father of Nimrod“rebellion” or “the valiant”, who grew to be a mighty warrior on the earth. 9He was a mighty hunter before ADONAI, so it is said, “Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before יְהוָה֒ [YeHoVaH].” 10His kingdom began in Bavelconfusion (by mixing); Babhylon, Erekh“long”, Akkad“subtle”, and Kalneh“fortress of Anu", in the land of Shin'ar“country of two rivers” — the ancient name for the territory later known as Babylonia or Chaldea . 11From that land he went forth into Assyria, where he built Nineveh“abode of Ninus” — capital of the ancient kingdom of Assyria; located on the east bank of the Tigris river, 550 miles (880 km) from its mouth and 250 miles (400 km) north of Babylon, Rehoboth-Ir“wide places or streets” located close to Nineveh, Kelach“vigour” — maybe modern 'Nimrud' located at the confluence of the Tigris and Zab rivers, 12and Resen“bridle”, which is between Nineveh and and the great city of Kelach.

13Mitzrayim was the father of the LudimLudim, the 'AnamimNAMITES, a tribe of Egyptians, the L'havimLehabites, an Egyptian tribe descended from the Mitzrayim, the NaftuchimNaphtuhites, an unclear reference to Egypt; perhaps Lower Egypt, the 14PatrusimPathrusites, inhabitants of Pathros, or “region of the south, the KasluchimCasluhites, a people or tribe descended from Mizraim (Egypt), progenitors of the Philistines and Caphtorim and KaftorimCaphtorites, Cretans as the inhabitants of Caphtor as distinct from the Philistines (from whom the P'lishtimPhilistines descended).

15Kena'an became the father of Sidon“hunting” — an ancient Phoenician city, on the Mediterranean coast north of Tyre, his firstborn, and of the Het“terror” — the Hittites, 16the Y’vusiJebusite = 'descendants of Jebus'' descendants of the 3rd son of Canaan who lived in or around the site of Jebus, the early name for Jerusalem, the EmoriAmorites: 'a sayer'; one of the peoples of east Canaan and beyond the Jordan, dispossessed by the Israelite incursion from Egypt, the GirgashiGirgashites: “dwelling on a clayey soil”; descendants of Canaan and one of the nations living east of the sea of Galilee when the Israelites entered the Promised Land, 17the HiviHivites: 'villagers'; 6th generation of descendants of Canaan, the son of Ham, who were living in northern Canaan near Mount Hermon at the time of the conquest, the ‘ArkiArkites, 'gnawing', the SiniSinites, 'thorn' or 'clay'; a tribe of the Canaanites descended from Canaan inhabiting the northern part of the Lebanon district, 18the ArvadiArvadites, 'I shall break loose'; the descendants of Arvad, a son of Canaan, the Tz’mariZemarites, 'double woolens'; one of the Hamite tribes descended from Canaan and inhabitants of an unknown Canaanite city, and the HamatiHamathites. Later the Kena'aniCaananite clans were scattered. 19The border of the Kena'ani extended from TzidonSidon, as you go toward G'rar, as  far as ‘AzahGaza, then toward S'domSodom, ‘AmoraGomorrah, Admah, and TzvoyimZeboiim, as far as Lasha.

20These are the sons of Ham according to their clans, languages, lands, and nations.

4. Descendants of Shem (10:21-31)

21And sons were also born to Shem, the elder brother of Yefet; Shem was the forefather of all the children of Eber.

22The sons of Shem: 'Elam“eternity”, Ashur“a step” — the Assyrians", Arpakhshad“I shall fail as the breast: he cursed the breast-bottle”, Lud“strife” — the Lydians (northern Africa), and Aram“exalted” — the Syrian or Aramean people.

23The sons of Aram: 'Utz“wooded” — Uz, the country of Job; probably east and southeast of Israel somewhere in the Arabian desert, Hul“circle”, Geter“fear”, and Mash“drawn out” — also Meshech.

24Arpakhshad was the father of Shelah“sprout”, and Shelah was the father of 'EverEber, “the region beyond”.

25Two sons were born to 'Ever. One was named Peleg“division” because in his days the earth was divided, and his brother was named YoktanJoktan, “smallness” — patriarch of various Arabian tribes.

26Yoktan was the father of Almodad“not measured”, Shelef“a drawing forth”, Hatzar-MavetHazarmaveth, “village of death” — He was the founder of an ancient people of southern Arabia which later became a province and important commercial center, YerachJerah, “new moon” — an Arabian tribe, 27Hadoram“noble honour”, Uzal“I shall be flooded”, Diklah“palm grove” — an Arabian territory or people, 28'OvalObal, “stripped bare” — an Arab tribe, Avima'elAbimael, “my father is El (God)” Sh'vaSheba, “seven” or “an oath” — a nation in southern Arabia, 29Ofir Ophir, “reducing to ashes” — a land or city in southern Arabia in Solomon’s trade route where gold evidently was traded for goods, Havilah“circle” — a district in Arabia of the Yishma'elites; probably the district of Kualan, in the northwestern part of Yemen, and YovavJobab, “a desert”. All these were sons of Yoktan. 30Their territory extended from Mesha“freedom” — a region marking one of the limits of the territory of the Joktanites when they first settled in Arabia to S'farSephar, “a numbering” — a place in southern Arabia, in the eastern hill country.

31These are the sons of Shem, accordinng to their clans, languages, lands, and nations.

5. People Dispersed (10:32)

32All these are the clans of Noach’s sons, accoording to their generations and nations. From these the nations of the earth spread out after the flood.

Chapter 11


 2. The descendants of Meshekh (Mesech) are often mentioned in connection with Tubal, Magog, and other northern nations including the Moschi, a people on the borders of Colchis and Armenia. Because of the name similarities, many believe that Meshekh (or Moschi) is modern Moscow and Tubal is modern Tobolsk, Russia. [RETURN]

 5a. Hebrew גוים, goyim, nations. Usually used to refer to non-Hebrew people, but also sometimes used of Israel herself; figuratively, of a swarm of locusts or other anumals. [RETURN]

 5b. Breakdown of the nations as posted on

Shem, Ham, and Japhet

The sons of Noah were Shem, Ham, and Japhet. These three sons of Noah represented the three great races of mankind. The map shows a table of God’s dispersion of the nations after they migrated from the Tower at Babel.

Shem (Asia)

Shem (Heb. “Name”) was Noah’s oldest son and part of Noah’s family of eight who survived the great flood. Shem and his wife were childless before the flood, but after the flood Shem bore a son at 110 years of age. He was father to five sons who became the fathers of the five Semitic nations as shown below. Shem was actually the father of the nations of the ancient Near East including the Isra'elites and the Jewish religion, and therefore Judaism, Christianity, and pagan Islam sprang from the line of Shem. The Semites were particularly known for their religious zeal.

The Five Semitic Nations:

  1. Elam (the Persians) settled northeast of the Persian Gulf.
  2. Asshur (the Assyrians) the Biblical name for Assyria, settled between the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers.
  3. Arphaxad (the Babylonians) settled in Chaldea.
  4. Lud (the Lydians) settled in Asia Minor, but some of them sailed across the Mediterranean and settled in northern Africa.
  5. Aram (the Syrians) the Biblical name for Syria, located north and east of Isra'el.

Ham (Africa)

Ham (Heb. “hot” or “black”) was Noah’s second oldest son and part of the family of eight who survived the great flood. Ham and his wife bore four sons who became the fathers of the nations of Africa. Ham’s fourth son Canaan was prophetically cursed because he gazed at his fathers nakedness while he was drunk. This curse would mean later that Canaan would lose his land to the Hebrews and would be subservient to the descendants of Shem. The Hamites were known for their physical endurance.

The Four Hamitic Nations:

  1. Cush (the Ethiopians) settled in Ethiopia south of Egypt, also early in their history some of them migrated to an area north of the Persian Gulf.
  2. Mizraim (the Egyptians) the Bible name for Egypt, settled in northeastern Africa.
  3. Phut (the Libyans) sometimes translated Libya, settled in northern Africa.
  4. Canaan (the Canaanites) settled above Africa east of the Mediterranean (later was given to the Hebrews).

Japhet (Europe)
Japhet (Heb. “God will Enlarge”) was Noah’s third oldest son and part of the family of eight who survived the great flood. Japhet and Shem were both greatly blessed for respecting their father Noah. Noah’s blessing on Japhet was far reaching for all of his descendants being the European (Caucasian) nations that were mentioned in Genesis 10. The Japhetites were known for their intellectual activity.

The Seven Japhetic Nations:

  1. Gomer (the Cimmerians) settled north of the Black Sea, but afterwards his descendants probably occupied Germany, France, Spain, and the British Isles.
  2. Magog (the Scythians) lived north of the Caspian Sea.
  3. Madai (the Medes) settled south of the Caspian Sea.
  4. Javan (the Ionians or Greeks) Javan is the Hebrew name for Greeks, they settled in Greece.
  5. Tubal (the Turks) lived south of the Black Sea.
  6. Meshech (the Slavs) lived between the Black and Caspian Seas.
  7. Tiras (the Etruscans) located west of the Black Sea.

For another easy-to-read breakdown of the Table of Nations, see Wikipedia. RETURN]

Originally posted on Shabbat, 15 August 2020

Page last updated on Sunday, 05 June 2022 10:30 AM
(Updates are generally minor formatting or editorial changes.
Major content changes are identified as "Revisions”)

Anxiously awaiting Mashiach’s return

Blue Letter Bible Search Tool

Range Options:

e.g. Gen;Psa-Mal;Rom 3-9