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Messianic Learning

Unapologetically Pro-Torah
Unashamedly Pro-Israel
Irrevocably Zionist
“… out of Tziyon will go forth Torah, the word of ADONAI from Yerushalayim.”
(Isaiah 2:3)

The summary of the entire Torah is as simple as this:
Love what HaShem loves; hate what HaShem hates. All else is commentary.

Please read the Introductory Notes to this commentary.

WARNING: The text used for my commentary is my own paraphrase and must not be
considered “a translation” or authorative in any way. It is, in fact, simply my commentary.

Maps, when used, are from Created using BibleMapper 3.0.
Additional data from
Source of Dates Used

בְּרֵאשִׁ֖ית • B'resheet
(“In Beginning” or “At First”)
The First Book of Moses,
Commonly Called


Introductory Notes and Comments

In the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible) book names are assigned according to the first or other important word in the opening sentence. The Hebrew name of this book is בְּרֵאשִׁ֖ית, B'resheet, “In beginning” or “At first.”

GENESIS, the book of the origin or production of all things, consists of two parts: the first, comprehended in the first through eleventh chapters, gives a general history; the second, contained in the subsequent chapters, gives a special history.[1]

The two parts are essentially connected; the one, which sets out with an account of the descent of the human race from a single pair, the introduction of sin into the world, and the announcement of the scheme of divine mercy for repairing the ruins of the fall, was necessary to pave the way for relating the other, namely, the call of Abraham, and the selection of his posterity for carrying out the gracious purpose of God.

An evident unity of method, therefore, pervades this book, and the information contained in it was of the greatest importance to the Hebrew people, as without it they could not have understood the frequent references made in their law to the purposes and promises of God regarding themselves.

Authorship of the Torah[2]

Moses is traditionally considered the author of Genesis. But for over two centuries, one of the most contested questions in biblical scholarship has been “Who wrote the Book of Genesis—and when?” Genesis is the first book of the Bible, and one of the five books of the Torah (or “Pentateuch” in the Greek LXX). Several other books of the Torah include passages (e.g., Exod 24:4) that mention Moses recording events and writing down what God says. The authors of the New Testament—and even Yeshua himself—appear to credit Moses as the author of Genesis.

So why don’t scholars agree? There are passages in Genesis that Moses could not have written, because they describe events that happened after his death, known as postmosaica passages. And there are others that would simply be awkward for Moses to write, which are referred to as amosaica (such as Numbers 12:4). If these passages were added later, how do we know what Moses did and didn’t write?

Did Moses write the Torah?

For many, the answer to this question is a matter of orthodoxy, and debates quickly become passionate. While it seems simple (the author is Moses or not), scholars don’t necessarily treat it as a yes or no question—they also have to consider that Moses may have written part of Genesis. For some, orthodoxy simply suggests that Moses wrote the whole Pentateuch, perhaps with the exception of postmosaica passages such as Genesis 11:28 and 14:14 and amosaica passage such as Numbers 12:4. On the other extreme are those who say that Moses wrote none of the Torah, but rather the Torah was composed much later than the time the Bible purported that he lived (if, in the minds of some, he lived at all). In the following discussion, whatever we say about the Torah pertains to the book of Genesis, though we will also on occasion refer specifically to the book of Genesis.

Passages that refer to Moses’ writing

Right from the start it is important to note that the Torah is anonymous. Nowhere in the Torah is an author named, not Moses or any other person. However, that said, a number of passages in the Torah mention that Moses wrote things down. Consider the following:

Exodus 17:14 “ADONAI said to Moshe, “Write this in a book to be remembered, and tell it to Y’hoshua: …’”

Exodus 24:3-4 “Moshe came and told the people everything Adonai had said, including all the rulings. The people answered with one voice: “We will obey every word Adonai has spoken.” Moshe wrote down all the words of Adonai .… ”

Numbers 33:2 “Moshe recorded [wrote down] each of the stages of their journey by order of Adonai …”

Deuteronomy 31:24 “Moshe kept writing the words of this Torah in a book until he was done. …”

And these references are just a sample of a number of other passages that could be cited (see also Exodus 24:12; 34:28; Deuteronomy 27:3, 8; 31:19).

None of these passages concern the writing of the book of Genesis.

Certainly the passages that speak of Moses writing things down do not claim that Moses wrote the entirety of the Torah, but they do imply that Moses wrote material that was incorporated into the Torah. With this in mind, we turn now to references to the “book of the law of Moses” or “the book of Moses” (with variants) found in biblical books that follow the Torah. Here are just a few examples:

Joshua 1:7-8a “Only be strong and very bold in taking care to follow all the Torah which Moshe my servant ordered you to follow; do not turn from it either to the right or to the left; then you will succeed wherever you go. Yes, keep this book of the Torah on your lips, and meditate on it day and night …”

2Chronicles 25:4 “But he did not put their children to death; rather, he acted according to what is written in the Torah, in the scroll of Moshe, as Adonai ordered …”

Nehemiah 13:1 “It was also at that time, when they were reading in the scroll of Moshe, …”

These references to the Book (Scroll) or Torah of Moses are not necessarily, and until the postexilic period are unlikely, indicating the Torah in its final form as we know it, but still they attest to some body of writing that was connected to the figure of Moses.

The Apostolic Scriptures appear to consider Moses the author

When we come to the Apostolic Writings, however, these references are more likely to refer to the final form of the Torah. They still do not necessarily mean that Moses wrote every word, but they do imply a belief that Moses had an integral connection with the composition of the Torah.

In the Apostolic Writings, when quoting the Torah, people often spoke of Moses being the author. For example, the disciples, referring to Deuteronomy 24:1-4, questioned Yeshua, “They said to him, “Then why did Moshe give the commandment that a man should hand his wife a get and divorce her?” (Matthew 19:7).

Jewish leaders asked Yeshua a question based on Deuteronomy 25:5-10 by saying, “Rabbi, Moshe said, ‘If a man dies childless, his brother must marry his widow and have children to preserve the man’s family line. ” (Matthew 22:24).

Yeshua Himself, quoting the fifth commandment (Exodus 20:12; Deuteronomy 5:16) and a case law (Exodus 21:17; Leviticus 20:9), said, “For Moshe said, ‘Honor your father and your mother,’ and ‘Anyone who curses his father or mother must be put to death.” (Mark 7:10).

For other references in the Apostolic Writings see Mark 12:26; John 1:17, 5:46, 7:23. In light of the references to Moses’ writing in the Torah and the Apostolic Writings citations of the Torah that associate Moses with its composition, it seems reasonable to affirm that the origins of the Torah are connected to this great biblical figure.

What about postmosaica passages?

But to say that the composition, even the origins, of the Torah is to be associated with Moses certainly does not mean he wrote every word. Traditional approaches to this question acknowledge that Moses did not write the entirety of the Torah when they point to a so-called postmosaica.

Postmosaica are passages that had to be written after the death of Moses, and of course, the most obvious postmosaica is the account of his death in Deuteronomy 34, which is traditionally attributed to Joshua. There are postmosaica in the book of Genesis as well.

While Ur is an ancient city predating Moses, the reference to Ur of the Chaldeans (see Genesis 11:31) is a postmosaica since the Chaldeans were an Aramaic-speaking tribe that lived in the first millennium BC, long after the death of Moses. In Genesis 14:14 the narrator reports that Abram chased the four ancient Near Eastern kings who kidnapped Lot “as far as Dan.” This reference to the city of Dan is a postmosaica because this city, earlier called Laish, was not named Dan until the time of the Judges (see Judges 18), and of course the name derived from the tribe of Dan, named after Jacob’s son Dan, Abraham’s great grandson.

It is reasonable to assume that these postmosaica were simply the clarifications of later copyists. Just as we currently have numerous revisions of the Scriptures, even of particular versions (e.g., the New American Standard Bible, generally considered the best literal English translation available, was completed in 1971 and updated in 1995 and 2020), Sages and Scribes down through the history of the Bible have revised the text when necessary for clarification of the intent of the original authors.

This is essential to modern readers for the simple fact that languages evolves over time, and the meaning of words. For example, since the KJV was first translated in 1611, there are at least 300 words in that translation that no longer have the same meaning as they did in 1611.[3] Revisions are necessary to provide the words currently in use that convey the true meaning of the original authors.

Do we really know what Moses did and didn’t write?

No. While some people believe that Moses wrote everything in the Torah except a handful of postmosaica, the postmosaica may only be the tip of the iceberg. These postmosaica establish a principle that later inspired editors/redactors can contribute to the writing of the Torah.

In Genesis, the narrative speaks of events that take place long before the birth of Moses. It is interesting that Moses is never mentioned in the book even as the person writing things down. Instead, we encounter a formula that appears eleven times in the book (Genesis 2:4; 5:1; 6:9; 10:1; 11:10, 27; 25:12, 19; 36:1, 9; 37:2). This formula is introduced by the words אֵ֚לֶּה תּוֹלְדֹ֣ת (elleh toledot) and a person’s name, “This are the records of [name].” Clearly Moses had to have used oral and/or written sources (see Genesis 5:1) for the writing of the events in the book of Genesis that occurred before his birth.

Taking seriously the indications within the Torah itself, along with the post-Torah references to the Book/Torah of Moses, one might conclude that the Torah finds its origins in Moses, who used other sources particularly in the writing of Genesis. The postmosaica indicate that there were also editorial additions. These additions may only be the most obvious examples of textual material added after the time of Moses and we cannot determine precisely what was authored by Moses or added by later inspired editors. So, ”Who wrote Genesis?” We’ll likely never know with absolute certainty. But based on the evidence available, it’s fair to attribute its origins to Moses.

The arguments that have been adduced as establishing the Mosaic origin of the Torah prove of course that Moses was the primary author of Genesis. The appearance of a later hand, it is true, is traceable in the narrative of the death of Moses at the close of Deuteronomy, and some few interpolations, such as inserting the altered names of places, may have been made by Ezra, who revised and corrected the version of the ancient Scriptures.

The few passages on which the rationalists grounded their assertions that it was the composition of a later age have been successfully shown to warrant no such conclusion; the use of Egyptian words and the minute acquaintance with Egyptian life and manners, displayed in the history of Joseph, harmonize with the education of Moses, and whether he received his information by immediate revelation, from tradition, or from written documents, it comes to us as the authentic work of an author who wrote as he was inspired by Rauch HaKodesh (the Holy Spirit) (2Peter 1:21)

See also “Introduction to Torah.”


Beginnings of Early Mankind (Creation to ca. 2100 BCE)

Parashah 1: B'resheet (In the Beginning, Genesis 1:1-6:8)


A. The Pre-existent Moshiach: John 1:1-2

B. Creation (1:1-31)

1. Declaration: Psalm 90:2

2. Origin of Creation (1:1)

3. Satan Cast out of Heaven: Isaiah 14:12-18; Ezekiel 28:13-18

4. Judgment of Creation (1:2a) (Jeremiah 4:23-25)

5. Creation for Habitation: Isaiah 45:18; Genesis 2:4

I. From the Creation to the Flood

A. Creation

1 The Six Day of Creation

a. First Day (1:2a-5)

b. Second Day (1:6-8)

c. Third Day (1:9-13)

d. Fourth Day (1:14-19)

e. Fifth Day (1:20-23)

e. Sixth Day (1:24-31)

B. Shabbat Instituted (2:1-4)

C. Adam and Havah (2:5-25)

1. Creation of Man (2:5-7)

2. Garden of Eden (2:8-17) [Mesopotamia]

3. Creation of Woman (2:18-22)

4. The Institution of Marriage (2:23-25)

D. The Fall of Humanity (3:1-13)

1. Temptation to Sin (3:1-5)

2. Sin Produces Shame (3:6-7)

3. Sin Produces Fear (3:8-10)

4. Sin Produces Blame (3:22-13)

E. The Sentence Proclaimed (3:14-24) 

1. Sentence on the Tempter and Promise of Redemption (3:14-15)

2. Sentence on the Woman (3:16)

3. Sentence on the Man (3:17-19)

4. Woman Named (3:20)

5. Shame Hidden (3:21)

6. Banashment from the Garden (3:22-24)

H. First Three Sons of Adam and Havah (4:1-26)

1. Cain and Able Born (4:1-2a)

2. Brothers Bring Offerings (2b-7)

3. The First Murder (4:8-9)

4. Cain’s Punishment (4:10-16)

5. Descendants of Cain (4:17-22) [Nod, East of Eden]

6. Lamech Confesses Killing (4:23-24)

7. Seth Born (4:25-26)

8. Enosh Born (4:26)

I. Adam’s Decendants to Noach (5:1-32)

1. Record of Mankind (5:1-2)

2. Seth (5:3-5)

3. Enosh (5:6-8)

4. Kenan 5:9-11)

5. Mahalel (5:12-14)

6. Jared (5:15-17)

7. Enoch (5:18-20)

8. Methuselah (5:21-24)

9. Lamech (5:25-27)

10. Noach (5:28-31)

11. Shem, Ham, and Japeth (5:32)

J. The Corruption of Mankind (6:1-8)

1. Intermarriage Brings Decay (6:1-2)

2. Mankind Given a Grace Period (6:3)

3. Wicked Are Considered Heroes (6:4)

4. God Grieved by Mankind (6:5-8)

II. Parashah 2: Noach (Gen. 6:9-11:32)

A. The Deluge (6:9-7:23)

1. Noah Found Righteous (6:9-10)

2. Instructions for the Ark (6:11-16)

3. Plan for Saving Noah (6:17-21)

4. Noah Builds the Ark (6:22)

5. HaShem’s Final Instructions (7:1-5)

6. Final Week’s Preparations (7:6-10)

7. Floodwaters Begin (7:11-12)

8. Noah’s Family Enters the Ark (7:13-16)

9. Destruction Beneath the Waters (7:17-23)

B. The Flood Subsides (8:1-8:19) [Mountains of Ararat]

1. Waters Recede for 150 Days (8:1-8:4)

2. Mountains Seen on 224th Day (8:5)

3. Raven Sent Out on 264th Day (8:6-7)

4. Dove Sent Out on 271st Day (8:8-9)

5. Branch Brought on 278th Day (8:10-11)

6. Dove Departs on 285th Day (8:12)

7. Surface Dry on 314th Day (8:13)

C. Departure from the Ark (8:14-20)

1. Noah Called After 370 Days (8:14-19)

2. Noah Offers a Sacrifice (8:20)

D. The Noachic Covenant (8:21-9:17)

1. HaShem’s Vow (8:21-22)

2. Mankind’s Regeneration (9:1-2)

3. Dietary Instructions (9:3-4)

4. Law of Life for Life (9:5-7)

5. HaShem’s Covenant (9:8-11)

6. Rainbow as the Sign of the Covenant (9:12-17)

E. Human Condition  Remains Sinful (9:18-29)

1. Noah’s Sons (9:18-19)

2. Ham’s Disrespect (9:20-23)

3. Curse on Ham’s Desendants (9:24-27)

4. Noah’s Death (9:28-29)

F. The Beginning of Nations (10:1- 32)

1. Nations from Noah’s Sons (10:1-)

2. Descendants of Japeth (10:2-5)

3. Descendants of Ham (10:6-20)

4. Descendants of Shem (10:21-31)

5. People Dispersed (10:32)

G. Dispersion of the Human Family (11:1-9)

1. Commonness of Mankind (11:1-2)

2. Plan to Build a City (11:3-4)

3. Attitude Displeases God (11:5-7)

4. Language Confused (11:8-9) [Babel]

H. Descendants from Shem to Avram (11:10-32)

1. Shem (11:10a)

2. Arphaxad (11:10b-11)

3. Shelah (11:12-13)

4. Eber (11:14-15)

5. Peleg (11:16-17)

6. Reu (11:18-19)

7. Serug (11:20-21)

8. Nahor (11:22-23)

9. Terah (11:24-25)

10. Avram, Nahor, and Haran (11:26-32)

a. Terah (11:27a)

b. Lot Born; Haran Dies (11:27b-28) [Ur of the Chaldeans]

c. Avram and Nahor Take Wives (11:29-30)

d. Terah Moves Family to Haran (11:31-32) [Ur to Haran]

Period of the Patriarchs  (ca. 1967-1606)

III. Parashah 3: Lekh L'kha (Get yourself out) (Gen. 12:1-17:27)

A. HaShem Calls Avram (12:1-9)

1. HaShem’s Promise to Avram (12:2-3)

2. Avram Leaves for Canaan (12:4-5)

3. Land Promised to Descendants (12:6-7) [Shechem]

4. Worship Near Beid-El (12:8-9) [Between Beit-El and Ai]

B. Avram Dishonors Himself in Egypt (12:10-20)

1. Avram Leaves for Egypt (12:10)

2. Avram Plans Deception (12:11-13)

3. Sarai Taken by Pharaoh (12:14-16)

4. HaShem Delivers Sarai (12:17-20)

C. Avram and Lot (13:1-18)

1. Avram and Lot Leave Egypt (3:1-2)

2. Return to Beit-El (13:3-4)

3. Trouble Between Herdsmen (13:5-7)

4. Avram Proposes Separation (13:8-9)

5. Lot Chooses Land Near Sodom (13:10-13)

6. HaShem’s Promise to Avram Repeated (13:14-17)

7. Avram Settles in Hebron (13:18)

D. War of the Kings (14:1-24)

1. War Among the Easterm Kings (14:1-3) [East of the Jordan River]

2. History of the Conflict (14:4-7)

3. Defeat of the Dead Sea Kings (14:8-10) [In the Valley of Siddim]

4. Lot Taken Captive (4:11-12) [At Sodom]

5. Avram Rescues Lot (14:13-17) [At Dan]

6. Melchizedek Blesses Avram (14:18-20) [Near Jerusalem]

7. Avram Refuses Reward (14:21-24) [Valley of Shaveh]

E. Details HaShem’s Covenant With Avram (15:1-21)

1. Avram’s Concern About an Heir (15:1-3)

2. HaShem Promises Avram Children (15:4-6)

3. Avram Asks for a Sign (15:7-8)

4. Preparation for the Covenant (15:9-11)

5. Prediction of Slavery (15:12-16)

6. HaShem’s Land Covenant (15:17-21)

F. Conception and Birth of Ishmael (16:1-16)

1. Sarai Suggests a Second Wife (16:1-2) [Hebron]

2. Avram Takes Hagar as Wife (16:3-4a)

3. Discord Between Wives (16:4b-6)

4. The Angel of ADONAI Talks With Hagar (16:7-12) [Near Beer-sheba]

5. Hagar Names the Angel (6:13-14)

6. Ishmael is Born (6:15-16)

G. Names and Circumcision as Signs of the Covenant (17:1-27)

1. Confirmation of the Covenant (17:1-2)

2. Avram’s Name Changed (17:3-7)

3. Land Covenant Renewed (17:8)

4. Circumcision as a Sign (17:9-14)

5. Sarai’s Name Changed (17:15-16)

6. Abraham Amazed (17:17)

7. Blessings for Ishmael (17:18-22)

8. Males Circumcised (17:23-27)

IV. Parashah 4: Vayera (He appeared) (Gen. 18:1-22:24)

A. Birth of Yitz’chak Promised (ADONAI Visits at Mamre)

1. Avraham’s Hospitality (18:1-8) [Mamre (Hebron)]

2. Yitz’chak Promised (18:9-10)

3. Sarah’s Response (18:11-15)

B. Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah (18:16-19:28)

1. HaShem Tells About Sodom (18:16-21) [Mamre (Hebron)]

2. Abraham Intercedes (18:22-33)

3. Lot’s Hospitality Toward Angels (19:1-3) [Sodom]

4. Sodomites Demand Angels (19:4-11)

5. Lot Warned of Destruction (19:12-14)

6. Lot Led from Sodom (19:15-17)

7. Lot Seeks Refuge in Zoar (19:18-23) [Zoar]

8. Sodom Destroyed (19:24-26)

9. Abraham Views the Destruction (19:27-28)

C. The Scheme of Lot’s Daughters (19:30-38)

1. Lot Settles in a Cave (19:30)

2. Daughters’ Incest (19:31-38)

D. Abraham Deceives Abimelech (20:1-18) [Gerar]

1. Abraham Lies to Abimelech (20:1-2)

2. HaShem Appears in a Dread (20:3-7)

3. Abraham Offers a Defense (20:8-13)

4. Abimelech Shows Forgiveness (20:14-16)

5. Prayer for Abimelech (20:17-18)

E. Birth of Yitz’chak (21:1-7)

1. Yitz’chak is Born (21:1-5)

2. Sarah’s Joy (21:6-7)

F. Expulsion of Hagar and Ishmael (21:8-21) [Beer-Sheba]

1. Ishmael and Hagar Sent Away (21:8-14)

2. HaShem Provides Water (21:15-19)

3. Ishmael Grows to Manhood (21:20-21)

G. Avraham and Abimelech Settle Their Dispute (21:22-34) [Beer-Sheba]

1. The Treaty Decided (21:22-26)

2. The Dispute Resolved (21:27-34)

H. The Binding of Yitz’chak

1. Avraham told to Sacrifice Yitz’chak (22:1-2) [Beer-Sheba]

2. Abraham Responds (22:3-8) [Moriah]

3. HaShem Provides a Ram (22:9-14)

4. Promise of Blessings (22:15-19) [Beer-Sheba]

I. News From Nahor (22:20-24)

V. Parashah 5: Hayyei-Sarah (Sarah’s Life) 23:1-25:18

A. Sarah’s Death and Burial (23:1-20)

1. Abraham Mourns Sarah’s Death (23:1-2)

2. Cave Purchased for a Tomb (23:3-18)

3. Sarah Buried (23:19-20)

B. A Wife for Yitz’chak (chapter 24)

1. Avraham Instructs his Servant (24:1-10)

2. Servant Prays for Guidance (24:11-14) [Nahor]

3. Servant Meets Rivkah (24:15-21)

4. Rivkah is Daughter of a Relative (24:22-27)

5. Lavan Offers Hospitality (24:28-32)

6. Servant Describes His Mission (24:33-41)

7. Servant Relates His Prayer (24:42-48)

8. Hethuel Agrees to the Marriage (24:49-51)

9. Rivkah Goes with the Servant (24:52-61)

10. Yitz’chak Marries Revkah (24:62-67) [Be'er Lahai Roi]

C. Abram Marries Keturah (25:1-6)

D. Death of Avraham (25:7-10)

E. Ishmael’s Descendants (25:12-18)

VI. Parashah 6: Tol'dot (History) (25:19-28:9)

A. Esau and Ya'akov (25:19-34)

1. Concern About Descendants (25:19-21)

2. Prophecy Regarding Children (25:22-23)

3. Esau and Ya'akov Born and Grow Up (25:24-28)

4. Esau Sells the Birthright (25:29-34)

B. Yitz’chak in Gerar (26:1-33)

1. Covenant Reaffirmed (26:1-5)

2. Yitz’chak Lies About Revkah (26:6-11)

3. HaShem Blesses Yitz’chak (26:12-14)

4. Quarrels Over Wells (26:15-22)

5. HaShem Reassures Yitz’chak (26:23-25)

6. Abimelech Covenants With Yitz’chak (26:26-33)

C. Trouble Between Ya'akov and Esau (26:34-27:41)

1. Easu Marries Heathen Wives (26:34-35)

2. Yitz’chak Prepares a Blessing (27:1-4)

3. Revkah and Ya'akov Conspire (27:5-17)

3. Ya'akov Deceives Yitz’chak (27:18-25)

4. Yitz’chak Blesses Ya'akov (27:26-29)

5. Esau Learns of the Deception (27:30-36a)

6. Esau Enraged (27:36b-41)

D. Ya'akov Prepares to Leave for Haran (27:42-28:9)

1. Revkah Plans Ya'akov’s Exile (27:42-45)

2. Yitz’chak Blesses the Mission (27:46-28:5)

3. Esau Takes a Wife for Spite (28:6-9)

VII. Parashah 7: Vayteze (He went out) (28:10-32:2)

A. Ya'akov’s Dream (28:10-17)

B. Ya'akov Erects a Standing Stone (28:18-22) [Beit-El]

C. Ya'akov in Haran (29:1-32:3)

1. Ya'akov Arrives in Haran (29:1-8)

2. Ya'akov Meets Rachel (29:9-15)

3. Ya'akov Works Seven Years for Rachel (29:16-20)

4. Marriage to Leah and then to Rachel a Week Later (29:21-30)

5. Twelve Children Born as He Works Seven More Years For Rachel (29:31-30:24)

6. Ya'akov’s Closing Days with Lavan (30:25-31:55)

a. Works Six More Years for Livestock (30:25-31:16)

b. Departure from Lavan (31:17-55)

(1) The Secret Departure (31:17-21)

(2) Lavan Pursues Ya'akov (31:22-24)

(3) Lavan Overtakes Ya'akov (31:25-29)

(4) The Search for the Teraphim (31:30-35)

(5) Ya'akov Recounts His Days with Lavan (31:36-42)

(6) The Covenant of Mizpah (31:43-55)

7. Angels at Machanayim (32:1-2)

VIII. Parashah 8: Vayishlach (He sent) 32:3 -36:43

A. Reunion with Esau

1. Ya'akov Fears Esau (32:3-23)

2. Ya'akov Wrestles with HaShem (32:24-26)

a. Ya'akov’s New Name (32:27-32)

3. Ya'akov Meets Esau (33:1-16)

B. Sojourn in Shechem (33:17-34:31)

1. Return to Shechem (33:17-20)

2. Dinah’s Defilement (34:1-5)

3. Hamor’s Proposal (34:6-12)

4. The Treachery of Ya'akov’s Sons (34:13-31)

C. Return to Beit-El (35:1-15)

1. God’s Instructions (35:1

2. Rid of Idols (35:2-4)

3. Events in Luz (35:5-15)

a. An Altar Erected; D’vorah Dies (35:6-8)

b. The Land Covenant Confirmed (35:9-15)

D. Binyamin Born in Efrat, Rachel Dies (35:16-20)

E. In Migdal-‘Eder (35:21-26)

1. Re’uven’s Incest With Bilhah (35:22)

2. The Sons of Yisra'el (35:23-26)

F. Ya‘akov Returns to Mamre; Yitz’chak Dies (35:27-29)

G. Edomites: Descendants of Esau (ch 36)

1. 'Esavְ’s Canaanite wives (36:1-5)

2. 'Esav Settles in Se‘ir (36:6-8)

3. The Tribes of the Edomites (36:9-43)

IX.Parashah 9: Vayeshev (“He continued living”) 37:1-40:23

A. Joseph’s Dreams (37:1⁠-⁠11)

B. Joseph Sold into Egypt (37:12⁠-⁠36)

C. Judah and Tamar (38:1⁠-⁠30)

D. Joseph in Egypt (39:1⁠-⁠41:57)

1. Joseph and Potiphar (39:1⁠-⁠23)

2. Joseph in Prison (40:1⁠-⁠23)

a. Yosef Prospers in Egypt (39:2-6)

b. Yosef and Potifar’s Wife (39:7-19)

c. Yosef Falsely Imprisoned (39:20-23)

d. Pharoah’s Cupbearer and Baker Imprisoned (40:1-4)

e. The Prisoners’s Dreams (40:5-8a)

f. Yosef Interprets Their Dreams  (40:8b-19)

(1) The Cupbearer’s Dream (40:9-15)

(2) The Baker’s Dream (40:16-19)

g. The Interpretations Fulfilled (40:20-23)

X. Parashah 10: Mikketz (“At the End”) 41:1-44:17

A. Pharaoh’s Dreams (41:1-36)

B. The Chief Cupbearer remembers Yosef (41:9-15)

C. Yosef Interprets Pharaoh’s Dreams (41:16-32)

D. Pharaoh’s Plan (41:33-36)

E. Joseph Made Viceroy Over Egypt (41:37-46)

F. Years of Plenty Begin (41:47-49)

G. Yosef’s Sons Born (41:50-52)

H. Years of Plenty End; Famine Begins (41:53-57)

I. Joseph’s Reunion with His Brothers (42:1-45:28)

1. The Brothers Go Down to Egypt (42:1-7)

2. Yosef Recognizes His Brothers, Challenges Them (42:8-17)

3. The Brothers Sent Home; Shimon Held Hostage (42:18-28)

4. The Brotuers Arrive at Home (42:19-38)

5. Benjamin Goes Down to Egypt (43:1-44:17)

a. Planning for the Trip (43:1-14)

b. Arrival in Egypt (43:15-25)

c. Lunch with Yosef (43:26-32)

d. Preparing to Return (44:1-2)

e. Entrapment! (44:3-17)

XI. Parashah 11: Vayigash (“He approached”) 44:18-47:27

A. Judah Pleads for Benjamin (44:18-34)

B. Joseph Reveals His Identity (45:1-15)

C. Joseph Sends for Jacob (45:16-28)

D. The Nation of Israel Goes Down to Egypt (46:1-50:26)

1. Jacob Goes Down to Egypt (46:1-27)

a. Elohim Speaks to Isra'el (46:2-7)

b. The Seventy Isra'el Who Went Into Egypt (46:8-27)

2. Israel Settles in Goshen (46:28-47:27)

XII. Parashah 12: Vayechi (“He lived”) 47:28-50:26

A. Ya'akov Lives in Egypt (47:28-31)

B. Jacob Blesses Ephraim and Manasseh (48:1-22)

C. Jacob Blesses His Sons (49:1-28)

D. The Death and Burial of Jacob (49:29-50:14)

E. The Death of Joseph (50:15-26)


Genesis and the Ancient Near East (ft. @DRMSH)
[Please note that this is a 5-hour video that was recorded
over a 4-week period. You do not need to knock yourself
out trying to watch it in one sitting.]


  1. It might also be said that the entire Bible is the special history of God’s dealings with one man, his ancestors, and his physical and spiritual descendants. [BACK]

  2. Edited from “Who Wrote the Book of Genesis?” at Zondervan Academic, accessed 13 Dec 2021. [BACK]

 3. “… 300 words found in the KJV no longer bear the same meaning — e.g., ‘Suffer little children … to come unto me’ (Matt 19:14). ‘Study to shew thyself approved unto God’ (2 Tim 2:15). Should we really embrace a Bible as the best translation when it uses language that not only is not clearly understood any more, but in fact has been at times perverted and twisted?” ( accessed 08/28/22) See also “Some of the Reasons I do not Trust The King James Translation” and “List of archaic words in the KJV and their modern equivalents.” [BACK]

Page revised on Sunday, 12 April 2020
“Authorship of the Torah” added 13 December 2021
Revised Sunday, 28 August 2022
Dr. Heiser video added Monday, 17 July 2023

Page last updated on Monday, 02 October 2023 12:52 PM
(Updates are generally minor formatting or editorial changes.
Major content changes are identified as "Revisions”)

Anxiously awaiting Mashiach’s return
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