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Messianic Learning

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“… out of Tziyon will go forth Torah, the word of ADONAI from Yerushalayim.”
(Isaiah 2:3)

The summary of the entire Torah is as simple as this:
Love what HaShem loves; hate what HaShem hates. All else is commentary.

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Please read the Introductory Notes to this commentary.

Maps, when used, are are from Created using BibleMapper 3.0.
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Source of Dates Used

וַיִּקְרָא • V'yikra
(“And He Called”)
The Third Book of Moses,
Commonly Called


Parashah 26: Sh'mini
“Eighth” (continued)

~ 11 ~

3. Uncleanness and Purification (11:1–15:33)

a. Clean and Unclean Animals (11:1–47)

(vi) Yehovah spoke to Moshe and to Aharon, saying to them, “Speak to the children of Isra'el, saying, ‘These are the living things which you may eat among all the animals that are on the earth. Whatever parts the hoof, and is cloven-footed, and chews the cud among the animals, that you may eat.[3]

“‘Nevertheless these you shall not eat of those that chew the cud, or of those who part the hoof: the camel, because it chews the cud but doesn’t have a parted hoof, is unclean to you. The hyrax,* or rock badger, or cony because it chews the cud but doesn’t have a parted hoof, is unclean to you. The hare, because it chews the cud but doesn’t have a parted hoof, is unclean to you. The pig, because it has a split hoof, and is cloven-footed, but doesn’t chew the cud, is unclean to you. You shall not eat their meat. You shall not touch their carcasses. They are unclean to you.

“‘You may eat of all these that are in the waters: whatever has fins and scales in the waters, in the seas, and in the rivers, that you may eat. 10 All that don’t have fins and scales in the seas and rivers, all that move in the waters, and all the living creatures that are in the waters, they are an abomination to you, 11 and you shall detest them. You shall not eat of their meat, and you shall detest their carcasses. 12 Whatever has no fins nor scales in the waters is an abomination to you.

13 “‘You shall detest these among the birds; they shall not be eaten because they are an abomination: the eagle, the vulture, the black vulture, 14 the red kite, any kind of black kite, 15 any kind of raven, 16 the horned owl, the screech owl, the gull, any kind of hawk, 17 the little owl, the cormorant, the great owl, 18 the white owl, the desert owl, the osprey, 19 the stork, any kind of heron, the hoopoe, and the bat.

20 “‘All flying insects that walk on all fours are an abomination to you. 21 Yet you may eat these: of all winged creeping things that go on all fours, which have long, jointed legs for hopping on the earth. 22 Even of these you may eat: any kind of locust, any kind of katydid, any kind of cricket, and any kind of grasshopper. 23 But all winged creeping things which have four feet are an abomination to you.

24 “‘By these you will become unclean: whoever touches their carcass shall be unclean until the evening. 25 Whoever carries any part of their carcass shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the evening.

26 “‘Every animal which has a split hoof that isn’t completely divided, or doesn’t chew the cud, is unclean to you. Everyone who touches them shall be unclean. 27 Whatever goes on its paws, among all animals that go on all fours, they are unclean to you. Whoever touches their carcass shall be unclean until the evening. 28 He who carries their carcass shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the evening. They are unclean to you.

29 “‘These are they which are unclean to you among the creeping things that creep on the earth: the weasel, the rat, any kind of great lizard, 30 the gecko, and the monitor lizard, the wall lizard, the skink, and the chameleon. 31 These are they which are unclean to you among all that creep. Whoever touches them when they are dead shall be unclean until the evening. 32 Anything they fall on when they are dead shall be unclean; whether it is any vessel of wood, or clothing, or skin, or sack, whatever vessel it is, with which any work is done, it must be put into water, and it shall be unclean until the evening. Then it will be clean.


(vii) 33 Every earthen vessel into which any of them falls and all that is in it shall be unclean. You shall break it. 34 All food which may be eaten which is soaked in water shall be unclean. All drink that may be drunk in every such vessel shall be unclean. 35 Everything whereupon part of their carcass falls shall be unclean; whether oven, or range for pots, it shall be broken in pieces. They are unclean, and shall be unclean to you. 36 Nevertheless a spring or a cistern in which water is gathered shall be clean, but that which touches their carcass shall be unclean. 37 If part of their carcass falls on any sowing seed which is to be sown, it is clean. 38 But if water is put on the seed, and part of their carcass falls on it, it is unclean to you.

39 “‘If any animal of which you may eat dies, he who touches its carcass shall be unclean until the evening. 40 He who eats of its carcass shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the evening. He also who carries its carcass shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the evening.

41 “‘Every creeping thing that creeps on the earth is an abomination. It shall not be eaten. 42 Whatever goes on its belly, and whatever goes on all fours, or whatever has many feet, even all creeping things that creep on the earth, them you shall not eat; for they are an abomination. 43 You shall not make yourselves abominable with any creeping thing that creeps. You shall not make yourselves unclean with them, that you should be defiled by them. 44 For I am Yehovah your God. Sanctify yourselves therefore, and be holy; for I am holy. You shall not defile yourselves with any kind of creeping thing that moves on the earth.


Maftir 45 For I am Yehovah who brought you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God. You shall therefore be holy, for I am holy.

46 “‘This is the law of the animal, and of the bird, and of every living creature that moves in the waters, and of every creature that creeps on the earth, 47 to make a distinction between the unclean and the clean, and between the living thing that may be eaten and the living thing that may not be eaten.’”


The Blessing After Torah

Ba-rookh ah-tah Adonai, eh-lo-hay-noo
meh-lech hah-oh­lahm,
ah-sher nah-tahn la-noo toe-raht eh-met,
v’cha-yaye oh-lahm nah-tah b’toe-chay-noo.
Ba-rookh ah-tah Adonai,  no-tain ha-to-rah.

Blessed are you, O Lord our God,
King of the Universe,
Who has given us a Torah of truth,
and has planted eternal life in our midst.
Blessed are You, O Lord, Giver of the Torah.

Click here to listen to this sung by
Cantor Kenneth B. Cohen of
Temple Sholom, Greenwich, CT


The Blessing of the Haftarah

Ba-rookh, ah-tah Adonai, eh-lo-hay-noo,
meh-lekh hah-oh­lahm,
ah-sher ba-khar been-vee-eem toe-veem,
v’rah-tzah b’deev­ray-hem,
ha-neh-eh-ma-reem, beh-eh-meht.

Ba-rookh ah-tah, Adonai,
ha-bo-char ba-to-rah,
oo-v’Mo-sheh ahv-doe, oo-v'yees­ra-ale ah-mo,
oo-veen-vee-aye hah-eh-met, vah-tzeh-dek.

Blessed are you, O Lord our God,
King of the Universe,
Who selected good prophets,
and was pleased with their words
which were spoken truthfully.

Blessed are You, O Lord,
Who chooses the Torah,
Your servant Moses, Your people Israel,
and prophets of truth and righteousness.

Click here to listen to this sung by
an unknown male soloist from
Temple Mount Sinai in El Paso, TX.

The Haftarah for this Portion is Shmuel Bet (2Sam) 6:1-7:17 (A); 6:1-19 (S)

6: David again gathered together all the chosen men of Isra'el, thirty thousand. David arose and went with all the people who were with him from Baale Judah, to bring up from there God’s ark, which is called by the Name, even the name of Yehovah-Tzva'otof Hosts or Armies who sits above the cherubim. They set God’s ark on a new cart, and brought it out of Abinadab’s house that was on the hill; and Uzzah and Ahio, the sons of Abinadab, drove the new cart. They brought it out of Abinadab’s house which was in the hill, with God’s ark; and Ahio went before the ark. David and all the house of Isra'el played before Yehovah with all kinds of instruments made of cypress wood, with harps, with stringed instruments, with tambourines, with castanets, and with cymbals.

When they came to the threshing floor of Nacon, Uzzah reached for God’s ark and took hold of it, for the cattle stumbled. Yehovah’s anger burned against Uzzah, and God struck him there for his error; and he died there by God’s ark. David was displeased because Yehovah had broken out against Uzzah; and he called that place Perez Uzzah[8] to this day. David was afraid of Yehovah that day; and he said, “How could Yehovah’s ark come to me?” 10 So David would not move Yehovah’s ark to be with him in David’s city; but David carried it aside into Obed-Edom the Gittite’s house. 11 Yehovah’s ark remained in Obed-Edom the Gittite’s house three months; and Yehovah blessed Obed-Edom and all his house. 12 King David was told, “Yehovah has blessed the house of Obed-Edom, and all that belongs to him, because of God’s ark.”

So David went and brought up God’s ark from the house of Obed-Edom into David’s city with joy. 13 When those who bore Yehovah’s ark had gone six paces, he sacrificed an ox and a fattened calf. 14 David danced before Yehovah with all his might; and David was clothed in a linen ephod. 15 So David and all the house of Isra'el brought up Yehovah’s ark with shouting and with the sound of the shofar.

16 As Yehovah’s ark came into David’s city, Michal the daughter of Sha'ul looked out through the window and saw king David leaping and dancing before Yehovah; and she despised him in her heart. 17 They brought in Yehovah’s ark, and set it in its place in the middle of the tent that David had pitched for it; and David offered elevation-offerings and peace offerings before Yehovah. 18 When David had finished offering the elevation-offering and the peace offerings, he blessed the people in the name of Yehovah-Tzva'ot. 19 He gave to all the people, even among the whole multitude of Isra'el, both to men and women, to everyone a portion of bread, dates, and raisins. So all the people departed, each to his own house.


20 Then David returned to bless his household. Michal the daughter of Sha'ul came out to meet David, and said, “How glorious the king of Isra'el was today, who uncovered himself today in the eyes of his servants’ maids, as one of the vain fellows shamelessly uncovers himself!”

21 David said to Michal, “It was before Yehovah, who chose me above your father, and above all his house, to appoint me prince over the people of Yehovah, over Isra'el. Therefore I will celebrate before Yehovah. 22 I will be yet more undignified than this, and will be worthless in my own sight. But the maids of whom you have spoken will honor me.”

23 Michal the daughter of Sha'ul had no child to the day of her death.

7: When the king lived in his house, and Yehovah had given him rest from all his enemies all around, the king said to Natan the prophet, “See now, I dwell in a house of cedar, but God’s ark dwells within curtains.”

Natan said to the king, “Go, do all that is in your heart, for Yehovah is with you.”

That same night, the word of Yehovah came to Natan, saying, “Go and tell my servant David, ‘Yehovah says, “Should you build me a house for me to dwell in? For I have not lived in a house since the day that I brought the children of Isra'el up out of Egypt, even to this day, but have moved around in a tent and in a tabernacle. In all places in which I have walked with all the children of Isra'el, did I say a word to anyone from the tribes of Isra'el whom I commanded to be shepherd of my people Isra'el, saying, ‘Why have you not built me a house of cedar?’” ’ Now therefore tell my servant David this: ‘Yehovah-Tzva'otof Hosts or Armies says, “I took you from the sheep pen, from following the sheep, to be prince over my people, over Isra'el. I have been with you wherever you went, and have cut off all your enemies from before you. I will make you a great name, like the name of the great ones who are in the earth. 10 I will appoint a place for my people Isra'el, and will plant them, that they may dwell in their own place and be moved no more. The children of wickedness will not afflict them any more, as at the first, 11 and as from the day that I commanded judges to be over my people Isra'el. I will cause you to rest from all your enemies. Moreover Yehovah tells you that Yehovah will make you a house. 12 When your days are fulfilled and you sleep with your fathers, I will set up your offspring after you, who will proceed out of your body, and I will establish his kingdom. 13 He will build a house for my name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. 14 I will be his father, and he will be my son. If he commits iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men and with the stripes of the children of men; 15 but my loving kindness will not depart from him, as I took it from Sha'ul, whom I put away before you. 16 Your house and your kingdom will be made sure forever before you. Your throne will be established forever.”’” 17 Natan spoke to David all these words, and according to all this vision.


Ketuvei HaShalichim (Apostolic Writings)

The Blessing of the Ketuvei HaShalichim

Bah-rookh ah-tah Adonai, Eh-lo-hay-noo
meh-lekh hah-oh­lahm,
ah-shehr nah-tahn la-noo mah-she-ahch Yeshua,
v’ha-deeb­rote shell Ha-breet Ha-kha-da-shah,
ba-rookh ah-ta Adonai,
no­tain Hah-breet Hah-kha-da-shah.

Blessed are You, O Lord our God,
King of the Universe,
Who has given us Messiah Yeshua
and the commandments of the New Covenant.
Blessed are You, O Lord,
Giver of the New Covenant.


Basar (Gospel)

The Gospel reading is Mattityahu (Matt.) 3:11–17
and Mordichai (Mark) 7:1-23

Mt. 3: 11“I am immersing you in water so that you might turn from sin back to God; but the One Who is coming after me is more powerful than I am; I am not even worthy to carry His shoes. He will immerse you in The Holy Spirit Ruach HaKodesh and fire. 12He has His winnowing fork with him, and He will thoroughly clear out His threshing floor, and will gather His wheat into the barn, but will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire.”

13Then Yeshua came from the Galilee RegionGalil to the Yardan to Yochanan, to be immersed by him. 14But Yochanan would have hindered Him and said, “I need to be immersed by You, and You come to me?”

15But Yeshua answered him, “You need to allow this, because this is the fitting way for us to fulfill all righteousness.” Then he allowed Him. 16Yeshua, when He was immersed, went up directly from the water, and — imagine it! — the heavens were opened to Him. He saw the RuachSpirit of God descending as a dove, and coming on Him. 17Hinneh,[GN] a voice out of the heavens said, “This is My beloved Son, with Whom I am well pleased.

Mk. 7: 1Then the P'rushimPharisees and some of the SofrimScribes, Torah Reachers who had come from YerushalayimJerusalem gathered around Him. 2They saw some of His talmidimdisciples eating bread with hands that were “unclean” — that is, “unwashed.” 3(Following the Takanot[GN] of the elders, the P'rushim, in fact all the Y'hudimJudeans, Jewish leaders, don’t eat unless they ritually wash their hands and forearms. 4When they come home from the marketplace they don’t eat until they have immersed themselves. And there are many other customs which they have received and observe, like the ceremonial immersion of cups, pitchers, bronze vessels, and dining couches.) 5The P'rushim and the Sofrim asked Yeshua, “Why don’t your talmidim walk according to the Takanot of the elders instead of eating their food with [ceremonially] unclean hands?”

6Yeshua answered, Yesha'yahuIsaiah prophesied correctly about you hypocrites, as it is written,

‘These people honor Me with their lips,
but their hearts are far from me.
7They worship Me in vain,
teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.’[Isa. 29:13]

8“For you disregard the commandments of God, and cling tightly to the Takanot of men.” 9He went on, “Full well do you reject the commandment of God, that you may keep your Takanot. 10For Moses said, ‘Honor your father and your mother;’ [Exod. 20:12; Deut. 5:16] and, ‘He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.’ [Exod. 21:17; Lev. 20:9] 11But you say, ‘If a man tells his father or his mother, “Whatever benefit you might have received from me is Corban,”’” (that is to say, devoted to God[GN]) 12“then you no longer allow him to do anything for his father or his mother, 13nullifying the word of God by your Takanot which you have handed down. You do many things like this.”

14He called the crowd to Himself and said to them, “Hear me, all of you, and understand. 15Nothing that goes into a person from outside can defile him; but the things which come out of a person are the things that defile him. 16If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear!”

17When He had entered a house away from the crowd, his talmidim asked Him about the parable. 18He answered them, “Are you also without understanding? Don’t you realize that whatever goes into the man from outside can’t defile him? 19Because it doesn’t go into his heart, but into his stomach, then into the latrine?” (Thus He explained that all “food” is ritually clean.)[19]

20Then He said, “Which comes out of a person — that defiles him. 21For from within, out of people’s innermost being, come wicked thoughts, sexual immorality, theft, murder, adultery, 22greed, malice, deceit, indecency, envy, slander, arrogance, foolishness. 23All these evil things come from within and defile the person.”


Kepherim (Letters, optional)

The optinal reading from the Kepherim is
P’yilut HaShaliachim (Acts) 5:1-11; 10:1-35;
Korintim Bet (2Cor.) 6:14-7:1;
Galitim (Gal.) 2:11-16; and
Kefa Aleph (1Pet.) 1:14-16


Acts 5: 1Now a man named HananiahAnanias, with his wife ShappirahSapphira, sold a piece property. 2With his wife’s knowledge, he kept some of the proceeds [for themselves], but brought some of it to the Sh'liachimEmissaries, Aostles. 3KefaPeter said, “Hananiah, why has HaSatanthe Adversary, Satan convinced you to lie to Ruach HaKodeshthe Holy Spirit, and to keep back part of the price of the land? 4While you owned it, wasn’t it your own? After you sold it, wasn’t the money still yours to use however you wanted? How could have chosen to do such a thing? You haven’t lied to men, but to God.”

5Upon hearing these words, Hananiah fell down and died, and everyone who heard about it was terrified. 6The young men got up, wrapped up his body, carried him out, and buried him. 7About three hours later, unaware of what had happened, his wife came in. 8Kefa asked her, “Tell me, did you sell the land for this price?”

She said, “Yes, for that price.”

9Kefa asked her, “How is it that the two of you have conspired to test the Spirit of the Lord? Hinneh,[GN] the men who just buried your husband are at the door now, and they will carry you out, too.”

10She immediately collapsed at his feet and died. The young men came in and found her dead, and they carried her out and buried her next to her husband. 11This resulted in great fear coming upon the whole Messianic Community[GN], as well upon everyone else who heard about it.

10: 1In Caesarea there was a man named Cornelius, a Centurion of the Roman “Italian Regiment.” 2He was a devout God-fearer[GN], as was his entire household. He generously contributed to the needs of the people, and prayed to God regularly. 3One day at about the ninth hour,[GN] he clearly saw in a vision an angel of God coming to him and saying, “Cornelius!”

4Frightened, he gazed at the angel and asked him, “What is it, Sir?”

The angel answered, “Your prayers and your gifts to the needy have ascended as a memorial offering before God. 5Now send some men to Joppa, MAP] and get Shim'onSimon KefaPeter. 6He’s staying with Shim'on the tanner at his house by the seaside.

7After the angel who spoke to him had left, Cornelius called two of his household servants and a devout soldier from his regiment. 8After explaining everything to them, he sent them to Joppa.

 9The next day as they were coming close to the city on their journey, Kefa went up on the housetop to pray at about the sixth hour.[GN] 10He got hungry and wanted something eat; while they were preparing his meal, he fell into a trance. 11He saw heaven opened and somethiing like a huge sheet being let to the earth down by its four corners. 12It contained every kind of four-footed animal and reptile of the earth and bird of the air. 13Then a voice spoke to him, “Get up, Kefa, kill and eat!”

14But Kefa said, “Oh, no, Lord! I have never eaten anything that is common or unclean.”[14]

15The voice spoke to him a second time, “What God has purified, you must not call unclean.”[15] 16This was done three times, then suddenly the sheet was taken back up into heaven.

17Now while Kefa was very perplexed about what the vision he had seen might mean, the men whom Cornelius had sent, having asked for directions to Shim'on’s house, stood outside the gate. 18They called out and asked whether Shim'on Kefa was staying there. 19While Kefa was considering the vision, the Ruach said to him, “Hinneh,[GN] three men are asking for you. 20Get up, go downstairs, and go with them; don’t doubt anything, because I have sent them [to get you].

21Kefa went down to the men and said, “Hinneh, I’m the man you’re looking for. Why have you come?”

22They said, “Centurian Cornelius, a God-fearing tzaddik[GN] with an excellent reputation among the Jewish people, was directed by a holy angel to invite you to his house, and to listen to what you have to say.” 23So he invited them in and put them up for the night.

The next day Kefa got up and set out with them, with some of the brothers from Joppa going with him.

24The next day they arrived at Caesarea. Cornelius was waiting for them, having invited his relatives and close friends to join them. 25When Kefa entered the house, Cornelius met him, fell down at his feet, and began to worship him. 26But Kefa stood him up and said, I’m just a man like you.” 27While they were talking, they went into the house and saw everyone gathered there. 28Kefa told them, “You know it isn’t lawful for a Y'hudiJew to associate with anyone of another nationality or to visit him. But God has shown me that I shouldn’t call any man unholy or unclean. 29So I didn’t complain when I accepted your invitation. But I need to ask you why you sent for me.”

30Cornelius answered, “Four days ago I at this time of day, I was praying in my house at the ninth hour and hinneh, there was a man standing in front of me dressed in bright clothing, 31and he said, ‘Cornelius, your prayer has been heard, and your gifts to the needy have been remembered by God. 32So send to Joppa for Shim'on Kefa. He is a guest in the home of Shim'on the tanner by the seaside. When he comes, he will speak to you.’ 33So I immediately sent for you, and it was good of you to come. So we’ve gathered here in the sight of God to hear everything that God has commanded you.”

34Kefa began to speak, “I now truly understand that God doesn’t show favoritism; 35but in every nation anyone who fears Him and lives righteously is acceptable to Him.

2Cor. 6: 14 Don’t be unequally yoked with unbelievers, for what fellowship do righteousness and iniquity have? Or what fellowship does light have with darkness? 15 What agreement does Messiah have with Belial? Or what portion does a believer have with an unbeliever? 16 What agreement does a temple of God have with idols? For you are a temple of the living God. Even as God said, “I will dwell in them and walk in them. I will be their God and they will be my people.” [Lev. 26:12; Jer. 32:38; Ezek. 37:27 17 Therefore

“‘Come out from among them,

and be separate,’ says the Lord.

‘Touch no unclean thing.

I will receive you. [Isa. 52:11; Ezek. 20:34,41]

18 I will be to you a Father.

You will be to me sons and daughters,’

says the Lord Almighty.”[2Sam. 7:14; 7:8]

7: Having therefore these promises, beloved, let’s cleanse ourselves from all defilement of flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God.

Gal. 2: 11But when Kefa came to Antioch, I confronted him publicly because he was clearly wrong. 12For before some people came from Ya'akov’s community, he had been eating with the Messianic Goyim. But when they came, he withdrew and separated himself, because he was afraid of the circumcision party.[12] 13And the rest of the Jewish believers joined him in his hypocrisy; so that even Bar-Nabba was carried away with their hypocrisy.[13] 14But when I saw that their walk didn’t square with the truth of the Good News, I said to Kefa in front of everybody, “If you, a Jew, live like the [Messianic] Goyim and not like the Jews, how can you compel the [Messianic] Goyim to live like Jews?

15“We are Jews by birth, not [so-called] ‘Goyish sinners.’[15] 16Even so, we realize that a person is not declared righteous by God through the “works [outward identifying signs] of Torah,”[GN] but rather through the Messiah’s trusting faithfulness.[16]

1Pet. 1: 14 As obedient children, do not conform to the passions of your former ignorance. 15 Rather, just as He Who called you is holy, so you yourselves be holy in all you do, 16 because it is written, “You shall be holy, for I am holy.” [Lev. 11:44-45]

The Blessing of the Messiah

Ba-rookh ah-tah Adonai Eh-lo-hay-noo,
meh-lekh hah-oh-lahm,
ah-sher keed-sha-noo beed-va-reh-khah
v'na-tahn la-noo et Yeshuah M'shee-khay-noo,
v'tzee-va-noo l'he-oat oar lah-oh-lahm.

Blessed are You, O Lord our God,
King of the Universe,
Who has sanctified us in Your Word,
and given us Yeshua, our Messiah,
and commanded us to be a light to the world.


Chapter 12 | Parashah Tazria

 3. See “Clean vs. Unclean Animals.” It would seem that modern medical science has proven that HaShem knew what He was talking about when He declared certain animals “unclean.” See also “Pig and Pork Facts.” Those who say “Christ abolished the law condemning pork” are motivated by their stomach, not Scripture. These facts about pork may change your mind. [BACK]

Notes on the Mark passage

19. “All food” is not the same as “everything.” Only “clean” animals (Lev. 11:1-42) are “food.” Pork, shellfish, camel, etc. are simply not “food.” For an extended discussion see “Clean vs. Unclean Animals.” It is critically important to understand that Yeshua never set aside even the smallest provision (“jot ot tittle”) of Torah. Had he done so, He would have been in violation of Torah, which is the very definition of sin (1Jn. 3:4), and He would have been immediately disqualified as Messiah! In fact, one of the main reasons that many Jews have difficulty accepting Him as Messiah is the Church’s insistance that He abolished the Torah!! [BACK]

Notes on the Galatians passage

12. The Circumcision Party were those who felt very strongly that Goyim who came to faith in Messiah must first formally convert to Judaism (“become circumcised”) before they could be saved and become members of the Messianic Community. They were, in fact, primarily Goyim themselves who had undergone formal conversion before the ruling of the Jerusalem Council, and they felt that if they had to convert, so should every other Gentile. It wasn't really a matter of belief, but of jealousy. [BACK]

13. Just in case it is not clear what was going on here, according to Rabbinic Jewish halakhah, Jews simply did not associate with non-Jews, period. Kefa [Peter] was the first to bear witness to the first GoyGentile to come to faith in Yeshua as Messiah, Cornelius. Kefa was a member of the Jerusalem Council that had established the new conditions for “table fellowship” between Jewish and non-Jewish Messianic Believers. Kefa was among the Elders who commissioned Sha'ul as Emissary to the Goyim. He positively knew better. He had regular fellowship with the Messianic Goyim until the “troublemakers” came down from Jerusalem. Afraid of what they would think of him, Kefa turned his back on the Messianic Goyim and pretended to agree with the “troublemakers.” And the rest of the Messianic Jews in the Antioch community, even Bar-Nabba, got swept up into this hypocrisy. [BACK]

15. To the Jewish mind, anyone who didn’t keep Torah exactly as they did was “a sinner.” So, of course everyone had a different idea of exactly what being “a sinner” constituted. One thing they could all agree on was that Gentile pagans were definitely “sinners.” The fact that they had come to faith in the Jewish Messiah didn’t make any difference at all. Until they went through the formal process of becoming Jewish, they were still “sinners.” [BACK]

16. Virtually every English translation renders this phrase as “through faith in Jesus Christ” (or “Christ Jesus”). However, the accepted Greek text says pistiwß Cristou, “faith of [possessive] Christ”; that is Messiah’s faith, the faith that Messiah possesses. [BACK]

Notes on the Acts passage

14. HaShem has provided a list of foods that are “unclean” for human consumption, that is, not “food” for mankind in Leviticus 11. Before you say, “but that is just for the Jews, and ‘Jesus’ set aside the Torah,” may I remind you that Noach knew the difference between “clean” and “unclean” animals (Gen. 7:1-3), and he lived a thousand years before the first Jew walked the earth. And, as amazing as it may sound, science agrees with HaShem. Read that article HERE. [BACK]

15. The Church almost universally teaches that this verse means that HaShem has changed His mind about what He does and does not want us to eat. However, HaShem doesn’t change His mind (Mal. 3:6), and Kefa himself explains (Acts 10:28) that this vision has nothing to do with food, but with the acceptance of Gentiles into the Kingdom of God. [BACK]


Other commentaries on Leviticus 11
Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers
Pulpit Commentary
Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary
Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible

Page originally posted on Thursday, 3 March 2023

Page last updated on Tuesday, 25 April 2023 10:50 AM
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Anxiously awaiting Mashiach’s return

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