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“… out of Tziyon will go forth Torah, the word of ADONAI from Yerushalayim.”
(Isaiah 2:3)

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Weekly Parashot

Unless otherwise indicated, the text used for my commentary and related parashot is my own paraphrase based primarily on The World Messianic Bible (which is in the Public Domain) with constant reference to the original Hebrew and Greek texts, as well as other reliable English versions.

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פָּרָשָׁה בְּרֵאשִׁית

Parashah B'resheet
“In the beginning”
Genesis 1:1-6:8

Jewish Man Reading Torah Scroll

This week's commentary from First Fruits of Zion (Messianic)
This week's commentary from (Rabbinical)
This week’s commentary from (Christian)

This Week’s Reading Schedule

   Rishon [1st]: 1:1-2:3
   Sheni [2nd]: 2:4-19

   Shlishi [3rd]: 2:20-3:21
   R'vi'i [4th]: 3:22-4:18

   Chamishi [5th]: 4:19-26
   Shishi [6th]: 5:1-24

   Shvi'i [7th]: 5:25-6:4
   Maftir [Concluding]: 6:5-8

   Haftarah: Selections[GN]
   Yesha'yahu 60:1-22


   Ketuvei HaShalichim
   (Apostolic Writings)
      Basar: (Gospel)
         Yochanan 1:1-18
      Kepherim: (Letters)
         Romim 5:12-21
         Korintim Alef 6:15-20; 15:35-58
         Efesos 5:21-32
         Kolosim 1:14-17
         Timotiyos Alef 2:11-15
         Ivrim 1:1-13; 3:7-4:11; 11:1-7
         Kefa Bet 3:3-14
         Hitgalut 21:1-5; 22:1-5



The Blessing of the Torah

Click here to listen to this canted by
Cantor Kenneth B. Cohen
of Temple Sholom, Greenwich, CT.
Aliya: (the one who “goes up” to read)  
   Bar-khu et Adonai ham-vor-ack.
   (Praise ADONAI Who is worthy to be praised.)
   Ba-rookh Adonai ham-vor-ack ley-oh-lam

   (Praise ADONAI Who is worthy to be praised for
     all eternity.)
   Ba-rookh Adonai ham-vor-ack ley-oh-lam

   (Praise ADONAI Who is worthy to be praised for
     all eternity.)
Ba-rookh ah-tah Adonai, Eh-lo-hay-noo
meh-lekh hah oh-lahm,
ah-sher ba-char ba-noo me-kol ha-ah­meem,
v’na-tahn lah-noo et torah-toe,
ba-rookh ah-tah Adonai, no-tane hah-torah.

Blessed are You, O Lord our God,
King of the Universe,
Who has chosen us from all peoples
and given us His Torah.
Blessed are You, O Lord, Giver of the Torah.

B'resheet (Genesis) 1:1-6:8
[Listen to B'resheet]


A. The Pre-existent Moshiach: John 1:1-2

B. Creation (1-31)

1. Declaration: Psalm 90:2

2. Origin of Creation (v 1)

Rishon [1st]: 1 1In the beginning,[1a] Elohim[GN] created[1b] the heavens[GN] and the earth.

3. Satan Cast out of Heaven: Isaiah 14:12-18; Ezekiel 28:13-18

4. Judgment of Creation (v 2a) (Jeremiah 4:23-25)

2The earth was[2a] formless and empty.[2b] Darkness was on the surface of the deep.

5. Creation for Habitation: Isaiah 45:18; Genesis 2:4

I. From the Creation to the Flood [3975-2319 BCE][GN]

A. Creation

1. The  Six Day of Creation

a. First Day (2b-5) [Sun Mar 27, 3976 BCE]

The Spirit[2c] of Elohim was hovering[2d] over the surface of the waters.

3Elohim said, “Let there be light,” and there was light.[3] 4Seeing that the light was good, Elohim separated the light from the darkness. 5Elohim called the light “day,” and the darkness he called “night.” There was evening and there was morning, day one.[5]

b. Second Day (6-8) [Mon Mar 28, 3976 BCE]

6Elohim said, “Let there be an expanse[6] between the waters to separate the waters from the waters.” 7Elohim made the expanse, and separated the waters which were beneath it from the waters which were above it; and it was so. 8Elohim called the expanse “sky.”[8] There was evening and there was morning, a second day.

c. Third Day (9-13) [Tue Mar 29, 3976 BCE]

9Elohim said, “Let the waters under the sky be gathered together into one place, so that the the dry land may appear;” and it was so. 10Elohim called the dry land “earth,” and the collection of waters he called “seas.” Elohim saw that it was good. 11Elohim said, “Let the earth sprout vegitation[11a], seed-bearing herbs[11b], and fruit trees, each bearing fruit with seed according to its kind”[11c]” and it was so. 12The earth produced vegitation and seed-bearing plants according to their kind, and trees bearing fruit with seed according to their kind; and Elohim saw that it was good. 13There was evening and there was morning, a third day.

d. Fourth Day (14-19) [Wed Mar 30, 3976 BCE]

(A: ii) 14Elohim said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to distinguish between day and night, and to mark seasons, days, and years;[14] 15and let them serve as lights in the expanse of the sky to shine upon the earth;” and it was so. 16Elohim made two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night. He also made the stars. 17Elohim set them in the expanse of the sky to shine upon the earth, 18and to rule over the day and over the night, and to separate the light from the darkness. Elohim saw that it was good. 19There was evening and there was morning, a fourth day.

e. Fifth Day (20-32) [Thur Mar 31, 3976 BCE]

20Elohim said, “Let the waters teem with living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth in the open expanse of the sky.” 21So Elohim created the large sea creatures and every living creature that moves, with which the waters teemed, according to their kind, and every winged bird after its kind. Elohim saw that it was good. 22Elohim blessed them, saying, “Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters of the seas, and let birds multiply on the earth.” 23There was evening and there was morning, a firth day.

e. Sixth Day (24-31) [Fri Apr 1, 3976 BCE]

(A: iii) 24Elohim said, “Let the earth produce living creatures according to their kind, livestock, creeping things, and wild animals of the earth accordiing to their kind;” and it was so. 25Elohim made the animals of the earth according to their kind, and the livestock according to their kind, and everything that creeps on the ground according to its kind. Elohim saw that it was good.

26Elohim said, “Let’s make humans in Our image, after Our likeness,[26] to have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the sky, and over the livestock, and over all the earth itself, and over every creature that crawls upon the earth.” 27Elohim created humankind in His own image. In Elohim’s image He created him; male and female He created them. 28Elohim blessed them and said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply, fill the earth and subdue it. Have dominion[28] over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the sky, and over every creature that moves on the earth.” 29Elohim said, “Hinneh,[GN] I have given you every seed-bearing plant on the surface of all the earth, and every tree whose fruit contains seed. They will be your food. 30To every animal of the earth, and to every bird of the sky, and to everything that creeps on the earth in which there is the breath of life, I have given every green plant for food;” and it was so.

31Elohim looked upon everything that he had made, and it was very good indeed.[31a] There was evening and there was morning, a sixth day.[31b]

B. Shabbat Instituted (2:1-4) [Saturday, 2 April 3976 BCE]

2 1The heavens[GN] and the earth were completed in all their vast array. 2By the seventh day Elohim[GN] had finished the work He had been doing; and on that day He ceased[2] from all His work. 3Elohim blessed the seventh day, and consecrated it as holy,[3a] because on that day He ceased from all the work of creation that He had accomplished.[3b]


Sheni [2nd]: (A:iv) 4This is the history [referring back to what has just been written] of the of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that Yehovah[GN],[2:4] Elohim made the earth and the heavens.

C. Adam and Havah (2:5-25)

1. Creation of Man (2:5-7)

5Now no shrub of the field had yet apeared on the earth, nor had any plant of the field[2:5a] sprouted; for Yehovah Elohim[GN] had not sent rain upon the earth,[2:5b] and there was no human to cultivate the ground. 6But moisture would well up from the earth to water the whole surface of the ground. 7Yehovah Elohim fashioned a humanHebrew אדם, adam from the soil of the groundHebrew: אדםה adamah,[2:7a] and breathed the breath[2:7b] of life into his nostrils; and the human[2:7c] became a living being.[2:7d]

[Mesopotamia [MAP] 3976 BCE]

2. Garden of Eden (2:8-17)

8Yehovah Elohim planted Gan Eden[2:8a] in the east [or “in antiquity”][2:8b], where He placed the human He had formed. 9Out of the ground Yehovah Elohim made every tree to grow that is pleasant to the sight and good for food. And in the middle of the garden were the Tree of Life[2:9a] and the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil.[2:9b] 10A river flowed out of Eden to water the garden, and from there it branched into four headwaters. 11The name of the first is Pishonincrease: it winds through the whole land of Havilah,[11] where there is gold, 12The gold of that land is pure, and bdellium[2:12] and onyx stone are also there. 13The name of the second river is Gihon“bursting forth”. It winds through the whole land of Kush. 14The name of the third river is Khiddeqel“rapid” - the Tigris. It runs along the east side of Assyria. The fourth river is the Perath“fruitfulness” - the Euphrates.

15Then Yehovah Elohim took the human, and placed him in Gan Edenthe garden of Eden[2:15] to cultivate and keep it. 16Yehovah Elohim commanded him, “You may eat freely from every tree of the garden; 17but you must not eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil;[2:17a] for in the day that you eat of it, you will be doomed to die.”[2:17b]

3. Creation of Woman (2:18-22)

18Yehovah Elohim also said, “It is not good for the man to be alone.[2:18a] I will make a suitable helper[2:18b] for him.” 19Out of the ground Yehovah Elohim had formed every animal of the field,[2:19a] and every bird of the sky, and He brought them to the man to see what he would name each one. Whatever the man called each living creature, that became its name.[2:19b]


Shlishi [3rd]: 20The man gave names to all livestock, and to the birds of the sky, and to every animal of the field. But for Adam no suitable helper was found. 21So Yehovah Elohim caused the man to fall into a deep sleep, and while he slept, He took one of his ribs, and closed up the area with flesh. 22And from the rib that Yehovah Elohim had taken from the man, He made a woman and brought her to the man.

4. The Institution of Marriage (2:23-25)

23The man said, “This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh. She will be called WomanHebrew: אִשָּׁ֔ה (ishsha) because she was taken out of ManHebrew: אִישׁ (ish).”[2:23] 24For this reason a man will leave his father and his mother, and be united with his wife, and they will be one[2:24] flesh. 25The man and his wife were both naked, and they were not ashamed.

[Gan Eden (Mesopotamia) [MAP] 3976 BCE]

D. The Fall of Humanity (3:1-13)

1. Temptation to Sin (3:1-5)

3 Now the serpent[3:1a] was more craftyHebrew ערום, aruwm, subtle, shrewd, crafty, sly, sensible than any animal[3:1b] of the field which Yehovah [GN] Elohim[GN] had made. He said to the woman, “Did Elohim really say,[3:1c] ‘You must not eat of any tree of the garden’?”

The woman answered the serpent, “We may eat the fruit from the trees of the garden, but about the fruit of the tree in the middle of the garden, Elohim has said, ‘You must not eat of it, or even touch it, or you will die.’”[3:3]

“You won’t surely die,”[3:4] the serpent told her. For Elohim knows that in the day you eat it, your eyes will be opened, and you will be like Elohim, knowing good and evil.”[3:5]

2. Sin Produces Shame (3:6-7)

When the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasing to the eyes, and that the tree was desirable for obtaining wisdom, she took its fruit and ate it.[3:6a] She also gave some to her husband, and he ate it.[3:6b] Their eyes were opened, and they both knew that they were naked. They sewed fig leaves together, and made loin-coverings for themselves.[3:7]

3. Sin Produces Fear (3:8-10)

Then the man and his wife heard Yehovah Elohim’s voice walking in the garden[3:8] in the cool of the day, and they hid themselves from the presence of Yehovah Elohim among the trees of the garden.

Yehovah Elohim called out to the man, “Where are you?”[3:9]

10 “I heard your voice in the garden,” he replied, “and I was afraid because I was naked; so I hid myself.”[3:10]

4. Sin Produces Blame (3:11-13)

11 “Who told you that you were naked?” Elohim asked him. “Have you eaten from the tree that I commanded you not to eat from?”

12 The man said, “The woman You gave me, she gave me fruit from the tree, and I ate it.”[3:12]

13 Yehovah Elohim said to the woman, “What have you done?”

The woman said, “The serpent deceived me, and I ate.”[3:13]

E. The Sentence Proclaimed (3:14-24)

1. Sentence on the Tempter and Promise of Redemption (3:14-15)

14 Then Yehovah Elohim said to the serpent, “Because you have done this, you are cursed above all livestock, and above every animal of the field. You shall go on your belly and you shall eat dust all the days of your life. 15 I will put hostility between you and the woman,[3:15a] and between your offspring and her offspring. He will crush your head, and you will bruise his heel.”[3:15b]

2. Sentence on the Woman (3:16)

16 To the woman He said, “I will greatly increase your pain in childbirth. You will bear children in pain. Your desire[3:16a] will be for your husband,[3:16b] but he will rule over you.”[3:16c]

3. Sentence on the Man (3:17-19)

17 To Adam He said, “Because you have listened to your wife’s voice, and have eaten from the tree from which I commanded you not to eat, the ground is cursed because of you;[3:17a] only through toil[3:17b] will you will eat from it all the days of your life. 18 It will yield both thorns and thistles to you; and you will eat the plants of the field. 19 By the sweat of your brow will you eat bread[3:19] until you return to the ground, for you were taken out of it. For you are dust, and you shall return to dust.”

4. Woman Named (3:20)

20 The man named his wife HavahHebrew חַוָּ֑ה Chawah, “life” or “living”, from חוה, “to breathe” because she would become the mother of all the livingHebrew חָֽי (ḥāy).[3:20]

5. Shame Hidden (3:21)

21 Yehovah Elohim made garments of animal skins for Adam and for his wife, and clothed them.[3:21]


6. Banishment from the Garden (3:22-24)

R'vi'i [4th] (A:v) 22 Then Yehovah Elohim said, “Hinneh,[GN] the man has become like one of Us,[3:22a] knowing good and evil.[3:22b] Now, lest he reach out his hand, and also take from the tree of life, and eat, and live forever…” 23 Therefore Yehovah Elohim banished him from Gan Eden, to work the ground from which he had been taken.[3:23] 24 So He drove out the man, and stationed k'ruvim[3:24a] to the east of Gad Eden, with whirling swords of flame to guard the way to the tree of life.[3:24b]

H. First Three Sons of Adam and Havah (4:1-26)

1. Cain and Able Born (4:1-2a)

1The man had relations with his wife Havah, and she conceived and gave birth to Kayinקַ֔יִן Cain, “acquisition” or “possession”, and said, “I have acquired a man with the help of Yehovah.”[GN]

[Mesopotamia, ca 3971 BCE]

2Later she gave birth to Kayhin’s brother Hevel הָ֑בֶל Abel, “breath”.[2a] Hevel was a keeper of sheep,[4:2b] but Kayhin was a tiller of the ground.

[ca 3847 BCE (R); 3944 (K)]

2. Brothers Bring Offerings (2b-7)

3In the course of time,[4:3] Kayhin brought some of the fruit of the ground as an offering to Yehovah. 4Hevel also brought the best portions of the firstborn of his flock. Yehovah looked with favor on Hevel and his offering, 5but He had no regard for Kayhin and his offering.[4:5] So Kayhin became very angry, and the expression on his face fell. 6“Why are you angry?” Yehovah said to Kayhin, “and why is your face downcast? 7If you do what is right, won’t you be accepted? But if you refuse to do what is right, sin is crouching at your door.[4:7a] Its desire is for you, but you must master it.”[4:7b]

3. The First Murder (4:8-9)

8Kayhin said to his brother Hevel, “Let’s go into the field.” While they were in the field, Kayhin rose up against his brother Hevel and killed him.

9Yehovah said to Kayhin, “Where is your brother Hevel?”

“I don’t know,” he said. “Am I my brother’s guardian?”

4. Cain’s Punishment (4:10-16)

10Yehovah said, “What have you done? The voice of your brother’s blood cries out to Me from the ground. 11Now you are cursed and banished from this land, which has opened its mouth to receive your brother’s blood from your hand. 12From now on, when you till the ground, it will no longer yield its produce to you. You will be a fugitive and a wanderer on the earth.”

13Kayhin said to Yehovah “My punishment is greater than I can bear.[4:13] 14Hinneh,[GN] today you have driven me out from the face of this land and I will be hidden from your presence; I will be a fugitive and a wanderer on the earth. Whoever finds me will kill me.”[4:14]

15“Not so!” Yehovah replied. “If anyone slays Kayhin, vengeance will be taken on him sevenfold.” Yehovah placed a mark on Kayhin[4:15], so that nobody who found him would kill him.

16Kayhin left the presence of Yehovah and settled in the land of Nod“wandering”, east of Eden.[4:16]

5. Descendants of Cain (4:17-22) [Nod, East of Eden] [MAP]

17Kayhin had relations with his wife.[4:17a] She conceived, and gave birth to HanokhEnoch, “dedicated”. Then Kayhin built a city,[4:17b] and named the city Hanokh, after his son. 18'IradIrad, “fleet” was born to Hanokh, and Irad became the father of Mechuya'elמְחֽוּיָאֵ֑ל ,Mehujael “smitten by God”. Mechuya'el became the father of Metusha'elוּמְתוּשָׁאֵ֖ל, Methusael, “who is of God”. Metusha'el became the father of Lamekhלָֽמֶךְ, Lamech, “powerful”.


Chamishi [5th]: 19Lamekh married two wives:[4:19] the name of the first one was 'Adahעָדָ֔ה, “ornament”, and the name of the second one was Tzilahצִלָּֽה, Zillah, “shade”. 20Adah gave birth to Yavalיָבָ֑ל, Jabal, “stream of water”, who was the father of those who dwell in [nomads’] tents and raise livestock. 21His brother’s name was Yuvalיוּבָ֑ל, Jubal, “stream”, who was the father of all who play the lyreHebrew כננור, kinnowr, lyre or harp and pipeHebrew עוגב, 'uwgab, perhaps a flute, reed-pipe, or panpipes. 22Tzilah also gave birth to Tuval-kayinתּוּבַל קַיִן, Tubal-Cain, “you will be brought of Kayin”, the forger of every bronze and iron implement. Tuval-Kayhin’s sister was Na'amahנַֽעֲמָֽה, “loveliness”.

6. Lamech Confesses Killing (4:23-24)

23Lemekh said to his wives, “Adah and Tzilah, hear my voice. You wives of Lemekh, listen to my speech, for I have slain a man for wounding me, a young man for striking me. 24If Kayhin will be avenged seven times, truly Lemekh seventy-seven times.”

7. Seth Born (4:25) [3845 BCE]

25Adam had relations with his wife again, and she gave birth to a son, and named him Shetשֵׁ֑ת, Seth, “compensation”, saying, “Elohim[GN] has granted me another child in place of of Hevel, since Kayhin killed him.”

8. Enosh Born (4:26) [3740 BCE, see Gen 5:6]

26A son was also born to Shet, and he named him Enoshאֱנ֑וֹשׁ, “man”. At that time men began to call on the Name of Yehovah.


I. Adam’s Decendants to Noach (5:1-32)

1. Record of Mankind (5:1-2)

Shishi [6th] 1This is the bookHebrew סֵ֔פֶר, sefer, book, scroll, legal document of the generations of AdamHebrew: אדם, adam“man” or “mankind” or the first man’s name. In the day that Elohim[GN] created manHebrew: אדם, adam“man” or “mankind” or the first man’s name, He made him in Elohim’s likeness. 2He created them male and female, and He blessed them. On the day they were created, He named them man.[5:2]

2. Seth (5:3-5) [3845 BCE]

5When Adam was 130 years old, he had a son in his own likeness, after his image, and named him Shetשֵֽׁת (šêṯ), Seth. 4After he became the father of Shet, Adam lived another 800 years and had other sons and daughters. 5So Adam lived a total of 930 years, and then he died.[5:5] [3045 BCE]

3. Enosh (5:6-8) [3740 BCE]

6When Shet was 105 years old he became the father of Enoshאֱנֽוֹשׁ, Enos, “man”. 7After he had become the father of Enosh, Shet lived 807 years and had other sons and daughters. 8So Shet lived a total of 912 years, and then he died. [2933 BCE]

4. Kenan (5:9-11) [3650 BCE]

9When Enosh was 90 years old, he became the father of Kenanקֵינָֽן (qê·nān), Cainan, “possession”. 10And after he had become the father of Kenan, Enosh lived a another 815 years and had other sons and daughters. 11So Enosh lived a total of 905 years, and then he died. [2835 BCE]

5. Mahalel (5:12-14) [3580 BCE]

12When Kenan was 70 years old, he became the father of Mahalal'elמַֽהֲלַלְאֵֽל, Mahalaleel, “praise of God”.

13After he had become the father of Mahalal'el, Kenan lived 840 years and had other sons and daughters. 14So Kenan lived a total of 910 years and then he died. [2740 BCE]

6. Jared (5:15-17) [3515 BCE]

15When Mahalal'el was 65 years old, he became the father of Yeredיָֽרֶד, Jared, “descent”. 16And after he had become the fathere of Yared, Mahalal'el lived 830 and had other sons and daughters. 17So Mahalal'el lived a total of 895 years and then he died. [2685 BCE]

7. Enoch (5:18-20) [3353 BCE]

18When Yered was 162 years old, he became the father of Hanokhחֲנֽוֹךְ, Enoch, “dedicated”. 19And after he had become the father of Hanokh, Yared lived 800 years and had other sons and daughters. 20So Yered lived a total of 962 years, and then he died. [2553 BCE]

8. Methuselah (5:21-24) [3288 BCE]

21Whe Hanokh was 65 years old, he became the father of Metushelachמְתוּשָֽׁלַח, Methuselah, “man of the dart”".[5:21] 22And after he had become the father of Metushelach, Hanokh walked with Elohim for 300 years and had other sons and daughters. 23So Hanokh lived a total of 365 years. 24Hanokh walked with Elohim, and then he was no more, because Elohim had taken him.[5:24] [2988 BCE]


9. Lamech (5:25-27) [3101 BCE]

Shvi'i [7th]:  25When Metushelach was 187 years old he became the father of Lemekhלָֽמֶךְ, Lamech, “powerful”. 26And after he had became the father of Lemekh, Metushelach lived 782 years and had other sons and daughters. 27So Metushelach lived a total of 969 years, and then he died. [April 2319 BCE]

10. Noach (5:28-31) [2919 BCE]

28When Lemekh was 182 years old, he had a son. 29He named him Noachנֹ֖חַ, Noah, “rest” or “restful”, saying, “May this one comfort us in our work and in the toil of our hands, caused by the ground which Yehovah has cursed.” 30After he had become the father of Noach, Lemekh lived 595 and had other sons and daughters. 31So Lemekh lived a total of 777 years, and then he died. [2324 BCE]

11. Shem, Ham, and Japeth (5:32)

32After Noach was 500 he became the father of father of Shemשֵׁ֖ם, “name” [2417 BCE], Hamחָ֥ם,“hot” [ca 2416 BCE], and Yefetיָֽפֶת, Japheth, “opened” [2419 BCE].[5:32]

J. The Corruption of Mankind (6:1-8)

1. Intermarriage Brings Decay (6:1-2)

1When men began to multiply on the face of the earth and daughters were born to them, 2the sons of Elohim[6:2] saw that the daughters of men were beautiful, and they took as wives whomever they chose.

2. Mankind Given a Grace Period (6:3)

3So Yehovah [GN] said, “My Spirit will not contend with man forever, because he is mortal; so his days will be 120 years.”[6:3]

3. Wicked Are Considered Heroes (6:4)

4The N'filim[6:4a] were on the earth in those days, and afterward[6:4b] as well, when the sons of Elohim had relations with the daughters of men. They bore them children who became the mighty menהַגִּבֹּרִ֛ים (ha·gib·bō·rîm) who were of oldHebrew עלם, olam, antiquity, men of renownHebrew: שם, shem, name, reputation.


4. God Grieved by Mankind (6:5-8)

(Maftir: [concluding]) 5Then Yehovah saw that the wickedness of man was great upon the earth, and that every inclinationHebrew: יצרר, yetser, purpose, intent of the thoughts of man’s heart was altogther evil all the time.[6:5] 6Yehovah regretted that He had made man on the earth, and it grievedHebrew עצב, 'atsab, to hurt, have pain, tortured Him in His heart. 7Yehovah said, “I will blot out man, whom I have created, from the face of the earth — every man, animal, crawling creature, and bird of the sky — for I am grieved that I have made them.” 8But Noach found favor in the eyes of Yehovah.

The Blessing After Torah

Click here to listen to this canted by
Cantor Kenneth B. Cohen of
Temple Sholom, Greenwich, CT
Ba-rookh ah-tah Adonai, eh-lo-hay-noo
meh-lech hah-oh­lahm,
ah-sher nah-tahn la-noo toe-raht eh-met,
v’cha-yaye oh-lahm nah-tah b’toe-chay-noo.
Ba-rookh ah-tah Adonai,  no-tain ha-to-rah.

Blessed are you, O Lord our God,
King of the Universe,
Who has given us a Torah of truth,
and has planted eternal life in our midst.
Blessed are You, O Lord, Giver of the Torah.




The Blessing of the Haftarah
(Weekly Portion from the Prophets)

Click here to listen to this canted
by an unknown cantor from
Temple Mount Sinai in El Paso, TX.

Ba-rookh, ah-tah Adonai, eh-lo-hay-noo,
meh-lekh hah-oh­lahm,
ah-sher ba-khar been-vee-eem toe-veem,
v’rah-tzah b’deev­ray-hem,
ha-neh-eh-ma-reem, beh-eh-meht.

Ba-rookh ah-tah, Adonai,
ha-bo-char ba-to-rah,
oo-v’Mo-sheh ahv-doe, oo-v'yees­ra-ale ah-mo,
oo-veen-vee-aye hah-eh-met, vah-tzeh-dek.

Blessed are you, O Lord our God,
King of the Universe,
Who selected good prophets,
and was pleased with their words
which were spoken truthfully.

Blessed are You, O Lord,
Who chooses the Torah,
Your servant Moses, Your people Israel,
and prophets of truth and righteousness.

Yesha'yahu (Isaiah) 42:5-21

42 5Thus says God , He who created the heavens, and stretched them forth; He who spread abroad the earth and that which comes out of it; He who gives breath to the people on it, and spirit to those who walk therein: 6I, Yehovah, have called you in righteousness, and will hold your hand, and will keep you, and give you for a covenant of the people, for a light of the Goyim; 7to open the blind eyes, to bring out the prisoners from the dungeon, and those who sit in darkness out of the prison-house. 8I am Yehovah, that is my name; and my glory will I not give to another, neither my praise to engraved images. 9Behold, the former things have happened, and new things do I declare. Before they spring forth I tell you of them. 10Sing to Yehovah a new song, and his praise from the end of the earth; you who go down to the sea, and all that is therein, the isles, and the inhabitants of it. 11Let the wilderness and the cities of it lift up their voice, the villages that Kedar inhabits; let the inhabitants of Sela sing, let them shout from the top of the mountains. 12Let them give glory to Yehovah, and declare his praise in the islands. 13Yehovah will go forth as a mighty man; he will stir up His zeal like a man of war: he will cry, yes, he will shout aloud; he will do mightily against his enemies. 14I have long time held my shalom; I have been still, and refrained myself: now will I cry out like a travailing woman; I will gasp and pant together. 15I will lay waste mountains and hills, and dry up all their herbs; and I will make the rivers islands, and will dry up the pools. 16I will bring the blind by a way that they don't know; in paths that they don't know will I lead them; I will make darkness light before them, and crooked places straight. These things will I do, and I will not forsake them. 17They shall be turned back, they shall be utterly disappointed, who trust in engraved images, who tell molten images, You are our gods. 18Hear, you deaf; and look, you blind, that you may see. 19Who is blind, but my servant? or deaf, as my messenger whom I send? Who is blind as he who is at shalom, and blind as Yehovah's servant? 20You see many things, but don't observe. His ears are open, but he doesn't hear. 21It pleased Yehovah, for his righteousness' sake, to magnify the Torah, and make it honorable.


Ketuvei HaShalichim
(Apostolic Writings)

Ketuvei HaShalichim (Apostolic Writings)

The Blessing of the Ketuvei HaShalichim

Click here to listen to this canted by
Jeremiah Greenberg of Messianic Liturgical Resources.
Page numbers refer to his Messianic Shabbat Siddur.
Bah-rookh ah-tah Adonai, Eh-lo-hay-noo
meh-lekh hah-oh­lahm,
ah-shehr nah-tahn la-noo mah-she-ahch Yeshua,
v’ha-deeb­rote shell Ha-breet Ha-kha-da-shah,
ba-rookh ah-ta Adonai,
no­tain Hah-breet Hah-kha-da-shah.

Blessed are You, O Lord our God,
King of the Universe,
Who has given us Messiah Yeshua
and the commandments of the New Covenant.
Blessed are You, O Lord,
Giver of the New Covenant.

Basar (Gospel)

Ha Basar (the Gospel) According to:

Yochanan (John) 1:1-18
[Commentary on John 1]

1In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God,[1c] and the Word was God. 2He was with God in the beginning. 3All things were made through Him,[3a] and without Him, nothing was made that has been made. 4In Him was life,[4a] and the life was the light[4b] of men. 5The Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness hasn’t overcome it.

6There came a man sent from God, whose name was Yochanan. 7He came as a witness, to might testify about the Light, so that through Him everyone might believe. 8He himself was not the Light, but he came to testify about the Light. 9The true Light Who enlightens everyone was coming into the world.

10He [the Light] was in the world, and [though] the world was made through Him, the world didn’t recognize Him. 11He came to His own [people], and those who were His own [people] didn’t receive Him. 12But to all who did received Him, to those who believed in His Name,[12] He gave the right to become children of God, 13who were born not of blood, nor of an act of will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.

14The Word became flesh and tabernacled among us. We saw His Shekinah, such glory as of the unique Son from the Father, full of grace and truth. 15Yochanan testified about Him. He cried out, saying, “This was He of whom I said, ‘He who comes after me has surpassed me, because He existed before me.’” 16From His fullness we all have received grace upon grace. 17For the Torah was given through MosheMoses; grace and truth were realized through Yeshua the Mashiach. 18No one has ever seen God. The unique Son, God, the I AM,[GN] [Who] is at the Father’s side, has made [Him] known.


Kepherim (The Apostolic Letters)

Romim (Romans) 5:12-21  

5 12Therefore, as sin entered into the world through one man, and death through sin; and so death passed to all men, because all sinned. 13Before the Torah was given, sin was in the world; but sin is not charged when there is no Torah. 14Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moshe, even over those whose sins weren’t like Adam’s disobedience, who is a foreshadowing of Him who was to come. 15But the free gift isn't like the trespass. For if by the trespass of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God, and the gift by the grace of the one Man, Yeshua the Messiah, abound to the many. 16The gift is not as through one who sinned: for the judgment came by one to condemnation, but the free gift came of many trespasses to justification. 17For if by the trespass of the one, death reigned through the one; so much more will those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness reign in life through the One, Yeshua the Messiah.

18So then as through one trespass, all men were condemned; even so through one act of righteousness, all men were justified to life. 19For as through the one man’s disobedience many were made sinners, even so through the obedience of the One will many be made righteous. 20The Torah came in also, so that the trespass might abound; but where sin abounded, grace did abound more exceedingly; 21that as sin reigned in death, even so might grace reign through righteousness to eternal life through Yeshua the Messiah our Lord.


Korintim Alef (1 Corinthians) 6:15-20  

6 15Don't you know that your bodies are members of Messiah? Shall I then take the members of Messiah, and make them members of a prostitute? May it never be! 6:16Or don’t you know that he who is joined to a prostitute is one body? For He says, “The two will become one flesh.” 17But he who is joined to the Lord is one spirit.

8Flee sexual immorality! “Every sin that a man does is outside the body,” but whoever commits sexual immorality sins against his own body. 19Or don’t you know that your body is a temple of Ruach HaKodesh Who is in you, Whom you have from God? You are not your own, 20for you were bought with a price. Therefore glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God’s.


Korintim Alef (1 Corinthians) 15:35-58  

15 35But someone will say, “How are the dead raised?” and, “What kind of body do they come in?” 36You foolish person, that which you yourself sow is not made alive unless it dies. 37That which you sow, you don’t sow the body that will be, but a bare grain, maybe of wheat, or of some other kind. 38But God gives it a body even as it pleased Him, and each seed is given a body of its own. 39All flesh is not the same kind of flesh. There is one kind of flesh of men, another kind of flesh of animals, another of fish, and yet another of birds. 40There are also celestial bodies, and terrestrial bodies; but the glory of the celestial differs from that of the terrestrial. 41There is one glory of the sun, another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars; for one star differs from another star in glory. 42Likewise is the resurrection of the dead. It is sown in corruption; it is raised in incorruption. 43It is sown in dishonor; it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness; it is raised in power. 44It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body. There is a natural body and there is also a spiritual body.

45So it is also written, “The first man, Adam, became a living soul.” The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. 46However, that which is spiritual isn’t first, but that which is natural, and then that which is spiritual. 47The first man is of the earth, made of dust. The second man is the Lord from heaven. 48Those who are made of dust are like the one made of dust; those who are heavenly are like that which is heavenly. 49Just as we have borne the image of those made of dust, let’s also bear the image of the heavenly. 15Now I say this, brothers, that flesh and blood can’t inherit the Kingdom of God; neither does corruption inherit incorruption.

51Behold, I tell you a mystery. We will not all sleep, but we will all be changed, 52in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last shofar. For the shofar will sound, and the dead will be raised incorruptible, and we will be changed. 53For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality. 54But when this corruptible will have put on incorruption, and this mortal will have put on immortality, then what is written will happen:

“Death is swallowed up in victory.”
55“Death, where is your sting?”
She'ol, where is your victory?”

56The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law. 57But thanks be to God, Who gives us the victory through our Lord Yeshua the Messiah. 58Therefore, my beloved brothers, be steadfast, immovable, always abounding in the Lord's work, because you know that your labor is not in vain in the Lord.


Efesos (Ephesians) 5:21-32  

5 15Therefore watch carefully how you walk, not as unwise, but as wise; 16redeeming the time, because the days are evil. 17Therefore don’t be foolish, but understand what the will of the Lord is. 18Don’t be drunken with wine, in which is dissipation, but be filled with the Spirit, 19speaking to one another in psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs; singing, and singing praises in your heart to the Lord; 20giving thanks always concerning all things in the name of our Lord Yeshua the Messiah, to God, even the Father; 21submitting yourselves to one another in the fear of Messiah.

22Wives, be subject to your own husbands even as you are as to the Lord. 23For the husband is the head of the wife, and Messiah also is the head of the assembly, being himself the savior of the body. 24But as the assembly is subject to Messiah, so let the wives also be to their own husbands in everything.

25Husbands, love your wives the same way that Messiah loved the assembly and gave Himself up for it; 26so that He might sanctify it, having cleansed it by the washing of water with the word, 27that He might present the assembly to Himself gloriously, having no spot, or wrinkle, or anything like that; but that it should be holy and without blemish. 28That’s the same way that husbands should also love their own wives, even as they love their own bodies. He who loves his own wife loves himself. 29For no man ever hated his own flesh; but nourishes and cherishes it, even as the Lord also does the assembly; 30because we are members of His body, of His flesh and bones. 31“For this cause a man will leave his father and mother, and will be joined to his wife. The two will become one flesh.” 32This is a great mystery, but I am speaking about Messiah and the assembly. 33Nevertheless, each of you must also love his own wife even as himself; and let the wife see that she respects her husband.


Kolosim (Colossians) 1:14-17  

1 9Beause of this, ever since the day we heard this, we don’t cease praying and making requests for you, that you may be filled with the knowledge of his will in all spiritual wisdom and understanding, 10so you may walk worthily of the Lord, to please Him in all respects, bearing fruit in every mitzvah, and increasing in the knowledge of God; 11strengthened with all power, according to the might of His glory, for all endurance and perseverance with joy; 12giving thanks to the Father, Who made us fit to be partakers of the inheritance of the holy ones in light; 13Who delivered us out of the power of darkness and translated us into the Kingdom of the Son of His love; 14in Whom we have our redemption, the forgiveness of our sins; 15Who is the image of the invisible God, the Firstborn of all creation. 16For by Him were all things created, in the heavens and on the earth, things visible and things invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers; all things have been created through Him, and for Him. 17He has continually existed before all things, and everything is held together in Him.


Timotiyos Alef (1 Timothy) 2:11-15  

2 11Let a woman learn in quietness with all subjection. 12But I don’t permit a woman to teach, nor to exercise authority over a man, but to be in quietness. 13Because Adam was first formed, then Chavah. 14Adam wasn’t deceived, but the woman, having been deceived, has fallen into disobedience; 15but she will be saved through her child-bearing, if they continue in faith, love, and sanctification with sobriety. [Return to note on Gen 3:13]


Ivrim (Hebrews) 1:1-13

11God, having in the past spoken to the fathers through the prophets at many times and in various ways, 2has in these last days spoken to us by His Son, Whom He appointed heir of all things, through Whom also He made the worlds. 3His Son is the radiance of His glory, the very image of His substance, and upholding all things by the word of His power, when He had by Himself made purification for our sins, He sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high; 4having become so much better than the angels, as he has inherited a more excellent name than they have. 5For to which of the angels did He ever say,

“You are my Son,
Today have I become your Father?”

and again,

“I will be a Father to Him,
And He will be a Son to Me?”

6Again, when He brings the Pre-eminent One into the world He says, “Let all the angels of God worship Him.” 7Of the angels he says,

“Who makes His angels winds,
And His servants a flame of fire.”

8but about the Son he says,

“Your throne, O God, is forever and ever;
The scepter of uprightness is the scepter of Your Kingdom.

9You have loved righteousness, and hated iniquity;
Therefore God, your God, has anointed You with the oil of gladness above Your fellows.”


“You, Yehovah, in the beginning, laid the foundation of the earth.
The heavens are the works of Your hands.

11“They will perish, but You continue.
They all will grow old like a garment does.

12“As a mantle You will roll them up,
And they will be changed;

“But You are the same.
Your years will not fail.”

13But of which of the angels has He ever said,

“Sit at My right hand,
Until I make Your enemies the footstool of your feet?”


Ivrim (Hebrews) 3:7-4:11  

37Therefore, even as Ruach HaKodesh says,

“Today if you will hear His voice,

8“Don't harden your hearts, as in the provocation,
Like as in the day of the trial in the wilderness,

9“Where your fathers tested Me by proving Me,
And saw My works for forty years.

10“Therefore I was displeased with that generation,
And said, ‘They always err in their heart,
But they didn’t know My ways;’

11“As I swore in my wrath,
‘They will not enter into my rest.’”

12Beware, brothers, lest perhaps there be in any one of you an evil heart of unbelief, in falling away from the living God; 13but exhort one another day by day, so long as it is called “today”; lest any one of you be hardened by the deceitfulness of sin. 14For we have become partakers of Messiah, if we hold fast the beginning of our confidence firm to the end: 15while it is said,

“Today if you will hear his voice,
Don’t harden your hearts, as in the rebellion.”

16For who, when they heard, rebelled? No, didn't all those who came out of Egypt by Moshe? 17With whom was He displeased forty years? Wasn't it with those who sinned, whose bodies fell in the wilderness? 18To whom did He swear that they wouldn't enter into His rest, but to those who were disobedient? 19We see that they were not able to enter in because of unbelief.

4 1Let us fear therefore, lest perhaps a promise being left of entering into his rest, anyone of you should seem to have come short of it. 2For indeed we have had good news preached to us, even as they also did, but the word they heard didn’t profit them, because it wasn’t mixed with faith by those who heard. 3For we who have believed do enter into that rest, even as He has said, “As I swore in my wrath, they will not enter into My rest;” although the works were finished from the foundation of the world. 4For He has said this somewhere about the seventh day, “God rested on the seventh day from all His works;” 5and in this place again, “They will not enter into My rest.”

6Seeing therefore it remains that some should enter therein, and they to whom the good news was before preached failed to enter in because of disobedience, 7He again defines a certain day, today, saying through David so long a time afterward (just as has been said),

“Today if you will hear His voice,
Don't harden your hearts.”

8For if Yehoshua had given them rest, He would not have spoken afterward of another day. 9There remains therefore a Shabbat rest for the people of God. 10For he who has entered into His rest has himself also rested from his works, as God did from His. 11Let us therefore give diligence to enter into that rest, lest anyone fall after the same example of disobedience.


Ivrim (Hebrews) 11:1-7  

11 1Now faith is assurance of things hoped for, proof of things not seen. 2For by this, the elders obtained testimony. 3By faith, we understand that the universe has been framed by the word of God, so that what is seen has not been made out of things which are visible. 4By faith, Hevel offered to God a more excellent sacrifice than Kayin, through which he had testimony given to him that he was righteous, God bearing witness with respect to his gifts; and through it he, being dead, still speaks. 5By faith, Chanokh was taken away, so that he wouldn't see death, and he was not found, because God translated him. For he has had testimony given to him that before his translation he had been well pleasing to God. 6Without faith it is impossible to be well pleasing to Him, for he who comes to God must believe that He exists, and that He is a rewarder of those who seek Him. 7By faith, Noach, being warned about things not yet seen, moved with Godly fear, prepared a teivah for the saving of his house, through which he condemned the world, and became heir of the righteousness which is according to faith.


Kefa Bet (2 Peter) 3:3-14  

3 1This is now, beloved, the second letter that I have written to you; and in both of them I stir up your sincere mind by reminding you 2that you should remember the words which were spoken before by the holy prophets, and the mitzvot of us, the emissaries of the Lord and Savior: 3knowing this first, that in the last days mockers will come, walking after their own lusts, 4and saying, “Where is the promise of His coming? For, from the day that the fathers fell asleep, all things continue as they were from the beginning of the creation.” 5For this they willfully forget, that there were heavens from of old, and an earth formed out of water and amid water, by the word of God; 6by which means the world that then was, being overflowed with water, perished. 7But the heavens that now are, and the earth, by the same word have been stored up for fire, being reserved against the day of judgment and destruction of ungodly men. 8But don’t forget this one thing, beloved, that one day is with Yehovah as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day. 9Yehovah is not slow concerning his promise, as some count slowness; but is patient with us, not wishing that any should perish, but that all should come to repentance. 10But the Day of Yehovah will come as a thief in the night; in which the heavens will pass away with a great noise, and the elements will be dissolved with fervent heat, and the earth and the works that are in it will be burned up. 11Therefore since all these things are thus to be destroyed, what manner of persons ought you to be in holy living and Godliness, 12looking for and earnestly desiring the coming of the Day of God, by reason of which the heavens being on fire will be dissolved, and the elements will melt with fervent heat? 13But, according to His promise, we look for new heavens and a new earth, in which dwells righteousness.

14Therefore, beloved, seeing that you look for these things, be diligent to be found in shalom, without blemish and blameless in his sight.


Hitgalut (Revelation) 21:1-5  

21 1I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth have passed away, and the sea is no more. 2I saw the holy city, New Yerushalayim, coming down out of heaven from God, made ready like a bride adorned for her husband. 3I heard a loud voice out of heaven saying, “Behold, God’s dwelling is with people, and He will dwell with them, and they will be His people, and God Himself will be with them as their God. 4He will wipe away from them every tear from their eyes. Death will be no more; neither will there be mourning, nor crying, nor pain, any more. The first things have passed away.”

5He who sits on the throne said, “Behold, I am making all things new.” He said, “Write, for these words of God are faithful and true.”


Hitgalut (Revelation) 22:1-5  

22 1He showed me a river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb, 2in the middle of its street. On this side of the river and on that was the tree of life, bearing twelve kinds of fruits, yielding its fruit every month. The leaves of the tree were for the healing of the goyim. 3There will be no curse any more. The throne of God and of the Lamb will be in it, and His servants serve Him. 4They will see His face, and His name will be on their foreheads. 5There will be no night, and they need no lamplight; for the Lord Yehovah will illuminate them. They will reign forever and ever.

The Blessing After the Ketuvei HaShalichim

Click here to listen to this canted by
Jeremiah Greenberg of Messianic Liturgical Resources.
Page numbers refer to his Messianic Shabbat Siddur.
Ba-rookh ah-tah, Adonai Eh-lo-hay-noo,
meh-lekh hah-oh-lahm,
ah-sher na-tahn la-noo Ha-d'var Ha-eh-met
v'cha-yaye oh-lahm na-ta b'toe-chey-noo.
Ba-rooch ah-ta Adonai,
no-tain Ha-breet Ha-cha-da-sha.

Blessed are You, O Lord our God,
King of the Universe,
Who has given us the Word of Truth and has
planted life everlasting in our midst.
Blessed are you O Lord, Giver of the
New Covenant.

Blessing After Brit Hadashah

The Blessing of the Messiah

Click here to listen to this canted by
Jeremiah Greenberg of Messianic Liturgical Resources.
Page numbers refer to his Messianic Shabbat Siddur.
Ba-rookh ah-tah Adonai Eh-lo-hay-noo, meh-lekh hah-oh-lahm,
ah-sher na-tahn la-noo ha-deh-rech l'y'shoo-ah b'ma-she-ahch Yeshua.

Blessed are You, O Lord our God, King of the Universe,
Who has given us the way to salvation in Messiah Yeshua. Amen.



Notes on Chapter 1

1:1a. Hebrew בְּרֵאשִׁ֖ית (bə·rê·šîṯ), “in the beginning” or “at first.” The text is speaking about before the beginning of space/time (before the “Big Bang”), in all eternity before anything except God existed. “Science” is now saying that God is no longer needed because quantum physics claims that it is possible for the universe to be created spontaneously out of nothing. But in order for quantum physics to allow for the creation of something from nothing, it requires particles known as “quarks.” But the Bible text is talking about an eternity past before even quarks existed! So who created quarks? “Science” is embarrassingly silent. Rolling on floor laughing [BACK]

1:1b. Hebrew בָּרָ֣א, bara', to shape, fashion, or create, always with God as the subject. It is often taught that bara' means to create out of nothing. While it is true that God did create everything from nothing, that is not the meaning of the word, and so it may not be legitimately used to form the basis of a point of doctrine. The primitive root bara' has the basic meaning “to create.” It differs from עָשָׂה 'asah, “to fashion, accomplish” in that 'asah primarily emphasizes the shaping of an object or accomplishment of an objective, whereas bara' primarily emphasizes the initiation of something new. [BACK]

1:2a. The word translated “was” may also be translated “became.” If this is the case, it opens the possibility of a pre-Adamic creation over which Lucifer, the Anointed Cherub, was appointed ruler. This is known as the “Gap Theory,” which has many problems discussed in this article. It is of little importance when Lucifer fell, only that he did. (Ezek 28:13-14). [BACK]

1:2b. Unformed and empty. Hebrew תֹ֙הוּ֙ וָבֹ֔הוּ tohu v'bohu. Tohu, unformed, denotes a total state of confusion and lack of order; a condition of utter chaos; bohu indicates a void or emptiness, a total waste. [BACK]

1:2c. Spirit: Hebrew רוּחַ, Ruach is the same word for breath or wind. In correct Trinitarian theology there are absolutely not three separate Gods, as some would understand it, but rather there is one, and only one, absolutely indivisible and eternally unchangeable God as declared in the Shema, (Deut. 6:4) Who, from our extremely limited understanding, appears to function or manifest as three primary “Persons” — the Father (haAbba), the Son (haBen), and the Holy Spirit (Ruach haKodesh). HaAbba is all the fullness of HaShem[GN] invisible; HaBen is all the fullness of HaShem manifested; Ruach HaKodesh is all the fullness of HaShem acting immediately upon creation. Thus, what the Father decrees, the Son declares, and the Spirit executes. In the first two verses of the Torah, in fact of the entire Bible, we have the first indication of God’s triune nature. (MORE HERE) [BACK]

1:2d. The picture here is of a mother bird flying stationary above a nest full of chicks. Many think that when Yeshua walked on the surface of the sea of Galilee, He was reenacting the time when, as pure spirit, He hovered over the primordial oceans of the newly-formed and featureless earth. [BACK]

 1:3. “Let there be light,“ Hebrew  יְהִ֣י (yə·hî) א֑וֹר (’ō·wr); literally, “Light, be!” HaAbba (the Father) decreed that there would be light, HaBen (the Son, also called the Word, or Greek Logos, in Greek philosophy the eternally pre-existing intelligence) declared (spoke) the Father’s decree, and Ruach HaKodesh (the Spirit) brought light into being from nothing through the power of the Son’s spoken Word. Astrophysics claims that following the “Big Bang” the first particles to exist were photons, so that for the very earliest portion of the Creation event there was nothing but light. [BACK]

 1:5. The phrase translated “first day” can also be rendered as “one day” or “day one.” Note that in the creation account, “day one” begins with evening followed by morning. Thus in the Hebrew method of time reckoning, the day begins and ends at sunset. Since the Torah clearly states that this day and the five which immediately follow all begin with evening followed by morning, we can safely assume that “day” refers to a single 24-hour day. In the phrase, “The earth was unformed and empty” in verse 2, the word “was” (הָיָה, hayah can also be translated as “became,” leaving the possibility of a vast expanse of time between verse 1 and verse 2. This accommodates the so-called “Gap Theory” of creation, which has many problems discussed in this article. I do not personally subscribe to the Gap Theory, but you are certainly welcome to disagree with me. [BACK]

 1:6. Expanse: Hebrew רָקִ֖יעַ, raqiya', an extended solid surface, a support, base, or firmament. This suggests that originally there was a solid enclosure of ice around the entire planet literally separating the waters below it from the waters above it. It is theorized that much of the water from the Flood of Genesis 7 came from this shell of ice suddenly melting. The fact that it is now known that cosmic radiation is the leading cause of aging supports the idea that because this shell of ice was very effective at filtering out radiation, people typically lived 600 years or longer before the flood. Since reptiles continue growing during their entire life span, this may also explain how reptiles grew extremely large before the flood. Consider how large a Komodo dragon, for example, might grow if it lived to be 500 or 600 years old. [BACK]

 1:8. Sky or heavens: Hebrew שָׁמַ֫יִם, shamayim. [BACK]

1:11a. Hebrew דֶּ֫שֶׁא, deshe; grass, new grass, green herb, (non-edible) vegetation. [BACK]

1:11b. Herb: Hebrew עֵ֫שֶׂב, edible herbs, vegetables, edible plants. [BACK]

1:11c. “After their kind”: מִין, min, species? (maybe, but I don’t think so). I have rendered this phrase as “according to its/their kind” throughout. God ordained that each life form reproduces within its own particular “kind.” Science has created six “taxonomic categories” of all living things (in descending order largest grouping to smallest): Kingdom, Phylum/Division, Class, Order, Genus, and Species. If biblical “kind” refers to the “genus” level, new species or sub-species (variations on the original species) may develop from environmental conditions. However, science has yet to produce a single iota of evidence that one species has ever transformed into another. If “kind” refers to genus, then Noah had a lot fewer animals to deal with.

Groups of living organisms belong in the same created 'kind' if they have descended from the same ancestral gene pool. This does not preclude new species because this represents a partitioning of the original gene pool. Information is lost or conserved not gained. A new species could arise when a population is isolated and inbreeding occurs. By this definition a new species is not a new 'kind' but a further partitioning of an existing 'kind'. [“according to its kind”, לְמִינ֔וֹ (lə·mî·nōw) Strong’s Hebrew 2233 defined at genesis/1-11.htm, accessed 27 June 2021] [BACK]

1:14. This does not mean that God created the sun, moon, and stars after He created the plants. It does mean, however, that He specifically ordained that humanity should use them to tell time and to  “mark seasons, days, and years.” That is, to serve as the basis for our calendar and the timing of the Moadim, or Appointed Times of YeHoVaH. [BACK]

1:26. Consider for just a moment what it means to be created in the image and likeness of God. What does man have that all the other creatures do not (so far as we know)? We have self-awareness — the ability to have “conversations” with ourselves, like, “Oh my! What was I thinking?” Of course “made in the image of God” cannot possibly mean that God is a bipedal humanoid. God is invisible (Rom 1:20; Col 1:15; 1Tim.1:17), but He is able to take any form He desires: a burning bush, a humanoid (the Angel of Yehovah , Yeshua), a pillar of fire, a pillar of smoke, etc. So His “image and likeness” cannot be referring to visible, physical attributes. But God is sentient; He has intellect, will, and emotion. Mankind is sentient: we have intellect, will, and emotion. God is tri-partite: He exists invisibly as the Father; He manifest visibly and physically as the Son; His Spirit interacts directly with His creation. Man is tri-partite: we exist invisibly as mind, will, and emotion; we exist visibly in a physical body of muscle, bone, and blood; we exist spiritually as that part of us which interacts directly with our Creator. For a simple example, GO HERE. [BACK]

1:28. Dominion, Hebrew רדה, radah, is to have dominion, rule, subjugate. Adam was  created to rule over the earth and everything in it. “Ruling over” includes the responsibility for properly caring for that which is ruled over. [BACK]

1:31a. As God finished each phase of creation, He paused, looked at what He had created, and declared that it was good. But after He created humanity, He declared that it was very good. [RETURN]

1:31b. Nuclear physicist Gerald L. Schroeder, Ph.D., has demonstrated in The Hidden Face of God: Science Reveals the Ultimate Truth (May 9, 2002) how by using Einstein’s Theory of Relativity he has calculated that when viewed from the point of creation looking outward (God’s perspective) the Bible’s six days of creation are identical to the 14 billion years since the “Big Bang” as viewed from earth looking back toward the center of the universe.

“We look at the universe, and say, ‘How old is the universe? Looking back in time, the universe is approximately 14 billion years old.’ That’s our view of time and those years went by. But what is the Bible’s view of those billions of years looking forward from the beginning? How does it see time? …

“We look back in time, and measure of the universe to be 14 billion years old. But as every scientist knows, when we say the universe is 14 billion years old, there’s another half of the sentence that we rarely bother to state. The universe is 14 billion years old as measured from the time-space coordinates of the earth, that is, from our current position in the universe.

“The key is that from the creation of the universe to the creation of the soul of Adam, the Bible looks forward in time, from time-space coordinates when the universe was vastly smaller than it is today. Since then, the universe has expanded out. Space stretches, and that stretching of space totally changes the perception of time. …

“Today, we look back in time and we see approximately 14 billion years of history and those years went by. But how would they be perceived from the Bible’s perspective of time? Looking forward from when the universe was very small – billions of times smaller – the Bible teaches that six days passed. In truth, they both are correct. … The biblical text shows us (and the Talmud confirms) that the soul of Adam was created five and a half days after the big bang creation. That is a half day before the termination of the sixth day. At that moment the cosmic calendar ceases and an earth based calendar starts. How would we see those days stretched by a million million? Five and a half days times a million million, gives us five and a half million million days. Dividing that by 365 days in a year, comes out to be 15 billion years. NASA gives a value of just under 14 billion years. Considering the many approximations, and that the Bible works with only six periods of time, the agreement to within a few percent is extraordinary. The universe is billions of years old but from the biblical perspective those billions of years compress into five and a half, 24 hour days.”

The calculations are also explaned on his website,, last accessed 09 August 2020. [RETURN]

Notes on Chapter 2

 2:2. Hebrew: וַיִּשְׁבֹּת֙ (way·yiš·bōṯ) (“He ceased, from שָׁבַת shabbat, to cease or desist from, or put an end to, labor). The traditional translation of the Hebrew word in this verse as “rested” is, I believe, unfortunate because it suggests that the Almighty was tired from “from all His work which He had done.”

The omnipotent Almighty can never become tired. Haven't you known, haven't you heard that the everlasting God, Yehovah, the Creator of the ends of the earth, does not grow tired or weary? His understanding cannot be fathomed, (Isaiah 40:28).

He had finished His work of creation, so He ceased from creating, just as DaVinci ceased from working on the Mona Lisa and set down his brush. His masterpiece was finished! [BACK]

2:3a. Hebrew: קָדַשׁ, qadash, to consecrate, sanctify, prepare, dedicate, be hallowed, be holy, be sanctified, be separate; to be set aside for a singular purpose. To commemorate the occassion of having finished creation and declaring it to be “very good,” He made the seventh day of every week a consecrated, holy day for our ceasing from all our our labor and spending the day in particular fellowship with Him. Also, please note that this is approximately 2500 years before the Torah was given at Mount Sinai, so to say that Sabbath observance is “part of the Torah” (the falsely-called “Mosaic Law”) and therefore not applicable to Gentiles is patently absurd.

The institution of the Sabbath is as old as creation, giving rise to that weekly division of time which prevailed in the earliest ages. It is a wise and beneficent law, affording that regular interval of rest which the physical nature of man and the animals employed in his service requires, and the neglect of which brings both to premature decay. Moreover, it secures an appointed season for religious worship, and if it was necessary in a state of primeval innocence, how much more so now, when mankind has a strong tendency to forget God and His claims? [Jamieson, Fausset & Brown] [BACK]

2:3b. Note that on days one through six “there was evening and there was morning …” yet on day seven there was no evening and morning specified. So are we now living in the “seventh day”? I find this significant because it hints at the idea that the seventh day has no firm beginning nor end. The Shabbat (seventh-day Sabbath) is given to humanity as a day to set aside the work of our hands and relax in fellowship with our Creator. The Shabbat points us to the Great Shabbat, the Millennial Kingdom of a thousand years which, instead of ending, runs into the Eternal Shabbat of the Olah Haba.[GN] [BACK]

 2:4. In most English Bibles, when rendered in all capital letters or small capital letters, “LORD” or “GOD” is the translation of Elohim’s Proper Name (יְהוָ֥ה), inasmuch as it can be said the Almighty has a Proper Name. I almost always use the word Yehovah or Adonai (LORD) to indicate the Sacred Name, יְהוָ֥ה (YHVH), and HaShem when otherwise referring to Him. See “Some Thoughts on the Sacred Name.” See also יְהוָֹה Elohim. [BACK]

 2:5a. “Shrub שִׂ֣יחַ (śî·aḥ) of the field” refers specifically to cultivated plants as distinguished from wild vegitation. “Plant עֵ֥שֶׂב (‘ê·śeḇ) of the field” refers to cultivated herbs and grasses. HaShem created wild vegitation on day three, but “there was no man to cultivate the ground.” [BACK]

2:5b. It did not rain on earth until approximately 1,656 years after creation, when the first rain fell to begin the Great Flood. (Gen. 7:10-12) [BACK]

2:7a. Note that adam, אדם, man, mankind, humanity, was created from adamah, אדםה, earth. Hebrew names are nearly always significant. [BACK]

2:7b. Breath: Hebrew נִשְׁמַ֣ת (niš·maṯ), breath or spirit; not רוּחַ (ruach), wind, or spirit.  As God did not breathe this “breath” into the animals that He created, this “spark” of life from God is apparently that very thing which separates humanity from the animal kingdom, and is perhaps that which returns to Him when we leave the mortal realm. [BACK]

2:7c. “Adam” and “man” (or “human”) are spelled with the exact same consonants in Hebrew (אָדָם), so this can be correctly translated either way. [BACK]

2:7d. Being, Hebrew נֶפֶשׁ (nephesh), a soul, living being, life, self, person, desire, passion, appetite, emotion. [BACK]

Location of the Garden of Eden

2:8a. The Garden of Eden (Hebrew עֵדֶן גַּן, Gan Eden) has been believed to be a myth by many scholars, because on a modern map of the Tigress/Euphrates basin there are not four rivers flowing into one. However, modern satellite imaging has discovered two dry ancient river beds (wadis) that would have joined the Euphrates as shown in this illustration. It is now believed that this fertile plain was inudated as sea levels rose and as water rushed in through the Strait of Hormuz to fill up the Persian Gulf. (More here.) [BACK]

2:8b. “In the east,” “formerly,” or “in antiquity” is מִקֶּ֑דֶם (miq·qe·ḏem):
  1) east, antiquity, front, that which is before, aforetime
     1a) front, from the front or east, in front, mount of the East
     1b) ancient time, aforetime, ancient, from of old, earliest time
     1c) anciently, of old (adverb)
     1d) beginning
     1e) east
  adv 2) eastward, to or toward the East. (Strong's Hebrew 6924) [BACK]

2:9a. In New Jerusalem, the Tree of Life sits between “Main Street” and the River of the Water of Life. (Rev. 22:1-2) [BACK]

2:9b. Note this is not the “Tree of Knowledge” as some have interpreted, making the pursuit of knowledge itself a pursuit of evil. It is the “Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil.” It is this specific knowledge which separates humanity from the animal kingdom. [BACK]

2:11. Havilah is “circle,” a part of Eden through which flowed the river Pison (Araxes); it was probably the Grecian Colchis, in the northeast corner of Asia Minor, near the Caspian Sea. [BACK]

2:12.  An aromatic resin. [BACK]

2:15. Hebrew-speaking people translate Gan Eden into English as “Paradise,” not to be confused with the Christian concept of “heaven.” As Yeshua HaMashiach was dying on the cross, He turned to the repentant criminal and (speaking His native language of Hebrew) said, “…today you will be with Me in Gan Eden” (Luke 23:43). [BACK]

2:17a. It was not the Tree of Knowledge, it was the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil. Adam and Eve’s sin was not the desire for knowledge. Their sin was disobedience. [BACK]

2:17b. Literally, “dying, you will die.” Clearly Adam and Eve did not die immediately upon eating the forbidden fruit. They were, however, placed under a death sentence. So I have paraphrased this as “doomed to die.” [BACK]

2:18a. At every step of creation, HaShem declared that it was good. Yet for the man to be alone was not good. [BACK]

2:18b. The idea behind “suitable helper” is a “sustainer.” We are not complete unless we are in a meaningful relationship with others of our own kind. [BACK]

2:19a. HaShem created all of the land animals and the birds out of the same dust from which the man was created. The difference was that HaShem breathe this “breath” (niš·maṯ) into the animals. [BACK]

2:19b. HaShem has the man participating in the very act of creation and bestows a wonderous authority upon him. Whatever name the man gives to an animal, HaShem agrees that He will call it by that name. [BACK]

2:23. Adam has the responsibility of naming his sustainer, just as he named the animals. In naming her, he establishes his own identity as ish (אִישׁ). He was not able to clearly identify himself until he had identified her. And just as adam (אדם) was created from adamah (אדםה) so ishsha (אִשָּׁ֔ה) was created out of ish (אִישׁ). Words matter! [BACK]

2:24. One: Hebrew אֶחָד (echad), a compound unity as echad bunch of grapes or echad school of fish. It is the word used to decolare the “oneness” of God in the Sh'ma and the oneness of Messianic Believers in John 17:11,22. [MORE HERE] [BACK]

Notes on Chapter 3

3:1a. The “serpent” was a physical manifestation of Satan (שָׂטָן), the Adversary or Accuser (see Rev. 12:9, Rev. 20:2). Satan is one of his titles, not his name. Other names and titles by which he has been known include the Devil, Lucifer, the Red Dragon, the Prince of Darkness, Beelzebub, Mephistopheles, Lord of the Flies, the Antichrist, Father of Lies, Moloch, or simply Satan. (See Matthew Henry’s commentary on vv. 1-5) [BACK]

3:1b. Notice that the text says that HaSatan was craftier than any of the animals, not crafier than any of the “other” animals. So this particular serpent was not one of the created animals. [BACK]

3:1c. The beginning of sin is to doubt the word of God. The most insipid temptations from Satan always begin with, “Did God really say …?”

Is it true that He has restricted you in using the fruits of this delightful place? This is not like one so good and kind. Surely there is some mistake. He insinuated a doubt as to her sense of the divine will and appeared as an angel of light (2Cor 11:14), offering to lead her to the true interpretation. It was evidently from her regarding him as specially sent on that errand, that, instead of being startled by the reptile’s speaking, she received him as a heavenly messenger. (Jamieson, Fausset & Brown)

This graphically displays the danger of assuming to be true what we emotionally want HaShem to be like in contrast to what the revealed Word tells us of Him. The classic example is “I simply cannot believe that a loving God would allow anyone to actually go to hell.” [BACK]

3:3. Notice here the beginning of all deception. HaShem’s clear instruction was, “Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, you must not eat of it.” Havah (Eve) added, “or even touch it” to the instructions of HaShem. Where did she get that from? Did she make that up herself, or did Adam give her the additional instruction to protect her, in effect “placing a fence” around HaShem’s command. We have absolutely no way of knowing how long after they were created this event took place. Adam and Eve were created immortal, so it may have been a few months, years, decades, or even centuries. One is forced to consider for how long this rebellious idea had been stewing inside her mind. Perhaps this is why HaShem was careful to admonish Moshe to neither add to nor subtract from His divine instruction (Deut. 4:2; Deut. 12:32). Apparently the Sages did not notice this mitzvah (command) when they started “building fences around Torah” (takanot). For just one small example, HaShem commands us, “You shall not boil a young goat in its mother’s milk,” to which the Sages added, “nor shall you eat meat of any kind along with dairy of any kind, nor shall you even use the same kitchen utensils in the preparation thereof.” [BACK]

3:4. HaSatan did not directly lie to the woman; his specialty is telling half-truths, as he did here. Note that Adam and his wife (as yet she has no name other than isha) did not immediately die physically, which was clearly HaSatan’s deceptive intent. See the notes on verse 21. Scholars have labeled HaSatan’s comment here with the technical designation “The Lie,” as Yeshua refers to it  (“Whenever he speaks the lie, he speaks from his own things,” John 8:44, DLNT), as does Rav Sha'ul: “and because of this shall God send to them a working of delusion, for their believing the lie,” (2Thess. 2:11, YLT). “The Lie” is two-fold: disobedience to HaShem does not result in death, and mankind can become deity. See also “Crash Course Mormonism: Kingdoms of Glory.” [BACK]

3:5. “… you will be like Elohim…” This may be interpreted as either “you will become like God” (the Creator Himself) or “you will become like gods” (become deities). One of the key beliefs of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS, or Mormons) is that mankind can achieve deity. Their definition of “eternal life” is exaltation in the Celestial Kingdom and elevation to deity, with the ability to bear children in heaven and reign over a world of one’s own; one Must have a temple marriage to qualify. See also the heading “Celestial Kingdom” in the article “Crash Course Mormonism: Kingdoms of Glory.” Proponants of the “Ancient Astronauts Theory” hold that all that those we perceive as “gods” were actually alien astronauts and that we are actually the descendants of their genetic experiments on apes and other early hominids, and that someday they they will return to earth and reveal that we, too, are “gods.” However, the Bible teaches us that all the false “gods” are actually Satan’s supernatural servants, demons. 1Cor 10:20; Deut 32:17 [BACK]

3:6a. Notice how easly HaSatan“the Adversary” can manipulate our best and honest intentions. Adam and his wife had been charged with managing the affairs of all of HaShem’s earthly creation. In addition to tending to the botanical life in the Garden, they were also responsible for naming and caring for all the animals. How much better would they be able to carry out those responsibilities with the knowldege that HaSatan was promising? Armed with that knowledge, wouldn’t she be able to make her husband more successful? [BACK]

3:6b. Adam was standing there with her, listening to the entire conversation. He was not deceived. Regardless of his motive, his was an act of wilful disobedience. And by pushing his own guilt off onto his “sustainer,” he ruptured his relationship with her as well as the relationship with God. [BACK]

3:7. Many scholars believe that before the Fall, Adam and Havah were literally clothed in the Shekinah (the visible Glory of God), and that when they sinned, the Shekinah (emphasis is on the last syllable, not the second — sounds like “shek-in-awe”) left them, thus leaving them naked for the first time. They tried to “cover” the result of their sin, but that clearly didn’t work. The Hebrew word כִּפֻּר (kippur) atonement is derived from כָּפַר (kaphar) to cover over (as in “cover with pitch” in Gen 6:14), pacify, make propitiation. [BACK] [Return to Note 3:21]

3:8. It is important to our understanding of all subsequent revelation to know exactly Who it was that walked in the Garden with Adam and Havah. Though the Scripture does not specifically so state, we can assume that because Adam and Havah recognized “the voice of Yehovah Elohim walking in the garden,” it was something with which they were well familiar. Yochanan tells us: “No one has ever seen God; but the only and unique Son, Who is identical with God and is at the Father’s side — He has made Him known” (John 1:18). A careful study of the entire Scripture leads us to the inescapable conclusion that all physical manifestations of God are in the “Person” of God the Son. Therefore, it was God the Son, the pre-incarnate Yeshua, who walked in the Garden, had lunch with Avram at Mamre (Gen 18:1-8), made the covenants with Avraham, Yitz’chak, and Ya'akov, appeared to Moshe in the Burning Bush (Exod 3:2) and atop Mount Sinai (Exod 19:18), wrote the “Ten Commandments” in the stone tablets with His finger (Exod 31:18), and appeared to Israel in the wilderness as the pillars of fire and smoke (Exod 13:21). And if it were indeed God the Son Who gave the Torah to Moshe, then what do you suppose He meant by “If you love Me, you will keep My commandments” (John 14:15) and “If you keep My commandments, you will remain in My love, just as I have kept my Father's commandments and remain in His love” (John 15:10)? [BACK]

3:9. HaShem certainly knew where Adam was without asking. He wanted to make sure that Adam knew where he was. This is clearly a call for Adam and Eve to confess and repent. God gives us his commandments as an act of love. The commandments represent His own heart. When we violate those commendments we rupture our relationship with Him and with each other. And when we have difficulty finding God, it is not because He has moved away from us, but it is we who have moved away from Him. Through this single act of disobedience, the relationship between God and mankind was broken, the relationship between the man and his wife was broken, and the relationship between mankind and the rest of creation was broken. Now the animals would fear him and the earth would refuse to yield its fruit without his labor. We might want to consider what would have happened differently had Adam and Eve merely confessed and repented. [BACK]

3:10. Note that Adam expressed no sign of repentance, just fear, evasion, and arrogance. But he realized that he was naked, so certainly something had changed. He had become mortal. [BACK]

3:12&13. Our natural reaction when we are confronted with our sin is nearly always to blame somebody else. The woman blamed the Serpent, but Adam actually blamed HaShem! “That woman that You gave me” Prov. 19:3 [BACK]

3:13. The woman (she hasn’t been given a name yet) was deceived into thinking the forbidden tree was a good thing for her and her husband, presumably so he would be a better and wiser ruler of the domain with which HaShem had entrusted him. But Adam sinned willingly. Because Adam was created first and Havah was easily deceived, God requires men to assume all leadership positions in the Messianic Community, along with the responsibility for that position. This is not to subjugate women, but to place them under the protection of the men. See 1Tim 2:11-15 [BACK]

3:15a. Because of the Fall, there will be perpetual animosity between HaSatan (and his children, the demons) and mankind; not just the woman, but all the offspring of the woman, i.e., all humanity. In later revelation we learn that “the woman” becomes a figurehead of Israel, and Satan’s hatred becomes directed toward Israel. Rev 12:1-6 [BACK]

3:15b. This sentence is knows as the Protoevangelium, or “First Gospel.” In it God declares that the serpent (HaSatan) will bruise Messiah’s heel (significantly injure) by means of the crucifixion, but the Son of the woman (Messiah) will crush HaSatan’s head (inflict a fatal injury) through that same crucifixion. But notice that HaShem provides the promise of redemption before he delares their sentence! Grace before justice, always! [BACK]

3:16a. Desire; Hebrew תשוקה, teshuwqah, desire, longing, craving. [BACK]

3:16b. The word translated “for” (וְאֶל, wa'el) can also be translated “against, motion or direction of a hostile character.” In context, I believe this means that the woman will desire to be in charge, but her husband will be the one to “wear the pants” in the family. Sin is the cause of conflict within the family. Be sure to read the next note. [BACK]

3:16c. Rule; Hebrew משל, mashal, to exercise dominion. But an important part of exercising dominion is to provide protection. Thus it is man’s responsibility to protect his wife (and the other women in the Holy Community) and to be responsible for her safety and well-being. HaShem does not permit women to assume leadership roles in the Holy Community unless it is by default, when no man is willing or able to accept the responsibility (see 1 Timothy 2:9-14, but also Judges 4:1-10). This is not because she is either inferior or incapable, but for her protection. The idea of “the buck stops here” applies. It is man’s God-appointed responsibility to lead, and to accept full responsibility (and the blame) for the result of that leadership. Thus the woman will not be held accountable for a man’s failed leadership, but only for her failure to submit to that leadership. [BACK]

3:17a. There is the Jewish idea of Tikkun Olam, or repairing the world. The fact that the idea has its roots in Kabbalah (Jewish mysticism) does not diminish its value.

Tikkun Olam: In Jewish teachings, any activity that improves the world, bringing it closer to the harmonious state for which it was created. Tikkun olam implies that while the world is innately good, its Creator purposely left room for us to improve upon His work. All human activities are opportunities to fulfill this mission, and every human being can be involved in tikkun olam — child or adult, student or entrepreneur, industrialist or artist, caregiver or salesperson, political activist or environmentalist, or just another one of us struggling to keep afloat. (, “Tikkun Olam,” accessed 20 October 2019)

Since it was mankind who “broke” HaShem’s creation, it is mankind’s responsibility to work diligently towards its repair until such time as Messiah comes to perform the ultimate restoration. [BACK]

3:17b. Through toil: Hebrew בְּעִצָּבוֹן֙ (b'itstsabon), through pain, labour, hardship, sorrow, toil. [BACK]

3:19. Bread: Hebrew לֶ֔חֶם (le·ḥem), literally bread, but in Hebrew it refers also to food in general, and is often translated “food” based on the context. [BACK]

3:20. She was named Havah [חַוָּ֑ה (ḥaw·wāh)] “because she would be come the mother of all the living” [חָֽי (ḥāy)]. [BACK]

3:21. Try to imagine the emotional anguish this brought to Adam. As caretaker of creation (perhaps for centuries by this time), he had a special bond with all the animals and loved them as we love our children. How would you feel if HaShem brought you the skin of your child and said, “Here, this skin of your beloved child will cover the guilt of your sin!”

This is the first time that death of any kind occurs in the history of creation. HaShem had told Adam and Havah that on the day they ate of the forbidden tree, they would be doomed to die. The idea of “death” (or often stated in the Tanakh as being “cut off”) actually refers to a “separation,” which comes in one of three forms:

  1. physical death, when the spiritual elements are separated from the physical elements of a living being;

 2. spiritual death, when the human spirit and soul are separated from the Creator; and

 3. social or community death, when a member of a community is separated from the other members of that community.

Because of their disobedience, Adam and Havah were separated from personal fellowship with HaShem. Never again (until the New Creation) would He walk with them in Gan Eden. I personally agree with those scholars who believe that after the Fall Adam and Havah were literally separated from the Shekinah in which they had been clothed (see Note 7, above).

In this event HaShem initiated and instructed Adam and Havah in the concept of sacrificial atonement, in which the death of an innocent can provide a “covering” (but not forgiveness) for the sin of the guilty party. “Atonement” is the English rendering of the Hebrew word kippur (כִּפֻּר), to cover. It does not include the concept of forgiveness. “For it is impossible that the blood of bulls and goats should take away sins” (Hebrews 10:4). HaShem sacrificed an innocent animal and created for the man and his wife a “covering” or atonement. Although their sin was “covered” they still had to suffer the consequences. [BACK]

3:22a. If HaSham is an absolute unity, to Whom is He speaking? [BACK]

3:22b. To understand experientially the difference between good and evil is to become “as a god.” They understood the difference, and found themselves overcome with their shame. Had they been allowed to remain in the garden, eaten from the Tree of Life, and become immortal, they would have lived with their shame in perpetuity, but without the presence of a holy God Who cannot dwell in the presence of sin. Their paradise would have become the very definition of hell — an eternal separation from their Creator and His love. Expulsion from the garden and from the visual presense of God was an act of infinite love and mercy. [BACK]

3:23. We can’t begin to imagine the anguish this entire event caused God. He had created Adam and Eve to rule over His creation and to enjoy a physial fellowship with Him forever. We have no way of knowing how long after they were created they chose to disobey Him. A causal reading of the text may seem like it was only a few days, but as they were created to be eternal beings it may have been years, or even centuries. And we can readily assume from the text that He was in the habit of physically walking with them in fellowship in the garden. When He came “down” for His walk, He found them hiding from Him. This was the very first time since they were created that the fellowship was broken. How this must have broken God‘s heart! “Adam! Adam! Where are you? Why have you abandoned Me?” We can only liken this to the anguish of our Savior on the cross: “My God! my God! Why have You forsaken Me!” How God must have wept over their forsaking Him! And so was set in motion the Plan of Redemption whereby humanity will ultimately be restored to eternal fellowship with Him in the Olam Haba. [BACK]

3:24a. “The passage should be rendered thus: ‘And He dwelt between the cherubim at the East of the Garden of Eden and a fierce fire, or Shekinah, unfolding itself to preserve the way of the tree of life.” This was the mode of worship now established to show God’s anger at sin and teach the mediation of a promised Saviour as the way of life, as well as of access to God. They were the same figures as were afterwards in the tabernacle and temple; and now, as then, God said, “I will commune with thee from above the mercy seat, from between the two cherubim”’ (Exodus 25:22)” (Jameison, Causset & Brown).

K'ruvim (singular, קֶדֶם k'ruv or kherub), “cherubim” in most English translations — the “ch” is gutteral as in Johann Sebastian Bach — are powerful angelic creatures, messengers of Elohim with wings.  [If you are a pastor or Bible teacher, the word “cherubim” is already plural; please do not embarass yourself by talking about “cherubims.”] They appear in Scripture as:

a. guardians of Eden (Gen 3:24) and of God’s throne (Ezek 28:13-15)

b. an image form hovering over the Ark of the Covenant (Exod 25:20-22; 37:9)

c. depicted in the embroidery in the Temple veil (Exod 26:31)

d. statuary in the Temple (1Kings 6:23-28; 2Chron 3:10-13)

e. poetically, flanking God’s throne (Ps 80:1; 99:1; Isa 37:15-17)

f. powering the “chariot” of Hashem (Ezek 10:1-10; 15-18)

The Truth About Angels

Satan is an “anointed guardian K'ruv”: Ezekiel 28:13-17 (v. 14). See also Ezekiel 10. [BACK]

3:24b. It was absolutely necessary for HaShem to block access to the Tree of Life in order for mankind to be redeemed. If Adam and Eve had eaten from the Tree of Life in their fallen condition, they would have lived forever, eternally separated from fellowship with God by sin.

The Tree of Life is first described as being in Gan Eden (the Garden of Eden). The Hebrew word for “Paradise” is Gan Eden. If Yeshua HaMashiach spoke Hebrew as His native language, as I am absolutely certain He did, then what He said to the thief on the cross next to His was literally, “Today you will be with Me in Gan Eden.” The next we hear of the Tree of Life is in Revelation 2:7:

Those who have ears, let them hear what the Spirit is saying to the Messianic communities. To him who wins the victory I will give the right to eat from the Tree of Life which is in God’s Gan-'Eden.

After this world is destroyed and rebuilt, the Tree of Life resides in New Jerusalem between “Main Street” and the River of Life (Rev. 22:1-2). These facts might well lead one to conclude that what we conceive of as “heaven” is, in fact, here on the re-created earth in and around the city of New Jerusalem. [BACK]

Notes on Chapter 4

4:2a. Calvin says that Cain and Abel were probably twins, and that it is thought that, at this early period, children were born in pairs. I do not see this evidenced in Scripture. [BACK]

4:2b. Abel was a keeper of sheep; literally, “a feeder of a flock,” which, in Oriental countries, always includes goats as well as sheep. Abel, though the younger, is mentioned first, probably on account of the pre-eminence of his … character. (JF&B [Jamieson, Fausset & Brown]) [BACK]

4:3. Literally, “at the end of days” (Young’s Literal Translation); probably on Shabbat, as the “end of days” of the week. [BACK]

4:5. Many teach that HaShem rejected Kayin’s offering simply because it was not a blood sacrfice. This cannot be the sole reason, because HaShem accepts all sorts of offerings that are not animals: the grain offering, the wine offering (libation), and First Fruits, for starters. However, if this were indended to be a sin offering, HaShem would certainly not have accepted it. I imagine (feel free to disagree) that is was Cain’s attitude rather than the actual quality of the offering. (“See what I am bringing? I did this with my own two hands!”) However, see note 4:7a, below. [RETURN]

4:7a. Sin, Hebrew חַטָּ֣את (ḥaṭ·ṭāṯ), is frequently used in Scripture to refer to the sin offering (as in Hosea 4:8, 2 Corinthians 5:21, Hebrews 9:28). “The purport of the divine rebuke to Cain was this, ‘Why art thou angry, as if unjustly treated? If thou doest well (that is, wert innocent and sinless) a thank offering would have been accepted as a token of thy dependence as a creature. But as thou doest not well (that is, art a sinner), a sin offering is necessary, by bringing which thou wouldest have met with acceptance and retained the honors of thy birthright.’ This language implies that previous instructions had been given as to the mode of worship; Abel offered through faith (Hebrews 11:4).” (JF&B) Whatever the case, verse 7 tells us that Cain had simply refused to do what he knew was right. [BACK]

4:7b. Sin (our sin nature) desires to rule over us, but we are instructed to master (תִּמְשָׁל, tim·šāl), exercise dominion over) it; that is, we are to exercise control over our sin nature. [BACK]

4:13. Though he expresses misery over his punishment, there is no sign of regret or repentance over his crime, and no plea for pardon. [BACK]

4:14. “Whoever finds me will kill me” indicates that there was by this time a significant human population on earth. We have no record of how many children Adam and Eve produced over the course of many decades. We know that Adam was 130 years old when Seth was born (Gen 5:3), but Seth being the third named son means little in regards to birth rank. And think about it: 130 years is a long time for Eve to have had a mere three children! That’s only one child every 43 years. Seeing that Adam and Eve were commanded to reproduce (Gen 1:28), it might be assumed that Cain was born pretty early, perhaps a year or two after Creation Week. Abel was born after that, but not necessarily next. His name appears next, but this is because he is an important part of the story. Yet even if Abel was the second child, it is unlikely that Seth was the third. Cain may have been 130 years old, or older, when he murdered his brother, so that is likely that earth’s population numbered well into the thousands by this time. [BACK]

4:15. For years many racists taught (and surely there are some who still do) that black skin is “the mark of Cain.” This is utterly ridiculous. Except for Noah’s immediate family, the entire population of earth was wiped out in the Flood, including all of Kayin’s descendants. So whatever the “mark of Cain” was, it it was obliterated by the Flood and does not exist today. [RETURN]

4:16. Nobody knows where Nod was, only that is was an area somewhere east of Eden. Some have speculated that it might be as far east as India or China; that is mere speculation.  Hebrew נ֖וֹד (nō·wḏ) means “wandering,” so it may not be an actual place name; it may simply be “the land of wandering.” [RETURN]

4:17a. The old question, “Where did Cain get his wife?” is easily answered: he married one of his many sisters. He may well have been married before he murdered his brother, since his wife is mentioned as soon as Cain moves away. HaShem did not introduce a prohibition against marrying close relatives until 2,500 years later, in the time of Moses (Lev 18:10). Consider some of the important instances listed in the Bible: Noah’s grandchildren must have married each other (all of whom were cousins or siblings). Abraham married his half-sister Sarah (Gen 20:12). Abraham’s son Isaac married his closer-than-a-cousin Rebecca. And Jacob married his much-closer-than-cousins Leah and Rachel. In those early years, there was no prohibition against marrying close relatives. [RETURN]

4:17b. City-building clearly began with the second generation of humanity. There may have been a long history of “hunter-gatherers,” but not to the exclusion of city-dwelling communities. [RETURN]

4:19. This is the first polygamous marriage in human history, and it is always a source of misery. [RETURN]

Notes on Chapter 5

5:2. “Adam” and “Man” are spelled with the exact same consonants in Hebrew (אָדָ֔ם, adam) so this can be correctly translated either way. Because of the context, here it needs to be translated as “man,” meaning “mankind” or “humanity.” [RETURN]

5:5. We cannot be sure that 930 was Adam’s literal age when he died. We don’t know what his apparent age was when he was created. Many assume that he was created with an apparent age of 30, but it may as welll have been 15 or 16. We don’t know how long he lived in the garden before his expulsion; it may have been just a few days, a few years, or a few centuries. We are sure, however that he was created to be an eternal creature and that he was created, not born. So did the counting of “930” years begin at his creation or at his expulsion? One theory for the longevity of mankind before the flood is that when HaShem “separated the waters from the waters” (Gen. 1:6-8), the water “above the expanse” (firmament in the KJV) was literally suspended as vapor, or possibly ice, in the atmosphere. Remember, before the Flood it did not rain on earth (Gen. 2:5-6). All that water vapor (or ice) served as a filter to block harmful radiation, which, as science currently tells us, is the primary cause of aging. [RETURN]

5:21. Methuselah, xlXwtm, M'thuwshelach. The NAS Old Testament Hebrew Lexicon says “man of the dart [spear or javelin], son of Enoch, 6th in descent from Seth, and father of Lamech.” Other commentators say the name means “He dieth, and the sending forth” (JF&B [Jamieson, Fausset & Brown]).

A leading Hebrew scholar of the 1700s, Dr. John Gill said:

… and that Enoch had a son, whose name was Methuselah, is affirmed by Eupolemus{r}, an Heathen writer; and Enoch being a prophet gave him this name under a spirit of prophecy, foretelling by it when the flood should be; for his name, according to Bochart{s}, signifies, “when he dies there shall be an emission,” or sending forth of waters upon the earth, to destroy it.… [Notes by Gill: {r} Apud Euseb. Evangel. Praepar. l. 9. c. 17. p. 419. {s} Thaleg. l. 2. c. 13. col. 88. so Ainsworth.]

However, this interpretation that some have suggested does not come from merely the Hebrew. The transliterated name in Greek as used in Jesus's genealogy in Luke 3:37 is: “the son of Methuselah, the son of Enoch, the son of Jared, the son of Mahalalel, the son of Cainan,…” The Greek from Μαθουσαλά or Mathousala, according to the New Testament Greek Lexicon literally means: “when he dies, there shall be an emission.”

However, a closer look at the Hebrew reveals that Methuselah's name may not mean this. Hebrew Scholar Dr. Ben Shaw at Greenville Presbyterian Theological Seminary points out:

… it is extremely unlikely that the name Methuselah has the significance that Gill and others give to it. It is unlikely for the following reasons. The name is made up of two parts: Methu and shelah. The methu part does not come from the word for death, because that would require a long u vowel between the m and the t. [It should be noted, however, that there are no vowels in the original, Spirit-inspired Hebrew text. They were added between the 6th and 10th centuries of the Common Era (see here). ~Ari] As it is, if this part of the name has any significance, it may come from a rare noun meaning “man.” The second part of the name cannot mean “it is sent” or “there is an emission.” Even supposing that the root meaning of the word is send (which is doubtful); it would have to be in a passive form, producing something like “shahluh.” In order to produce the meaning, “when he dies, it is sent,” the Hebrew would have to be something like bematoshahluh. Again, if the name means anything in Hebrew (which is at best doubtful), it is probably something like "man of a spear.”

So it may not be wise to continue to use Methuselah’s name to mean “when he dies it shall come” or any variation of that. Regardless, the year Methuselah died was the same year as the Flood. (Source: Answers in Genesis, “Methuselah: When Did He Die?” accessed 22 October 2019)

All that aside, Methuselah was the longest-lived man in human history, living 969 years. See the article “Who was Methuselah in the Bible?” According to Jewish tradition, “Methuselah, the longest-lived human being of all time, died at the age of 969 years on the 11th of Cheshvan of the year 1656 from creation (2105 BCE) — exactly seven days before the beginning of the Great Flood.” (, accessed 22 October 2019)

The following two article is mirrored without permission from solely for the purpose of education within the “Fair Use” provisions of 17USC107. If you are the copyright owner and want this material removed, please contact me and I will immediately remove it.

The Great Ages

Source accessed 22 October 2019

Many of the ancient people listed in the Bible’s genealogies lived very long lives. Methuselah holds the title of oldest-known man at 969 years old. After he died, the Flood came. After the Flood, we see the ages of these men declining. For example, Noah lived to be 950 years old, Shem to 600, Shelah to 433, and Abraham to 175.

  Patriarch Age Bible reference
1 Adam 930 Genesis 5:4
2 Seth 912 Genesis 5:8
3 Enosh 905 Genesis 5:11
4 Cainan 910 Genesis 5:14
5 Mahalalel 895 Genesis 5:17
6 Jared 962 Genesis 5:20
7 Enoch 365 (translated?) Genesis 5:23
8 Methuselah 969 Genesis 5:27
9 Lamech 777 Genesis 5:31
10 Noah 950 Genesis 9:29
11 Shem 600 Genesis 11:10–11
12 Arphaxad 438 Genesis 11:12–13
13 Shelah 433 Genesis 11:14–15
14 Eber 464 Genesis 11:16–17
15 Peleg 239 Genesis 11:18–19
16 Reu 239 Genesis 11:20–21
17 Serug 230 Genesis 11:22–23
18 Nahor 148 Genesis 11:24–25
19 Terah 205 Genesis 11:32
20 Abram (Abraham) 175 Genesis 25:7
21 Isaac 180 Genesis 35:28–29
22 Jacob (Israel) 147  Genesis 47:28
Ages of the Patriarchs from Adam to Jacob (Israel)

Until the Flood (Noah’s day), living to about 900 years old was the norm … unless you were Enoch or Lamech. Like Elijah, Enoch was translated without dying (Genesis 5:23; Hebrews 11:5). Lamech, it seems, was a bit unusual by being about a quarter of a century away from making 800. RETURN]

5:24. Because Hanokh (Enoch) is thought to have been taken alive by HaShem, he is said to never have died. Hebrews 9:27 says, “… human beings have to die once, but after this comes judgment…”, so many think that Hanokh (since he supposedly has never died) might be one of the two witnesses of Revelation 11:1-14. We must be careful to not read into the text here, however; the Scripture does not say that Hanokh was “translated” alive to “heaven,” but only that “he was not found, for Elohim took him.” [RETURN]

5:32. After the flood, Shem became the progenitor of all the Semitic tribes; Ham was the father of Kena'an and of various peoples which were inhabitants of southern lands, including the Egyptians; Yafet’s descendants settled on the coastal lands of the Mediterranean, spreading north into Europe and parts of Asia. See the Table of Nations in Genesis 10. [RETURN]

Notes on Chapter 6

6:2. “The sons of Elohim (אֱלהִים, God)” in the Scriptures almost always refers to angelic beings. Some scholars believe that “the sons of God” refers to the godly line of Seth and “the daughters of men” refers to the female descendants of the “apostate” Cain, but this theory provides absolutely no suggestion as to how these forbidden relationships could possibly have produced N'filim (נְפִילle, a race of “giants”) as offspring. I agree with those Bible scholars who believe that here “sons of Elohim” refers to fallen angels (demons) who cohabited with human women to produce hybrid giant offspring, the N'filim. The name N'filim is also used in reference to giants who inhabited Kena'an (Canaan) at the time of the Isra'elite conquest of that land according to Numbers 13:33, including Goliath and his four brothers from the Canaanite city of Gath. While some believe that God sent the flood primarily to wipe out the N'filim, the fact that Goliath and his brothers were N'filim indicates that this demonic cohabitation was resumed after the flood. These demons are called Incubi in modern demonology. [BACK]

6:3. Some think that HaShem was setting the lifespan for humans at 120 years, but that can’t be correct (Ps 90:10). I believe He was giving mankind 120 years to repent before sending the Flood (“I’m giving humanity 120 years to straighten up and repent”), during which time Noah repeatedly called upon mankind to repent (2 Peter 2:5). Noah spent 100 of those years in the construction of the ark. [BACK]

6:4a. N'filim: Hebrew נְּפִלִ֞ים, nephiylim, giants, Nephilim; from נפל, naphal, fallen, to fall, to fall upon; hence either fallen angels or human “terrorists” who “fell upon” their victims. I believe the former is the case. [BACK]

4b. That is, after the Flood. See also note 6:2. [BACK]

6:5. When one sees all the pure evil that is now coming from so many of our nation’s elected officials, the govenment designating an entire month to express “pride” in what God has declared blatant sin, and masses of people rioting in the streets, looting, and burning cities down in the name of some perceived injustice (with many elected officials encouraging—and even enciting—them), one is forced to wonder how long Yeshua will let it go on without interceding.

Please note that this is not intended as a political statement against either party, but rather against the idea that the elite class in America, on both sides of the political spectrum, is actively inciting violence, just like in the days of Noah.

For the coming of the Son of Man will be just like the days of Noah. For as in those days before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noah entered the ark, and they did not understand until the flood came and took them all away (to judgment); so will the coming of the Son of Man be. Then there will be two men in the field; one will be taken (to judgment) and one will be left. (Matt 24:37-40)

Just as an aside, this passage from Matthew is often used to support the idea of a “Rapture” in which one will be taken off to heaven and one will be left to endure the Tribulation. However, note that the one that is taken is taken off to judgment, not to a place of escape. Therefore, this passage cannot possibly support the idea of a “Rapture.” See that discussion HERE. [BACK]

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Anxiously awaiting Mashiach’s return

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