The Center for
Messianic Learning 

Unapologetically Pro-Torah
Unashamedly Pro-Israel
Irrevocably Zionist
“… out of Tziyon will go forth Torah, the word of ADONAI from Yerushalayim.”
(Isaiah 2:3)

If your life is not in jeopardy for what you believe, you’re probably on the wrong side!

Like this page? Share it. MeWe Logo ParlerLogo WimKin Logo CloutHub Others:Bookmark and Share

Return to Parashot Index
This file is in PDF format List of Torah Portions for 5781 This file is in PDF format
A Multi-Year Reading Schedule is Here
Weekly Parashot

Unless otherwise indicated, Scripture quotations are my own rendering
based on the World Messianic Bible, which is in the public domain.

Parashot Index

hlvyw hvrp

Parashah VaYishlach
“And he sent”
B'resheet (Genesis) 32:3-36:43

Jewish Man Reading Torah Scroll

This week's commentary from First Fruits of Zion (Messianic)
This week's commentary from (Rabbinical)
This week’s commentary from (Christian)

This Week’s Reading Schedule


Review and meditate on
last week’s Parashah


Rishon [1st]: 32:3-12
Sheni [2nd]: 32:13-29


Shlishi [3rd]: 32:30-33:5
R'vi'i [4th]: 33:6-34:4


Chamishi [5th]: 34:5-13
Shishi [6th]: 34:14-36:19


Shvi'i [7th]: 36:20-39
Maftir [Concluding]: 36:40-42


   (A) Hoshea (Hosea) 11:7-12:12
   (S) `Ovadyah (Obadiah) 1:1-21

Ketuvei HaShalichim:

   Gospel: Yochanan (John) 1:19–2:12
   Ivrim (Hebrews) 11:11-20
   Korintim Alef (1 Corinthians) 5:1-13
   Hitgalut (Revelation) 7:1-12



The Blessing of the Torah
Aliya: (the one who “goes up” to read)  
Bar-khu et Adonai ham-vor-ack.
(Praise ADONAI Who is worthy to be praised.)
Ba-rookh Adonai ham-vor-ack ley-oh-lam vah-ed.
(Praise ADONAI Who is worthy to be praised for all eternity.)
Ba-rookh Adonai ham-vor-ack ley-oh-lam vah-ed.
(Praise ADONAI Who is worthy to be praised for all eternity.)
Ba-rookh ah-tah Adonai, Eh-lo-hay-noo
meh-lekh hah oh-lahm,
ah-sher ba-char ba-noo me-kol ha-ah­meem,
v’na-tahn lah-noo et torah-toe,
ba-rookh ah-tah Adonai, no-tane hah-torah.

Blessed are You, O Lord our God,
King of the Universe,
Who has chosen us from all peoples
and given us His Torah.
Blessed are You, O Lord, Giver of the Torah.

Click here to listen to this sung by
Cantor Kenneth B. Cohen of
Temple Sholom, Greenwich, CT.

Parashah 8: Vayishlach (He sent)

B'resheet (Genesis) 32:3-36:43

[i] 3Ya'akov sent messengers ahead of him to 'Esav, his brother, to the land of Se'ir, the region of Edom, 4commanding them, “Here is what you are to tell my lord, 'Esav: ‘Your servant, Ya'akov, says, “I have been living as a foreigner with Lavan, and have stayed until now. 5I have cattle, donkeys, flocks, and male and female servants. I have sent these to tell this to my lord, that I may win your favor.”’”

6The messengers returned to Ya'akov, saying, “We went to your brother 'Esav, and he is coming to meet you; he has four hundred men with him.”

 7Then Ya'akov became greatly afraid and distressed. He divided the people, flocks, herds, and camels that were with him into two camps, 8saying, “If 'Esav comes and attacks one camp, the camp that is left will escape.” 9Ya'akov said, “God of my father Avraham and God of my father Yitz'chak, ADONAI, Who told me, ‘Return to your country and your relatives, and I will do you good,’ 10I am not worthy of even the least of all the loving kindnesses and faithfulness you have shown to your servant; I crossed over this Yarden with just my staff, but now I have become two camps. 11Please deliver me from my brother 'Esav: for I am afraid of him, that he might come and attack me and the mothers of the children. 12You said, ‘I will surely do you good, and make your descendants as numerous as the grains of sand by the sea, which are so numerous they cannot be counted.’”


[ii] 13He camped there that night, then chose a gift for his brother 'Esav from the possessions he had with him: 14two hundred female and twenty male goats, two hundred ewes and twenty rams, 15thirty milk camels and their colts, forty cows and ten bulls, twenty female donkeys and ten foals. 16He turned them over to his servants, each herd by itself, and told his servants, “Cross over ahead of me, and put some space between the herds.” 17He instructed the servant in front, “When my brother 'Esav and asks you, ‘Whose servant are you? Where are you going? Whose animals are these with you?’ 18you are to say, ‘They belong to your servant Ya'akov. They are a gift he is sending you, lord 'Esav. He is coming just after us.’” 19He instructed the servants with the second and third herds, and those followed the after the herds, “This is what you shall tell 'Esav when you see him: 20‘Your servant Ya'akov is right behind us.’” For he said, “I will first appease him with the gift that goes ahead of me, and then when I see him face to face, maybe he will accept me.”

21So the gift crossed over ahead of him, and he stayed in the camp that night. 22He got up that night and took his two wives, his two handmaids, and his eleven sons, and forded the Jabbok[1]. 23He took them and sent them across the stream, then sent his possessions over.

Ya'akov Wrestles with ADONAI[2]

 24Ya'akov was left alone, and a man wrestled with him there until daybreak. 25When the man saw that he hadn’t defeated Ya'akov, he struck Ya'akov’s hip joint, so his hip joint was dislocated as he wrestled. 26The man said, “Let me go, because it’s daybreak.”

Ya'akov said, “I won’t let you go, unless you bless me.”

27The man asked him, “What is your name?” and he answered, “Ya'akov.” 28The man said, “From now on you will not be called Ya'akov, but Isra'el; because you have contented with with both God and men, and have prevailed.”

29Ya'akov asked him, “Please tell me your name.”

The man said, “Why do you ask what my name is?” And he blessed him there.


[iii] 30Ya'akov called the place P'ni-El, for he said, “I have seen God face to face, yet my life has been preserved.” 31The sun rose just as he passed over P'ni-El, and he was limping because of his thigh. 32Therefore, to this day the children of Isra'el don’t eat the sinew of the hip, which is on the socket of the thigh, because He touched the socket of Ya'akov’s thigh in the sinew of the hip.

Ya'akov Meets 'Esav

33 1Then Ya'akov looked up saw 'Esav coming, and four hundred men with him. He divided the children among Le'ah, Rachel, and the two handmaids. 2He put the handmaids and their children in front, Le'ah and her children after them, and Rachel and Yosef at the rear. 3He himself crossed over in front of them, and prostrated himself on the ground seven times, until he came near to his brother.

4'Esav ran to meet him, embraced him, fell on his neck, kissed him, and they wept. 5'Esav looked up and saw the women and children, and asked, “Who are these with you?”

Ya'akov said, “The children whom God has graciously given your servant.”


[iv] 6Then the handmaids came near with their children, and they bowed down. 7Le'ah and her children also came near and bowed down. And after them, Yosef came near with Rachel, and they bowed down.

8'Esav said, “What do you mean by all this company which I met?”

Ya'akov said, “To find favor in the sight of my lord.”

9'Esav said, “I have enough, my brother; let that which you have be your own.”

10Ya'akov said, “Please, no, if I have now found favor in your sight, then receive my present at my hand, because I have seen your face as one sees the face of God, and you were pleased with me. 11Please take the gift that I brought to you, because God has dealt graciously with me, and because I have enough.” He urged him, and he took it.

12'Esav said, “Let us take our journey and go, and I will go before you.”

13Ya'akov said to him, “My lord knows that the children are delicate, and that the flocks and herds with me have their young, and if they are driven hard one day, all the flocks will die. 14Please let my lord cross over before his servant, and I will lead them on leisurely, at the pace of the these livestock and of the children, until I come to my lord at Seir.”

15'Esav said, “Let me leave with you some of the people who are with me.” But Ya'akov, “What need is there for that? Let me find favor in the sight of my lord.”

16So 'Esav returned that day on his way to Seir. 17Ya'akov traveled on to Sukkot, built himself a house, and made shelters for his livestock. That is why the name of that place is Sukkot.

18Having traveled from Paddan-Aram, Ya'akov arrived safely at the city of Sh'khem, which is in the land of Kena'an, and camped near the city. 19For one hundred pieces of money, he bought from the sons of Hamor, Sh'khem’s father, the parcel of ground where he had pitched his tent. 20He built an altar there and called it El-Elohe-Isra'el.


Dinah and the Men of Sh'khem

[v] 34 1Dinah, the daughter of Le'ah, whom she had borne to Ya'akov, went out to visit the young women of the district. 2Sh'khem, the son of Hamor the Hivvi, the prince of the land, saw her. He took her, and lay with her by force. 3He was deeply attracted to Dinah, the daughter of Ya'akov, and he loved the young lady and spoke kindly to her. 4Sh'khem asked his father, Hamor, “Get me this young lady as a wife.”

5Now Ya'akov heard that Sh'khem had defiled his daughter Dinah, but his sons were tending his livestock in the field. Ya'akov held his peace until they came in. 6Then Sh'khem’s father Hamor went out to Ya'akov to talk with him. 7The sons of Ya'akov came in from the field when they heard about it. The men were grieved, and they were very angry, because Sh'khem had done a disgraceful thing in Isra'el by lying with Ya'akov’s daughter; such a thing ought not to be done. 8Hamor talked with them, saying, “The soul of my son, Sh'khem, longs for your daughter. Please give her to him as a wife. 9Intermarry with us; give us your daughters and take our daughters for yourselves. 10Live with us, and the land will be open to you; live and trade in it, and acquire property in it.”

11Sh'khem also said to her father and brothers, “If I find favor in your sight, I will give you whatever you say. 12Ask me a great amount for a dowry, and I will give whatever you ask of me, but give me the young lady as a wife.” 13But the sons of Ya'akov answered Sh'khem and Hamor his father deceitfully, because he had defiled Dinah their sister. 14They said to them, “We can’t do this thing, to give our sister to one who is uncircumcised; that is a disgrace to us. 15Only on this condition will we consent to you: if you will become like us, and every one of your males be circumcised. 16Only then will we give our daughters to you take your daughters for ourselves, and live among you, and we will become one people. 17But if you will not listen to us to be circumcised, then we will take our sister and be gone.”

18Their words seemed reasonable to Hamor and his son Sh'khem. 19The young man didn’t delay in doing the thing, because he was delighted with Ya'akov’s daughter, and he was more respected than all the household of his father. 20Hamor and his son Sh'khem came to the gate of their city, and talked with all the men of their city, saying, 21“These men are friendly to us; therefore let them live in the land and trade in it. For behold, the land is large enough for them. Let us take their daughters as wives, and give them our daughters. 22Only on this condition will the men agree to live with us and become one people, if every male among us is circumcised as they are circumcised. 23Won’t their livestock and their possessions and all their animals be ours? Only let us give them our consent to them, and they will live among us.”

24All who went out of the gate of his city listened to Hamor and his son Sh'khem, and every male was circumcised, all who went out of the gate of his city. 25Now it came about the third day when they were sore, that two of Ya'akov’s sons, Shim'on and Levi, Dinah’s brothers, each took his sword, came upon the unsuspecting city, and killed all the males.

26They killed Hamor and his son Sh'khem with the edge of the sword, took Dinah out of Sh'khem’s house, and went away. 27Ya'akov’s sons came upon the dead, and plundered the city, because they had defiled their sister. 28They took their flocks, their herds, their donkeys, all that was in the city, and all that was in the field, 29and all their possessions. They took captive all their little ones and their wives, and took as plunder everything that was in the houses. 30Then Ya'akov said to Shim'on and Levi, “You have brought troubled on me by making me odious to the inhabitants of the land, among the Kena'ani and the P'rizi. Since I only have few men, they will gather together against me and attack me, and I will be destroyed, I and my household.”

31But they said, “Should he treat our sister like a harlot?”

Ya'akov Goes to Beit-El

35 1Then God said to Ya'akov, “Arise, go up to Beit-El, and live there. Make an altar there to God, Who appeared to you when you fled from your brother 'Esav.”

2Then Ya'akov said to his household, and to all who were with him, “Put away the foreign gods that are among you, purify yourselves, and change your garments. 3Let us arise, and go up to Beit-El. I will make an altar there to God, who answered me in the day of my distress, and has been with me wherever I went.”

4So they gave Ya'akov all the foreign in their possession, and the rings that were in their ears; and Ya'akov hid them under the oak which was near Sh'khem. 5As they traveled, a terror of God was on the cities that were around them, and they didn’t pursue the sons of Ya'akov. 6So Ya'akov came to Luz (that is, Beit-El), which is in the land of Kena'an, he and all the people who were with him. 7He built an altar there, and called the place El Beit-El, because there God was revealed to him, when he fled from his brother. 8Rivkah’s nurse Deborah died, and she was buried below Beit-El under the oak, which was named Alon-Bakhut.

HaShem Changes Ya'akov’s Name to Isra'el

9When Ya'akov came from Paddan-Aram, God appeared to him again and blessed him. 10God said to him, “Your name is Ya'akov. You will no longer be called Ya'akov, but your name will be Isra'el.” Thus He named him Isra'el. 11God also said to him, “I am El Shaddai. Be fruitful and multiply. A nation, indeed an assembly of nations, will come from you, and kings will be descended from you.


(A: vi) 12And the land which I have given to Avraham and Yitz'chak, I will give it to you, and to your descendants after you.” 13Then God went up from him in the place where He had spoken with him.

(S: vi) 14Ya'akov set up a pillar in the place where He had spoken with him, a pillar of stone. He poured out a drink offering on it, and poured oil on it. 15Ya'akov called the name of the place where God spoke with him Beit-El.

16They traveled on from Beit-El. While there was still some distance to go to Efrat, and Rachel started to give birth, and she suffered severe labor. 17While she was in severe labor, the midwife said to her, “Don’t be afraid, for now you will have another son.”

18It came about that as her soul was departing (for she died), she named him Ben-Oni, but his father named him Binyamin. 19So Rachel died, and was buried in the way to Efrat (that is, Beit-Lechem). 20Ya'akov set up a standing-stone on her grave. It is the standing-stone of Rachel’s grave to this day. 21Isra'el continued his travels, and pitched his tent on the other side of Migdal-'Eder.

The Sons of Isra'el

 22It came about that while Isra'el was living in that land, Re'uven went and lay with Bilhah, his father’s concubine, and Isra'el heard of it. Now there were twelve sons of Ya'akov. 23The sons of Le'ah were Re'uven (Ya'akov’s firstborn), Shim'on, Levi, Y'hudah, Yissakhar, and Z'vulun. 24The sons of Rachel were Yosef and Benjamin. 25The sons of Bilhah (Rachel’s handmaid) were Dan and Naftali. 26The sons of Zilpah (Le'ah’s handmaid) were Gad and Asher. These are the sons of Ya'akov, born to him in Paddan-Aram.

 27Ya'akov came to his father Yitz'chak at Mamre, in Kiriath-arba (that is, Hevron), where Avraham and Yitz'chak had lived as foreigners. 28Yitz'chak lived one hundred eighty years. 29Yitz'chak breathed his last, died, and was gathered to his people, old and full of days. 'Esav and Ya'akov, his sons, buried him.

The Edomites (Descendants of Easau)

36 1Now this is the genealogy of 'Esav (that is, Edom). 2'Esav chose his wives from the Kena'ani women: 'Adah the daughter of Elon, the Hitti; and Oholivamah the daughter of 'Anah, the daughter of Tziv'on the Hivi; 3and Basemat, Yishma'el’s daughter, sister of N'vayot. 4'Adah bore Elifaz to 'Esav. Basmat bore Reuel. 5Oholivamah bore Ye'ush, Ya'lam, and Korach. These are the sons of 'Esav, who were born to him in the land of Kena'an. 6'Esav took his wives, his sons, his daughters, and all the members of his household, along with his livestock, all his animals, and all his possessions he had gathered in the land of Kena'an, and went into a land away from his brother Ya'akov. 7For their possessions had become too great for them to live together, and the countryuide they were traveling through couldn’t support them because of their livestock. 8So 'Esav lived in the hill country of Seir. 'Esav is Edom.

9This is the genealogy of 'Esav the father of the Edomites in the hill country of Seir. 10The the names of 'Esav’s sons were Elifaz, the son of 'Esav wife Adah, and Re'u'el, the son of 'Esav's wife Basemat. 11The sons of Elifaz were Teman, Omar, Tzefo, Ga'tam, and K'naz. 12Timnah was the of 'Esav’s son Eliphaz, and she bore 'Amalek to him. These were the descendants of 'Esav’s wife Adah.

 13The sons of Re'u'el were Nachat, Zerach, Shammah, and Mizah. These were the sons of 'Esav’s wife Basemath. 14These were the sons of Oholivamah, the daughter of 'Anah, the daughter of' 'Esav’s wife Zibeon: she bore Ye'ush, Ya'lam, and Korach to 'Esav.

15The tribal chiefs of the sons of 'Esav were the sons of Elifaz, 'Esav’s firstborn, and the tribal chiefs Teman, Omar, Tzefo, K'naz, 16Korach, Ga'tam, and 'Amalek. These were the tribal chiefs descended from Eliphaz in the land of Edom; these are the sons of 'Adah.

17The sons of 'Esav’s son Reuel were the tribal chiefs Nachat, Zerach, Shammah, and Mizah. These were the tribal chiefs descended from Re'u'el in the land of Edom, from 'Esav’s wife Basmat.

18TThe sons of 'Esav’s wife Oholibvmah were the tribal chiefs Ye'ush, Ya'lam, and Korach. These were the tribal chiefs descended from Oholivamah the daughter of 'Esav’s wife 'Anah. 19These were the sons of 'Esav (that is, Edom), and these were their tribal chiefs.

[vii] 20These were the descendants of eir the Hori, the inhabitants of that land: Lotan, Shoval, Tziv'on, 'Anah, 21Dishon, Etzer, and Dishan. They were the tribal chiefs descended from the Hori, the people of Seir in the land of Edom. 22The sons of Lotan were Hori and Heman; Lotan’s sister was Timnah. 23The sons of Shobal were 'Alvan, Manachah, 'Eibal, Sh'fo, and Onam. 24The sons of Tziv'on were Ayah and 'Anah. This is the 'Anah who found the hot springs in the desert when he tended the donkeys of his father Tziv'on. 25The children of 'Anah were Dishon and Oholivamah, the daughter of 'Anah. 26The sons of Dishon were Hemdan, Eshban, Yitran, and K'ran. 27The sons of Etzer were Bilhan, Za'avan, and 'Akan. 28The sons of Dishan were 'Utz and Aran. 29These were the tribal chiefs descended from the Hori: tribal chiefs Lotan, Shonal, Tziv'on, 'Anah, 30Dishon, Etzer, and Dishan. They were the tribal chiefs who were descended from the Hori by their clans in the land of Seir.

31These are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king had reigned over the people of Isra'el. 32Bela, the son of B'or, reigned in Edom. The name of his city was Dinhavah. 33After Bela died, and Yovav the son of Zerach from Botzrah, reigned in his place. 34When Yovav died, Husham from the land of the Temani reigned in his place. 35When Husham died, Hadad the son of B'dad, who had killed Midyan in the field of Mo'av, reigned in his place. The name of his city was 'Avit. 36When Hadad died, Samlah of Masrekah reigned in his place. 37When Samlah died, Sha'ul of Rechovot-by-the-river reigned in his place. 38When Sha'ul died, and Ba'al-Chanan, the son of 'Akhbor reigned in his place. 39WWhen Ba'al-Chanan died, Hadar reigned in his place. The name of his city was Pa'u. His wife’s name was M'heitav'el, the daughter of Matred, the daughter of Mei-Zahav.

[Maftir] 40These are the names of the tribal chiefs descended from 'sav, according to their clans, places, and names: tribal chiefs Timna, 'Alvah, Y'tet, 41Oholivamah, Elah, Pinon, 42Kenaz, Teman, Mivtzar, 43Magdi'el, chief 'Iram. These were the tribal chiefs of Edom, according to their settlements in the land of they owned. This is 'Esav, the father of the Edomites.


The Blessing After Torah

Ba-rookh ah-tah Adonai, eh-lo-hay-noo
meh-lech hah-oh­lahm,
ah-sher nah-tahn la-noo toe-raht eh-met,
v’cha-yaye oh-lahm nah-tah b’toe-chay-noo.
Ba-rookh ah-tah Adonai,  no-tain ha-to-rah.

Blessed are you, O Lord our God,
King of the Universe,
Who has given us a Torah of truth,
and has planted eternal life in our midst.
Blessed are You, O Lord, Giver of the Torah.

Click here to listen to this sung by
Cantor Kenneth B. Cohen of
Temple Sholom, Greenwich, CT



The Blessing of the Haftarah

Ba-rookh, ah-tah Adonai, eh-lo-hay-noo,
meh-lekh hah-oh­lahm,
ah-sher ba-khar been-vee-eem toe-veem,
v’rah-tzah b’deev­ray-hem,
ha-neh-eh-ma-reem, beh-eh-meht.

Ba-rookh ah-tah, Adonai,
ha-bo-char ba-to-rah,
oo-v’Mo-sheh ahv-doe, oo-v'yees­ra-ale ah-mo,
oo-veen-vee-aye hah-eh-met, vah-tzeh-dek.

Blessed are you, O Lord our God,
King of the Universe,
Who selected good prophets,
and was pleased with their words
which were spoken truthfully.

Blessed are You, O Lord,
Who chooses the Torah,
Your servant Moses, Your people Israel,
and prophets of truth and righteousness.

Click here to listen to this sung by
an unknown male soloist from
Temple Mount Sinai in El Paso, TX.

(A) Hoshea (Hosea) 11:7-12:12

11 7 My people are determined to turn from me. Though they call to Ha`Elyon, none of them will exalt Him. 8 “How can I give you up, Efrayim? How can I surrender you, Yisra'el? How can I make you like Admah? How can I make you like Tzevoyim? My heart is turning every way within me, My compassion is aroused. 9 I will not execute my fierce anger. I will not destroy Efrayim again. For I am God, and not a man; the Holy One in your midst, and I will not come in wrath. 10 They will walk after ADONAI, Who will roar like a lion. Indeed, He will roar, and His children will come trembling from the west. 11 They will come trembling like birds out of Mitzrayim, and like doves out of the land of Ashshur; and I will settle them in their houses,” says ADONAI. 12 Efrayim surrounds me with lies, and the house of Yisra'el with deceit; and Y'hudah is unruly against God, even against the Holy One Who is faithful.

12 1 Efrayim feeds on wind, and continually chases the east wind. He continually multiplies lies and violent destruction. They make a covenant with Ashshur, and olive oil is exported into Mitzrayim.[1] 2 ADONAI also has a dispute with Y'hudah, and will punish Ya`akov according to his ways; according to his deeds He will repay him. 3 In the womb he took his brother by the heel; and in his manhood he contended with God. 4 Indeed, wrestled the Angel, and prevailed; he wept, and made supplication to Him. He found Him at Beit-El, and there he spoke with Us, 5 even with ADONAI, the God Tzva'ot; ADONAI is his memorial-name!

6 Therefore, return to your God. Observe kindness and justice, and wait for your God continually. 7 A merchant with dishonest scales in his hand loves to defraud. 8 Efrayim said, “Surely I have become rich, I have found wealth for myself. In all my labors they won’t find in me any iniquity that is sin.”

9 But I have been ADONAI your God since the land of Mitzrayim. I will make you dwell in sukkot yet again, as in the days of the appointed Feast. 10 I have also spoken to the prophets, and I have given them numerous visions. And through the ministry of the prophets I have used parables. 11 Since Gil`ad is wicked, surely they are worthless. In Gilgal they sacrifice bulls. Indeed, their altars are like poles of stones in a plowed field. 12 Ya`akov fled into the country of Aram. There Yisra'el labored to get a wife, and for a wife he tended flocks and herds.


(S) `Ovadyah (Obadiah) 1:1-21

Edom Will Be Humbled

1:1The vision of `Ovadyah. This is what the Lord ADONAI says about Edom.

We have heard news from ADONAI, and an ambassador is sent among the nations, saying, “Arise, and let’s rise up against her in battle. 1:2Behold, I have made you small among the nations. You are greatly despised. 1:3The arrogance of your heart has deceived you, you who live in the clefts of the rock, whose dwelling place is lofty, who says in his heart, ‘Who will bring me down to the ground?’ 1:4Though you mount on high as the eagle, and though your nest is set among the stars, I will bring you down from there, declares ADONAI.

 1:5“If thieves came to you, if robbers by night — oh, what disaster awaits you — wouldn’t they steal only until they had enough? If grape pickers came to you, wouldn’t they leave some gleanings? 1:6How Esav will be ransacked! How his hidden treasures will be sought out! 1:7All your allies have have gone with you only to the border. The men who were at peace with you have deceived you  and defeted you. Friends who eat your bread set a trap for you, and you couldn’t discern it.

1:8When that day comes,” says ADONAI, “won’t I destroy all the wise men of Edom and understanding from the mountain of Esav? 1:9Your warriors, Teman, will be so dismayed that everyone from the mountain of Esav will be slaughtered. 1:10For the violence done to your kinsman Ya`akov, shame will cover you, and you will be cut off forever. 1:11On that day you just stood by while strangers carried off his wealth and foreigners entered into his gates to cast lots for Yerushalayim — you were just like them. 1:12But don't gloat over your brother in the day of his disaster, and don’t rejoice over the people of Y'hudah in the day of their destruction. Don’t boast at their distress. 1:13Don’t enter into the gate of My people in the day of their disaster. Don't gloat over their calamity in the day of their disaster, and don’t loot their wealth on the day of their disaster. 1:14You shouldn’t have stood in the crossroads to slaughter those who escaped, or handed over the survivors in their day of distress.

The Day of ADONAI and the Future

 1:15For the day of ADONAI is near all the nations! As you have done, it will be done to you. Your deeds will return upon your own head. 1:16Because just as you drank on my holy mountain, so will all the nations drink continually. Yes, they will drink and swallow, and it will be as though they had never existed. 1:17But on Mount Tziyon there will be those who escape, and it will be holy. The household of Ya`akov will possess their possessions. 1:18The household of Ya`akov will be a fire, the household of Yosef a flame, and the household of Esav stubble. They will set them on fire and consume them, so there will be no survivors from the household of Esav." Indeed, ADONAI has spoken.

1:19Then the people of the Negev will possess the mountain of Esav, and those from the Shephelah will possess the land of the Pelishtim. They will possess the land of Efrayim, and the land of Shomron. Binyamin will occupy Gil`ad. 1:20The captives of the army of the people of Yisra'el exiled among the Kana`anim will occupy the land all the way to Tzarfat; and the exiles from Yerushalayim who are in Sepharad will possess the cities of the Negev. 1:21The victorious will ascend Mount Tziyon to rule pver the mountains of Esav, and the kingship will be ADONAI’s.


Ketuvei HaShalichim
(Apostolic Writings)

The Blessing of the Ketuvei HaShalichim

Bah-rookh ah-tah Adonai, Eh-lo-hay-noo
meh-lekh hah-oh­lahm,
ah-shehr nah-tahn la-noo mah-she-ahch Yeshua,
v’ha-deeb­rote shell Ha-breet Ha-kha-da-shah,
ba-rookh ah-ta Adonai,
no­tain Hah-breet Hah-kha-da-shah.

Blessed are You, O Lord our God,
King of the Universe,
Who has given us Messiah Yeshua
and the commandments of the New Covenant.
Blessed are You, O Lord,
Giver of the New Covenant.


Gospel: Yochanan (John) 1:19–2:12

Yochanan’s Testimony

1 19 This is Yochanan’s testimony: when the Judeans [14] sent priests and Levites from Yerushalayim to ask him, “Who are you?” 20 he honestly confessed, “I am not the Mashiach.”

21 They asked him, “What then? Are you Eliyahu?” He said, “I am not.” [15]

“Are you the Prophet?” [16] He answered, “No.”

22 Then they said to him, “Who are you? Give us an answer we can take back to those who sent us. What do you say about yourself?”

23 He said, “I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, ‘Make straight the way of ADONAI,’ as Isaiah the prophet said.” [17]

24 Those who had been sent were from the Perushim. [18] 25 They asked him, “Then why are you immersing people, if you are not the Mashiach, nor Elijah, nor the Prophet?” [19]

26 Yochanan answered them, “I immerse in water, [20] but among you stands One Whom you don’t know. 27 He is the One Who comes after me, Who is preferred before me, Whose sandal strap I’m not worthy to loosen.” 28 These things were done in Beit-Anyah, east of the Yarden, [21] where Yochanan was immersing.

29 The next day, he saw Yeshua coming to him, and said, “Look! There is the Lamb of God, Who takes away the sin of the world! 30 He is the One I was speaking about whom I said, ‘A Man is coming after me Who me ranks higher than I, for He existed before me.’ 31 I didn’t know Him, but the reason I came immersing in water is so He would be made known to Isra'el.” 32 Yochanan testified, “I saw Ruach HaKodesh coming down from heaven in the form of a dove, and it remained on him. 33 I didn’t recognize him, but He Who sent me to immerse in water said to me, ‘The One on Whom you will see Ruach HaKodesh descending and remaining, He is the One Who immerses in Ruach HaKodesh.’ 34 I have seen, and have testified that this is the Son of God.” [22]

Yeshua’s First Talimidim

35 The next day Yochanan was standing with two of his talmidim, [23] 36 Seeing Yeshua walking, he said, “Look! There is the Lamb of God!” 37 The two talmidim heard him speak, and they followed Yeshua. 38 Yeshua turned, and saw them following, and said to them, “What are you looking for”

They said to Him, “Rabbi” (which means “Teacher”), “where are you staying?”

39 He said to them, “Come, and see.”

So they went and saw where He was staying, and they stayed with Him that day. It was about the tenth hour. 40 One of the two who heard Yochanan and had followed Yeshua was Andrew, the brother of Shim`on Kefa. 41 He first found his own brother, Shim`on, and said to him, “We have found the Mashiach!” (which means “Anointed One”). 42 He brought him to Yeshua. Yeshua looked at him and said, “You are Shim`on Bar-Yochanan. You shall be called “Kefa” (the name means “Rock”). 43 The next day, having decided to go out into the Galil, Yeshua found Philip. Yeshua said to him, “Follow me.” 44 Philip was from Beit-Tzaidah, the town where Andrew and Peter lived. 45 Philip found Natan'el, and told him, “We’ve found the one Moshe wrote about in the Torah, and also the Prophets. He’s Yeshua Ben-Yosef, from Natzeret.”

46 Natan'el answered, “Can anything good come out of Natzaret?” [24]

Philip said to him, “Come and see.”

47 Yeshua saw Natan'el coming toward him, and said about him, “Here’s a true Israelite indeed; there’s nothing false about him!”

48 Natan'el asked Yeshua, “How do you know me?”

Yeshua answered him, “Before Philip called you, when you were under the fig tree, I saw you.”

49 Natanael answered him, “Rabbi, you are the Son of God! You are King of Israel!”[25]

50 Yeshua answered him, “Just because I told you, ‘I saw you underneath the fig tree,’ you believe? You will see greater things than that!” 51 He told him, “Most certainly I tell you that you will see heaven opened, and the angels of God going up and coming down on the Son of Man.”

Yeshua’s First Miraculous Sign

2 1 The third day, [1] there was a wedding in Kanah in the Galil. [2] Yeshua’s mother was there. 2 Yeshua and His talmidim were also invited to the wedding. 3 When the wine ran out, Yeshua’s mother said to him, “They have no wine.” [3]

4 Yeshua said to her, “Mother, how does that concern you and me? My time hasn’t come yet.” [4]

5 His mother said to the servants, “Do whatever He says to you, do it.” 6 There were six stone water there being purified in the Jewish manner, each containing twenty or thirty gallons. 7 Yeshua said to them, “Fill the water pots with water,” so they filled them up to the brim. He said to them, “Now draw some out, and take it to the ruler of the feast.” [5] So they took it. When the ruler of the feast tasted the water which had now become wine, and didn’t know where it came from (but the servants who had drawn the water knew), the ruler of the feast called the bridegroom, 10 and said to him, “Everyone serves the good wine first, and when the guests have drunk freely, then he serves the lower-quality wine; but you have kept the good wine until now!”

11 Yeshua did the first of His miraculous signs in Kanah in the Galil, revealing His glory; and His talmidim came to trust in Him.

12 Afterward, Yeshua went down to K'far-Nachum with His mother, brothers, and talmidim, and stayed there a few days.


Ivrim (Hebrews) 11:11-20

11 11 Through faith, even Sarah herself received the ability to conceive, and she bore a child when she was past age, since she counted Him trustworthy Who had promised. 12 Therefore this one man, who was virtually dead, fathered as many descendants as there are stars in the sky, and as innumerable as the sand by the sea shore. 13 All these died in faith without having received the promises, but they had seen them and accepted them from a distance, and acknowledging that they were strangers and temporary residents in the land. 14 For those who speak this way make it clear that they are seeking after a country of their own. 15 If they had been thinking of that country they had left, they would have had opportunity to return. 16 But now they desire a better country, that is, a heavenly one. Therefore, God is not ashamed of them or to be called their God, for He has prepared a city for them. 17 Through faith, Avraham, when he was being tested, offered up Yitz'chak as a sacrifice. Yes, he who had gladly received the promises was offering up his one and only son; 18 even the son of whom he had been told, “In Yitzchak will your seed be called;” 19 concluding that God was able to raise him up from the dead. Figuratively speaking, he actually did receive him back from the dead. 20 Through faith, Yitz'chak blessed Ya'akov and Esav concerning events yet to come.


Korintim Alef (1 Corinthians) 5:1-13

5 5:1It is actually being reported that there is sexual immorality among you, the kind of sexual immorality that doesn’t even exist among the Goyim, that someone is sleeping with his step-mother. 5:2You are have become arrogant, and didn’t mourn instead, that the man who had done this deed should be removed from among you.[1] 5:3Though I may be physically absent from you, I am with you in spirit, and I have most certainly judged the man who has done this thing as if I were there with you! 5:4In the name of our Lord Yeshua HaMashiach, when you are assembled and I am with you in spirit, through the power of our Lord Yeshua HaMashiach, 5:5you are to deliver this man to HaSatan for the destruction of the flesh, so that his spirit may be saved in the Day of ADONAI.

5:6Your boasting [2] is not good. Don’t you know that a little yeast leavens the whole lump of dough? 5:7Get rid of the old “yeast,” so you may be a new “lump,” just as you are “unleavened.” [3] For indeed Mashiach, our Pesach lamb, has been sacrificed for us. 5:8Therefore let us keep the Seder, not with old leaven or with the leaven of malice and wickedness, but with the matzah of sincerity and truth. 5:9I wrote to you in my [earlier] letter to have no company with sexual sinners; 5:10I didn’t mean the sexual sinners of this world, or with the covetous and extortioners, or with idolaters; for then you would have to leave the world. 5:11But I actually wrote to you not to associate with any so-called “brother” who is a sexually immoreal, greedy, an idolater, abusive, a drunkard, or an swindler. Don’t even eat with such a person. 5:12For what right do I have to judge outsiders? But don’t you judge those within your assembly? 5:13But God judges the outsiders. “Put away the wicked man from among yourselves.” [4]


Hitgalut (Revelation) 7:1-12

7 7:1After this, I saw four angels standing at the four corners of the earth, holding back the four winds of the earth, so that no wind would blow on the earth, on the sea, or on any tree. 7:2I saw another angel coming up from east, with the seal of the living God. He shouted to the four angels who had been given the power to harm the earth and the sea, 7:3 “Don’t harm the earth, the sea, or the trees until we have sealed the bondservants of our God on their foreheads!" 7:4I heard how many were sealed, one hundred forty-four thousand, from every tribe of the people of Yisra'el:

 7:5From the tribe of Y'hudah, twelve thousand were sealed,
 From the tribe of Re'uven twelve thousand,
 From the tribe of Gad twelve thousand,

 7:6From the tribe of Asher twelve thousand,
 From the tribe of Naftali twelve thousand,
 From the tribe of M'nashsheh twelve thousand,

 7:7From the tribe of Shim`on twelve thousand,
 From the tribe of Levi twelve thousand,
 From the tribe of Yissakhar twelve thousand,

 7:8From the tribe of Z'vulun twelve thousand,
 From the tribe of Yosef twelve thousand,
 From the tribe of Binyamin were sealed twelve thousand.

7:9After that I looked, and saw a huge multitude, to many to be counted, from every nation, tribes, people, and language, standing in front of the throne and in front of the Lamb, dressed in white robes, holding palm branches in their hands. 7:10They were shouting, “Salvation to our God Who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb!”

7:11All the angels were standing around the throne, around the elders and the four living creatures; and they fell on their faces before His throne, and worshiped God, 7:12saying, “Amein! Praise, glory, wisdom, thanksgiving, honor, power, and might to our God forever and ever! Amein.”

The Blessing of the Messiah

Ba-rookh ah-tah Adonai Eh-lo-hay-noo,
meh-lekh hah-oh-lahm,
ah-sher keed-sha-noo beed-va-reh-khah
v'na-tahn la-noo et Yeshuah M'shee-khay-noo,
v'tzee-va-noo l'he-oat oar lah-oh-lahm.

Blessed are You, O Lord our God,
King of the Universe,
Who has sanctified us in Your Word,
and given us Yeshua, our Messiah,
and commanded us to be a light to the world.





[30-1] We consider this immoral today, but it was common practice in the ancient near- and middle-East for childless women to use their servant girls as “surrogate mothers.” The servant would literally sit on the wife’s lap while the husband impregnated her. Then the servant would again literally sit on the wife’s lap for the delivery.

[30-2] The reason I have placed the word “wife” in quotes is that although the Hebrew word 'ishshah [hXXa] is most frequently translated as “wife,” it is also translated as “adulteress,” “harlot,” and “woman.” Scripture later (Gen. 35:22) calls Bilhah Ya'akov’s “concubine.”

[30-3]& The madrake (Atropa mandragora) is a medicinal plant that has been used from earliest times as a pain reliever, sleep aid, and to relieve melancholy. Because the bifurcated root is somewhat man-shape, it has also sometimes been thought to improve fertility. It is possible that Rachel felt it may cure her infertility.

[31-1]& The teraphim were household idols that may have been associated with inheritance rights to the household property.

[32-1] The Yabbok (qbby, “emptying”) is a stream which intersects the mountain range of Gilead, and falls into the Jordan on the east about midway between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea.

[32-2] Because no one has ever seen God the Father at any time (John 1:18, 1 John 4:12), we know that all physical manifestations of God are God the Son, the pre-incarnate Yeshua HaMashiach. We therefore know that it was Yeshua that Ya'akov wrestled with.

[12-1] God specifically instructed Israel that they were not to make any treaties with the pagan nations (Exodus 23:32, Exodus 34:12, Deuteronomy 7:2), but they had disregarded that command.


Notes on Yochanan

[1-14] Yochanan uses the term “Judeans” [“Jews” in most English translations] not as a reference to people from the area of Judea or from the tribe of Judah, but rather as a disparaging term for the religious leadership in general.

[1-15] Before his birth, the angel Gabriel had told Yochanan’s father that he would be Mashiach’s forerunner “in the spirit and power of Elijah.” Later on Yeshua said, “And if you are willing to accept it, John himself is Elijah who was to come.” See Luke 1:5-17 and Matthew 11:14

[1-16] “The Prophet” like Moses who was promised: the Mashiach. “ADONAI your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among you, from your countrymen, you shall listen to him. … ‘I will raise up a prophet from among their countrymen like you, and I will put My words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I command him.’” ( Deuteronomy 18:15, 18)

[1-17] Isaiah 40:3.

[1-18] The Perushim (Pharisees) were the theological ultra-conservatives of their day, who followed a strict interpretation of the Tanakh (the Hebrew Scriptures). The most important thing to them was that every mitzvah (commandment) in the Torah be followed in exactly the ritual manner they prescribed. God’s intent in giving the mitzvah was irrelevant to them as long as their ritual procedure was observed when following it. They had prescribed that immersion be conducted in the specially-designed pools called mikvot (plural of mikvah, see note 20). In their minds, Yochanan was not a priest, so he had no authority to be supervising immersion, and certainly not in the muddy Jordan River when there were sparkling clean mikvot in Jerusalem for that purpose.

[1-19] More than likely, this question should be rendered (or at least interpreted) as, “How dare you immerse people, since you are not the Mashiach, nor Elijah, nor the Prophet?”

[1-20] It is important to understand that what Yochanan, Yeshua, and the Shliachim (Apostles) practiced and taught, and what was practiced by the early Messianic Believers, was not the form of Christian baptism that is practiced by the Church today, but rather the Jewish practice of tevilah [lit. immersion], which is the total immersing of one’s self in “living water” such as a stream (like the Jordan River) or a lake. If no stream or lake were available, as at the Temple grounds, a mikvah (container of living water conforming to specific requirements established by the Perushim) was provided. Christian baptism is loosely based upon this concept, but has been significantly changed from the practice followed by the early Messianic Believers. Whereas Christian baptism is performed upon the individual by another, generally a member of the clergy, tevilah is performed upon one’s self by the individual, and may may or may not be observed by official witnesses. Yochanan was not immersing people; he was serving as a witness to their self-immersion. [See also “Yeshua’s Immersion.”]

[1-21] “Beit-Anyah, east of the Yarden” or Bethany beyond the Jordan” is not the same as the village of Beit-Anyah where El`azar (Lazarus), Miryam (Mary), and Marta (Martha) lived.

[1-22] The author of this account was an early talmid [disciple] of Yochanan the Immerser, and was probably an eyewitness to these events. Most scholars believe that the “other talmid” mentioned verses 35-42 is the author, who never mentions himself by name in his gospel account. Whenever he wants to indicate himself, he simply uses terms such as “another talmid” or “the talmid whom Yeshua loved.”

[1-23] In first-century Israel, every child was well-educated in the Torah. Education began at the age of six or seven, and was a life-long process. Formal public education in Israel is said to have been instituted by Ezra the Cohen about 459 BCE, who established a public school in Jerusalem, known as the beit sefer (house of the book), that educated fatherless boys about sixteen years and older. By the first century CE, the beit sefer was educating both boys and girls from about six or seven years old to twelve or thirteen years. The curriculum was intensive in Torah, and also included mathematics. Students were required to memorize and be able to properly interpret and teach large segments of the Torah. After about twelve years of age, the age of their bat mitzvah, formal education was completed for most girls, who then concentrated on the “home economics” that they would need to be successful wives and mothers, as they were now of marriageable age. Most young men would also conclude their formal education with their bar mitzvah ceremony in the Temple or synagogue at this point and enter apprenticeship with their father or uncle to learn the family trade. Select young men who were especially gifted students would be admitted to Beit Midrash (house of study, the equivalent of our semenaries), a school in the synagogue where the students would gather to listen to local and visiting rabbis discuss the discourse or exposition of the Torah and the Tanakh. After three or four more years, the rabbis would chose the brightest and best from among the most gifted of the Beit Midrash students to be their talmidim (disciples).

A talmid [disciple], however, is not someone who simply wants to know what his Rabbi (Teacher) knows, but strives to become what his Rabbi is. A talmid is totally consumed with a deep, burning passion, living with the Rabbi every hour of every day, week after week, month after month, and year after year, totally immersed in the Sacred Text, listening to the Rabbi teach and observing how the Rabbi conducts every minute detail of his life, in order to become an exact copy of that Rabbi. Are you ready to become a talmid of the Messiah?

[1-24] Natzaret (“Branch Town”) was a beautiful, but small and insignificant village out in the middle of nowhere. The entire village consisted of an estimated 35 or so homes covering an area of about ten acres, with a population of maybe 200, but probably not more than 400. A “home” at this time in history was not a single-family dwelling. It consisted of numerous attached dwellings clustered around an open courtyard. Each family unit (parents and children) would live in these individual dwellings, and the collective “home” would be the residence of the entire extended family. More here and here. Surely nothing of any interest or importance could come from such a place. The residents of Natzaret, however, had hopes that the Messiah, the “branch” from the “roots of Jesse” (King David’s father) that was promised by Yesha'yahu (Isaiah) the prophet would come from Branch Town.

[1-25] Devout Jews were continually and earnestly praying for Mashiach to come. Apparently Natan'el had been in the courtyard of his home, under his fig tree, praying for Mashiach. When Yeshua said that He had seen Natan'el under his fig tree, Natan'el recognized that Yeshua had heard his prayer. Since only God hears prayer, Yeshua must be God; He was therefore obviously the Mashiach, the King of Isra'el. See Micah 4:1-4 for why this was so significant.


[1-1] The third day? The third day after Yeshua determined He was going to the Galil? See 1:43. It cannot be the third day of Yochanan’s narrative, because he has already identified four days. Perhaps the third day after his arrival in the Galil? Maybe it was the third day of the week. First century Israel did not use day names as we do now, when days are named for pagan deities; everything revolved around Shabbat (the Sabbath). Days were counted, not named, as (1) “the first day of the week,” (2) “the second day of the week,” (3) “the third day of the week,” (4) “the third day toward Shabbat,” (5) “the second day toward Shabbat,” (6) “erev Shabbat (the day before Shabbat, or Shabbat eve),” and (7) Shabbat. Thus Stern translates the day as “Tuesday.”

[2-2] Kanah in the Galil (Cana of Galilee) was the home village of Natan'el. The historic location is not certain, but the Greek and Roman churches believe it to be Kefr Kennah, a thriving village about 3.75 miles from Natzaret.

[2-3] Weddings in Biblical Isra'el were not the single-afternoon events we are familiar with; they were major “feast and party” events lasting a week or more. The “friend of the bridegroom” (“best man”) was responsible for ensuring that everything ran completely smoothly. This would have been extremely embarrassing to the “best man,” who was apparently Yeshua’s friend.

[2-4] “Woman, what does that have to do with us?” I have heard it taught, and you probably have also, that Yeshua was rebuking His mother for meddling. I don’t believe that anything could be farther from the truth. “Woman” was a term of endearment that Stern translates as “Mother.” I have followed his example.

“My time hasn’t come yet.” Having been informed by Gabriel before Yeshua was born that He was to be the Messiah, and having watched Him grow and develop for thirty years, Miryam (Mary) was well aware of Who He was, and it seems that perhaps she was nudging Him to step up and announce Himself. Or it could possibly be that she was simply proud of her Son and wanted to show Him off before her friends. Maybe Yeshua was telling her that He wasn’t prepared to act here in His messianic capacity; or perhaps He didn’t want to rush the time when He would stop being just a son to her and start being her Lord. But whatever was going on between them, Yeshua patiently acquiesced to His mother’s request.

[2-5] “Ruler of the feast” would be the host, headwaiter, or maître d'.


Notes on Korintim Alef

[5-1] “… removed from among you” — removed from membership in the synagogue and treated as a pagan; excommunicated. 

[5-2] Apparently they were boasting about one of two serious problems that exists in the modern church: either (a) their gracious acceptance of his conduct, as many modern churches pride themselves in their “everyone is welcome here” policy, or (b) their abysmal theology that since they were “living under grace” it really wasn’t important to live righteously as long as one has gone through the motions of being “saved.”

[5-3] Throughout the entire Tanakh, “leaven” (yeast or anything else that will cause dough to rise) is used as a “type” (or teaching-picture) for sin. Rav Sha'ul is telling them that failing to deal appropriately with even the smallest amount of sinful conduct in the assembly will soon affect the entire assembly. We are to be holy (set aside for God’s purpose) because we serve an infinitely holy God.

[5-4] “Put away the wicked man from among yourselves” is Sha'ul’s paraphrase of “… purge the evil from among you.” See Deut. 13:5 Deut. 17:7, Deut. 17:12, Deut. 21:21 Deut. 22:21. See also Lev. 24:14; Deut. 13:9.



Page last updated on Friday, 05 March 2021 11:01 AM
(Updates are generally minor formatting or editorial changes.
Major content changes are identified as "Revisions”)

Anxiously awaiting Mashiach’s return