[commentary/torah/parashot/Header.htm]
All Portions
23 August 2003 Parashot Index 25 Av 5763

har hvrp
Parashah Re'eh
“See”
D’varim 11:26-16:17

This week's commentary by Rabbi Jack (Yaacov) Farber (Messianic)
This week's commentary by Rabbi Pinchas Winston (Rabbinical)

This Week's Portions

Torah
D’varim (Deuteronomy) 11:26-16:17

Haftarah
Yesha‘yahu (Isaiah) 54:11-55:5

B'rit Hadashah
1 Corinthians 5:9-13
1 Yochanan 4:1-6

Weekly Reading Schedule

Let us recommend the Walk Torah Series
by Jeff Feinberg
A Messianic Jewish Devotional Commentary
for Readers of the Torah, Haftarah, and
B'rit Chadasha

As you “walk Torah,” your spiritual journey takes you from Eden, through the flood, into the Promised Land, and down to Egypt and out again into the Wilderness Wanderings and the construction of the Tabernacle. But the journey is not just about days gone by. It continues today for all those who choose to walk with God. This commentary series follows the weekly Torah (Pentateuch) readings from the synagogue, along with the related Haftarah (Prophets and Writings) and Brit Hadashah (“New Testament”) readings.

Sunday
Review and meditate on
last week's Parashah
 
Monday

Rishon [1st]: 11:26-12:10
Sheni [2nd]: 12:11-28


Tuesday
Shlishi [3rd]: 12:29-13:18
R'vi'i [4th]:
14:1-21
 
Wednesday

Chamishi [5th]: 14:22-29
Shishi [6th]: 15:1-18

 
Thursday
Shvi'i [7th]: 15:19-16:12
Maftir [Concluding]: 16:13-17
 
Friday

Haftarah: Yesha`yahu 54:11-55:5
B'rit Hadasha: 1 Corinthians 5:9-13; 1 Yochanan 4:1-6

 

Torah

The Blessing of the Torah
Aliya: (the one who “goes up” to read)  
Bar-khu et Adonai ham-vor-ack.
(Praise ADONAI Who is worthy to be praised.)
Barchu
Congregation:  
Ba-rookh Adonai ham-vor-ack ley-oh-lam vah-ed.
(Praise ADONAI Who is worthy to be praised for all eternity.)
Hahmvorahch
All:  
Ba-rookh Adonai ham-vor-ack ley-oh-lam vah-ed.
(Praise ADONAI Who is worthy to be praised for all eternity.)
 
Hahmvorahch
Ba-rookh ah-tah Adonai, Eh-lo-hay-noo
meh-lekh hah oh-lahm,
ah-sher ba-char ba-noo me-kol ha-ah­meem,
v’na-tahn lah-noo et torah-toe,
ba-rookh ah-tah Adonai, no-tane hah-torah.


Blessed are You, O Lord our God,
King of the Universe,
Who has chosen us from all peoples
and given us His Torah.
Blessed are You, O Lord, Giver of the Torah.

Click here to listen to this sung by
Cantor Kenneth B. Cohen of
Temple Sholom, Greenwich, CT.
D’varim (Deuteronomy) 11:26-16:17

Rishon [1st]: 11:26Behold, I set before you this day a blessing and a curse: 11:27the blessing, if you shall listen to the mitzvot of the LORD your God, which I command you this day; 11:28and the curse, if you shall not listen to the mitzvot of the LORD your God, but turn aside out of the way which I command you this day, to go after other gods, which you have not known.

11:29It shall happen, when the LORD your God shall bring you into the land where you go to possess it, that you shall set the blessing on Mount Gerizim, and the curse on Mount `Eval. 11:30Aren't they beyond the Yarden, behind the way of the going down of the sun, in the land of the Kana`anim who dwell in the `Aravah, over against Gilgal, beside the oaks of Moreh? 11:31For you are to pass over the Yarden to go in to possess the land which the LORD your God gives you, and you shall possess it, and dwell therein. 11:32You shall observe to do all the statutes and the ordinances which I set before you this day.

12

12:1These are the statutes and the ordinances which you shall observe to do in the land which the LORD, the God of your fathers, has given you to possess it, all the days that you live on the earth. 12:2You shall surely destroy all the places in which the nations that you shall dispossess served their gods, on the high mountains, and on the hills, and under every green tree: 12:3and you shall break down their altars, and dash in pieces their pillars, and burn their Asherim with fire; and you shall cut down the engraved images of their gods; and you shall destroy their name out of that place.

12:4You shall not do so to the LORD your God. 12:5But to the place which the LORD your God shall choose out of all your tribes, to put his name there, even to his habitation shall you seek, and there you shall come; 12:6and there you shall bring your burnt offerings, and your sacrifices, and your tithes, and the heave-offering of your hand, and your vows, and your freewill-offerings, and the firstborn of your herd and of your flock: 12:7and there you shall eat before the LORD your God, and you shall rejoice in all that you put your hand to, you and your households, in which the LORD your God has blessed you. 12:8You shall not do after all the things that we do here this day, every man whatever is right in his own eyes; 12:9for you haven't yet come to the rest and to the inheritance, which the LORD your God gives you. 12:10But when you go over the Yarden, and dwell in the land which the LORD your God causes you to inherit, and he gives you rest from all your enemies round about, so that you dwell in safety; Sheni [2nd]: 12:11then it shall happen that to the place which the LORD your God shall choose, to cause his name to dwell there, there shall you bring all that I command you: your burnt offerings, and your sacrifices, your tithes, and the heave-offering of your hand, and all your choice vows which you vow to the LORD. 12:12You shall rejoice before the LORD your God, you, and your sons, and your daughters, and your men-servants, and your maid-servants, and the Levite who is within your gates, because he has no portion nor inheritance with you.

12:13Take heed to yourself that you don't offer your burnt offerings in every place that you see; 12:14but in the place which the LORD shall choose in one of your tribes, there you shall offer your burnt offerings, and there you shall do all that I command you. 12:15Notwithstanding, you may kill and eat flesh within all your gates, after all the desire of your soul, according to the blessing of the LORD your God which he has given you: the unclean and the clean may eat of it, as of the gazelle, and as of the hart. 12:16Only you shall not eat the blood; you shall pour it out on the earth as water.

12:17You may not eat within your gates the tithe of your grain, or of your new wine, or of your oil, or the firstborn of your herd or of your flock, nor any of your vows which you vow, nor your freewill-offerings, nor the heave-offering of your hand; 12:18but you shall eat them before the LORD your God in the place which the LORD your God shall choose, you, and your son, and your daughter, and your man-servant, and your maid-servant, and the Levite who is within your gates: and you shall rejoice before the LORD your God in all that you put your hand to. 12:19Take heed to yourself that you don't forsake the Levite as long as you live in your land.

12:20When the LORD your God shall enlarge your border, as he has promised you, and you shall say, I will eat flesh, because your soul desires to eat flesh; you may eat flesh, after all the desire of your soul. 12:21If the place which the LORD your God shall choose, to put his name there, be too far from you, then you shall kill of your herd and of your flock, which the LORD has given you, as I have commanded you; and you may eat within your gates, after all the desire of your soul. 12:22Even as the gazelle and as the hart is eaten, so you shall eat of it: the unclean and the clean may eat of it alike. 12:23Only be sure that you don't eat the blood: for the blood is the life; and you shall not eat the life with the flesh. 12:24You shall not eat it; you shall pour it out on the earth as water. 12:25You shall not eat it; that it may go well with you, and with your children after you, when you shall do that which is right in the eyes of the LORD. 12:26Only your holy things which you have, and your vows, you shall take, and go to the place which the LORD shall choose: 12:27and you shall offer your burnt offerings, the flesh and the blood, on the altar of the LORD your God; and the blood of your sacrifices shall be poured out on the altar of the LORD your God; and you shall eat the flesh. 12:28Observe and hear all these words which I command you, that it may go well with you, and with your children after you forever, when you do that which is good and right in the eyes of the LORD your God.

Shlishi [3rd]: 12:29When the LORD your God shall cut off the nations from before you, where you go in to dispossess them, and you dispossess them, and dwell in their land; 12:30take heed to yourself that you not be ensnared to follow them, after that they are destroyed from before you; and that you not inquire after their gods, saying, How do these nations serve their gods? even so will I do likewise. 12:31You shall not do so to the LORD your God: for every abomination to the LORD, which he hates, have they done to their gods; for even their sons and their daughters do they burn in the fire to their gods.

12:32Whatever thing I command you, that shall you observe to do: you shall not add thereto, nor diminish from it.

13

13:1If there arise in the midst of you a prophet, or a dreamer of dreams, and he give you a sign or a wonder, 13:2and the sign or the wonder come to pass, of which he spoke to you, saying, Let us go after other gods, which you have not known, and let us serve them; 13:3you shall not listen to the words of that prophet, or to that dreamer of dreams: for the LORD your God proves you, to know whether you love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul. 13:4You shall walk after the LORD your God, and fear him, and keep his mitzvot, and obey his voice, and you shall serve him, and cleave to him. 13:5That prophet, or that dreamer of dreams, shall be put to death, because he has spoken rebellion against the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, and redeemed you out of the house of bondage, to draw you aside out of the way which the LORD your God commanded you to walk in. So shall you put away the evil from the midst of you.

13:6If your brother, the son of your mother, or your son, or your daughter, or the wife of your bosom, or your friend, who is as your own soul, entice you secretly, saying, Let us go and serve other gods, which you have not known, you, nor your fathers; 13:7of the gods of the peoples who are round about you, near to you, or far off from you, from the one end of the earth even to the other end of the earth; 13:8you shall not consent to him, nor listen to him; neither shall your eye pity him, neither shall you spare, neither shall you conceal him: 13:9but you shall surely kill him; your hand shall be first on him to put him to death, and afterwards the hand of all the people. 13:10You shall stone him to death with stones, because he has sought to draw you away from the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. 13:11All Yisra'el shall hear, and fear, and shall not do any more such wickedness as this is in the midst of you.

13:12If you shall hear tell concerning one of your cities, which the LORD your God gives you to dwell there, saying, 13:13Certain base fellows are gone out from the midst of you, and have drawn away the inhabitants of their city, saying, Let us go and serve other gods, which you have not known; 13:14then shall you inquire, and make search, and ask diligently; and, behold, if it be truth, and the thing certain, that such abomination is done in the midst of you, 13:15you shall surely strike the inhabitants of that city with the edge of the sword, destroying it utterly, and all that is therein and the cattle of it, with the edge of the sword. 13:16You shall gather all the spoil of it into the midst of the street of it, and shall burn with fire the city, and all the spoil of it every whit, to the LORD your God: and it shall be a heap forever; it shall not be built again. 13:17There shall cleave nothing of the devoted thing to your hand; that the LORD may turn from the fierceness of his anger, and show you mercy, and have compassion on you, and multiply you, as he has sworn to your fathers; 13:18when you shall listen to the voice of the LORD your God, to keep all his mitzvot which I command you this day, to do that which is right in the eyes of the LORD your God.

14

R'vi'i [4th]: 14:1You are the children of the LORD your God: you shall not cut yourselves, nor make any baldness between your eyes for the dead. 14:2For you are a holy people to the LORD your God, and the LORD has chosen you to be a people for his own possession, above all peoples who are on the face of the earth.

14:3You shall not eat any abominable thing. 14:4These are the animals which you may eat: the ox, the sheep, and the goat, 14:5the hart, and the gazelle, and the roebuck, and the wild goat, and the ibex, and the antelope, and the chamois. 14:6Every animal that parts the hoof, and has the hoof cloven in two, and chews the cud, among the animals, that may you eat. 14:7Nevertheless these you shall not eat of them that chew the cud, or of those who have the hoof cloven: the camel, and the hare, and the rabbit; because they chew the cud but don't part the hoof, they are unclean to you. 14:8The pig, because it has a split hoof but doesn't chew the cud, is unclean to you: of their flesh you shall not eat, and their carcasses you shall not touch.

14:9These you may eat of all that are in the waters: whatever has fins and scales may you eat; 14:10and whatever doesn't have fins and scales you shall not eat; it is unclean to you.

14:11Of all clean birds you may eat. 14:12But these are they of which you shall not eat: the eagle, and the peres, and the ozniah, 14:13and the red kite, and the ayah, and the daah after its kind, 14:14and every orev after its kind, 14:15and the bas haya`anah, and the takhmos, and the sea-mew, and the netz after its kind, 14:16the kos, and the yanshuf, and the tanshemet, 14:17and the ka`at, and the rakham, and the shalakh, 14:18and the khasidah, and the anafah after its kind, and the dukifat, and the atalef.

14:19All winged creeping things are unclean to you: they shall not be eaten. 14:20Of all clean birds you may eat.

14:21You shall not eat of anything that dies of itself: you may give it to the foreigner living among you who is within your gates, that he may eat it; or you may sell it to a foreigner: for you are a holy people to the LORD your God.

You shall not boil a kid in its mother's milk.

Chamishi [5th]: 14:22You shall surely tithe all the increase of your seed, that which comes forth from the field year by year. 14:23You shall eat before the LORD your God, in the place which he shall choose, to cause his name to dwell there, the tithe of your grain, of your new wine, and of your oil, and the firstborn of your herd and of your flock; that you may learn to fear the LORD your God always. 14:24If the way be too long for you, so that you are not able to carry it, because the place is too far from you, which the LORD your God shall choose, to set his name there, when the LORD your God shall bless you; 14:25then shall you turn it into money, and bind up the money in your hand, and shall go to the place which the LORD your God shall choose: 14:26and you shall bestow the money for whatever your soul desires, for oxen, or for sheep, or for wine, or for strong drink, or for whatever your soul asks of you; and you shall eat there before the LORD your God, and you shall rejoice, you and your household.

14:27The Levite who is within your gates, you shall not forsake him; for he has no portion nor inheritance with you. 14:28At the end of every three years you shall bring forth all the tithe of your increase in the same year, and shall lay it up within your gates: 14:29and the Levite, because he has no portion nor inheritance with you, and the foreigner living among you, and the fatherless, and the widow, who are within your gates, shall come, and shall eat and be satisfied; that the LORD your God may bless you in all the work of your hand which you do.

15

Shishi [6th]: 15:1At the end of every seven years you shall make a release. 15:2This is the manner of the release: every creditor shall release that which he has lent to his neighbor; he shall not exact it of his neighbor and his brother; because the LORD's release has been proclaimed. 15:3Of a foreigner you may exact it: but whatever of your is with your brother your hand shall release. 15:4However there shall be no poor with you; (for the LORD will surely bless you in the land which the LORD your God gives you for an inheritance to possess it;) 15:5if only you diligently listen to the voice of the LORD your God, to observe to do all this mitzvah which I command you this day. 15:6For the LORD your God will bless you, as he promised you: and you shall lend to many nations, but you shall not borrow; and you shall rule over many nations, but they shall not rule over you.

15:7If there be with you a poor man, one of your brothers, within any of your gates in your land which the LORD your God gives you, you shall not harden your heart, nor shut your hand from your poor brother; 15:8but you shall surely open your hand to him, and shall surely lend him sufficient for his need in that which he wants. 15:9Beware that there not be a base thought in your heart, saying, The seventh year, the year of release, is at hand; and your eye be evil against your poor brother, and you give him nothing; and he cry to the LORD against you, and it be sin to you. 15:10You shall surely give him, and your heart shall not be grieved when you give to him; because that for this thing the LORD your God will bless you in all your work, and in all that you put your hand to. 15:11For the poor will never cease out of the land: therefore I command you, saying, You shall surely open your hand to your brother, to your needy, and to your poor, in your land.

15:12If your brother, a Hebrew man, or a Hebrew woman, be sold to you, and serve you six years; then in the seventh year you shall let him go free from you. 15:13When you let him go free from you, you shall not let him go empty: 15:14you shall furnish him liberally out of your flock, and out of your threshing floor, and out of your winepress; as the LORD your God has blessed you, you shall give to him. 15:15You shall remember that you were a bondservant in the land of Egypt, and the LORD your God redeemed you: therefore I command you this thing today. 15:16It shall be, if he tell you, I will not go out from you; because he loves you and your house, because he is well with you; 15:17then you shall take an awl, and thrust it through his ear to the door, and he shall be your servant forever. Also to your maid-servant you shall do likewise. 15:18It shall not seem hard to you, when you let him go free from you; for to the double of the hire of a hireling has he served you six years: and the LORD your God will bless you in all that you do.

Shvi'i [7th]: 15:19All the firstborn males that are born of your herd and of your flock you shall sanctify to the LORD your God: you shall do no work with the firstborn of your herd, nor shear the firstborn of your flock. 15:20You shall eat it before the LORD your God year by year in the place which the LORD shall choose, you and your household. 15:21If it have any blemish, as if it be lame or blind, any ill blemish whatever, you shall not sacrifice it to the LORD your God. 15:22You shall eat it within your gates: the unclean and the clean shall eat it alike, as the gazelle, and as the hart. 15:23Only you shall not eat its blood; you shall pour it out on the ground as water.

16

16:1Observe the month of Aviv, and keep the Pesach to the LORD your God; for in the month of Aviv the LORD your God brought you forth out of Egypt by night. 16:2You shall sacrifice the Pesach to the LORD your God, of the flock and the herd, in the place which the LORD shall choose, to cause his name to dwell there. 16:3You shall eat no leavened bread with it; seven days shall you eat matzah therewith, even the bread of affliction; for you came forth out of the land of Egypt in haste: that you may remember the day when you came forth out of the land of Egypt all the days of your life. 16:4There shall be no yeast seen with you in all your borders seven days; neither shall any of the flesh, which you sacrifice the first day at even, remain all night until the morning. 16:5You may not sacrifice the Pesach within any of your gates, which the LORD your God gives you; 16:6but at the place which the LORD your God shall choose, to cause his name to dwell in, there you shall sacrifice the Pesach at even, at the going down of the sun, at the season that you came forth out of Egypt. 16:7You shall roast and eat it in the place which the LORD your God shall choose: and you shall turn in the morning, and go to your tents. 16:8Six days you shall eat matzah; and on the seventh day shall be a solemn assembly to the LORD your God; you shall do no work therein.

16:9Seven weeks shall you number to you: from the time you begin to put the sickle to the standing grain shall you begin to number seven weeks. 16:10You shall keep the feast of weeks to the LORD your God with a tribute of a freewill-offering of your hand, which you shall give, according as the LORD your God blesses you: 16:11and you shall rejoice before the LORD your God, you, and your son, and your daughter, and your man-servant, and your maid-servant, and the Levite who is within your gates, and the foreigner, and the fatherless, and the widow, who are in the midst of you, in the place which the LORD your God shall choose, to cause his name to dwell there. 16:12You shall remember that you were a bondservant in Egypt: and you shall observe and do these statutes.

Maftir [Concluding]: 16:13You shall keep the feast of booths seven days, after that you have gathered in from your threshing floor and from your winepress: 16:14and you shall rejoice in your feast, you, and your son, and your daughter, and your man-servant, and your maid-servant, and the Levite, and the foreigner, and the fatherless, and the widow, who are within your gates. 16:15Seven days shall you keep a feast to the LORD your God in the place which the LORD shall choose; because the LORD your God will bless you in all your increase, and in all the work of your hands, and you shall be altogether joyful. 16:16Three times in a year shall all your males appear before the LORD your God in the place which he shall choose: in the feast of matzah, and in the feast of weeks, and in the feast of booths; and they shall not appear before the LORD empty: 16:17every man shall give as he is able, according to the blessing of the LORD your God which he has given you.

Top ]


Haftarah

The Blessing of the Haftarah

Ba-rookh, ah-tah Adonai, eh-lo-hay-noo,
meh-lekh hah-oh­lahm,
ah-sher ba-khar been-vee-eem toe-veem,
v’rah-tzah b’deev­ray-hem,
ha-neh-eh-ma-reem, beh-eh-meht.

Ba-rookh ah-tah, Adonai,
ha-bo-char ba-to-rah,
oo-v’Mo-sheh ahv-doe, oo-v'yees­ra-ale ah-mo,
oo-veen-vee-aye hah-eh-met, vah-tzeh-dek.

Blessed are you, O Lord our God,
King of the Universe,
Who selected good prophets,
and was pleased with their words
which were spoken truthfully.

Blessed are You, O Lord,
Who chooses the Torah,
Your servant Moses, Your people Israel,
and prophets of truth and righteousness.


Click here to listen to this sung by
an unknown male soloist from
Temple Mount Sinai in El Paso, TX.

Yesha'yahu (Isaiah) 54:11-55:5

54:11You afflicted, tossed with tempest, and not comforted,
       behold, I will set your stones in beautiful colors,
       and lay your foundations with sapphires.

 
54:12I will make your pinnacles of rubies,
       and your gates of emeralds,
       and all your border of precious stones.

 
54:13All your children shall be taught of the LORD;
       and great shall be the shalom of your children.

 
54:14In righteousness shall you be established:
       you shall be far from oppression,
       for you shall not be afraid; and from terror,
       for it shall not come near you.

 

54:15Behold, they may gather together, but not by me:
       whoever shall gather together against you shall fall because of you.

 

54:16Behold, I have created the smith
       who blows the fire of coals,
       and brings forth a weapon for his work;
       and I have created the waster to destroy.

 
54:17No weapon that is formed against you shall prosper;
       and every tongue that shall rise against you in judgment
       you shall condemn.
 

This is the heritage of the servants of the
       LORD, and their righteousness which is of me,
       says the LORD.

55:1Ho, everyone who thirsts,
     come you to the waters,
     and he who has no money;
     come you, buy, and eat;
     yes, come, buy wine and milk
     without money and without price.

55:2Why do you spend money for that which is not bread?
     and your labor for that which doesn't satisfy?
     listen diligently to me, and eat you that which is good,
     and let your soul delight itself in fatness.

55:3Turn your ear, and come to me;
     hear, and your soul shall live:
     and I will make an everlasting covenant with you,
     even the sure mercies of David.
 

55:4Behold, I have given him for a witness to the peoples,
     a leader and commander to the peoples.

 

55:5Behold, you shall call a nation that you don't know;
     and a nation that didn't know you shall run to you,
     because of the LORD your God,
     and for the Holy One of Yisra'el;
     for he has glorified you.

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B'rit Hadashah

The Blessing of the Ketuvei HaShalichim

Bah-rookh ah-tah Adonai, Eh-lo-hay-noo
meh-lekh hah-oh­lahm,
ah-shehr nah-tahn la-noo mah-she-ahch Yeshua,
v’ha-deeb­rote shell Ha-breet Ha-kha-da-shah,
ba-rookh ah-ta Adonai,
no­tain Hah-breet Hah-kha-da-shah.

Blessed are You, O Lord our God,
King of the Universe,
Who has given us Messiah Yeshua
and the commandments of the New Covenant.
Blessed are You, O Lord,
Giver of the New Covenant.


 

1 Corinthians 5:9-13

5:9I wrote to you in my letter to have no company with sexual sinners; 5:10yet not at all meaning with the sexual sinners of this world, or with the covetous and extortionist, or with idolaters; for then you would have to leave the world. 5:11But as it is, I wrote to you not to associate with anyone who is called a brother who is a sexual sinner, or covetous, or an idolater, or a slanderer, or a drunkard, or an extortionist. Don't even eat with such a person. 5:12For what have I to do with also judging those who are outside? Don't you judge those who are within? 5:13But those who are outside, God judges. "Put away the wicked man from among yourselves."


1 Yochanan 4:1-6

4:1Beloved, don't believe every spirit, but test the spirits, whether they are of God, because many false prophets have gone out into the world. 4:2By this you know the Spirit of God: every spirit who confesses that Yeshua the Messiah has come in the flesh is of God, 4:3and every spirit who doesn't confess that Yeshua the Messiah has come in the flesh is not of God, and this is the spirit of the anti-messiah, of whom you have heard that it comes. Now it is in the world already. 4:4You are of God, little children, and have overcome them; because greater is he who is in you than he who is in the world. 4:5They are of the world. Therefore they speak of the world, and the world hears them. 4:6We are of God. He who knows God listens to us. He who is not of God doesn't listen to us. By this we know the spirit of truth, and the spirit of error.

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The Blessing After Torah

Ba-rookh ah-tah Adonai, eh-lo-hay-noo
meh-lech hah-oh­lahm,
ah-sher nah-tahn la-noo toe-raht eh-met,
v’cha-yaye oh-lahm nah-tah b’toe-chay-noo.
Ba-rookh ah-tah Adonai,  no-tain ha-to-rah.

Blessed are you, O Lord our God,
King of the Universe,
Who has given us a Torah of truth,
and has planted eternal life in our midst.
Blessed are You, O Lord, Giver of the Torah.


Click here to listen to this sung by
Cantor Kenneth B. Cohen of
Temple Sholom, Greenwich, CT

 



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*Ari Levitt is the shem kodesh of Messianic Pastor Dr. Rickard (Ari) Levitt-Sawyer. As the free expression of my religious beliefs, the content of this website is protected under the provisions of the First Amendment of the United States Constitution. Except where otherwise specifically indicated, the opinions expressed on this website are my own, are sometimes highly speculative in nature and subject to differing interpretations, and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of any other  organization or individual. If you disagree with my opinions, please CLICK HERE before contacting me.

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