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Shofar

A Glossary of Unfamiliar Terms
Compiled from numerous source documents
by
Ari Levitt
ThM, ThD, DMin, MA, MBA, ND, CNHP

Ten Commandments Tablets
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Abbreviations Used In This Glossary

abbr. = abbreviated

alt. = alternate

Ar. = Aramaic

esp. = especially

Gr. = Greek

Heb. = Hebrew

lit. = literally

n. = noun

pl. = plural

pron. = pronounced

prop. = properly

sg. = singular

usu. = usually

v. = verb

Yid. = Yiddish

Transliteration/Pronunciation GuideBooks of the Bible
Proper NamesTribes of IsraelThe Mishnah

For more Hebrew words and phrases, you might
enjoy John Parsons’ Hebrew4Christians.com

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Appendix   Liturgy & Worship   Pronunciation   [More]

J

Jehovah
A false — and gramatically impossible — rendering of the Sacred Name of HaShem. Impossible to pronounce in either Hebrew or Aramaic, as the needed "J" sound simply does not exsist in either language
 
Jubilee
Every fiftieth year, land lies fallow and land ownership is totally redistributed into equal family shares
 
Judaize
To bring non-Jews to accept the obligations of rabbinical tradition. See Galatianism.
 

K   k Q

K’arah
Passover seder dish
 
k’li
vessel (pl. k’lei)
 
k’riah
call
 
K’tiv
the traditional spelling of words in the Torah
 
K’tuvim
the books of the Bible known as the Writings
 
ka’as
anger
 
ka`at
pelican
 
kabbalah
oral tradition
 
Kabbalat Ol Mitzvot
Literally: the acceptance of the yoke of the commandments; a convert’s agreement to lead a Jewish life
 
kabbalat panim
welcome
 
Kabbalat Shabbat
Psalms, readings and songs welcoming the Sabbath; the introductory portion of the Sabbath eve service
 
kabod (alt. kabowd, kavod)
weight; but only figuratively in a good sense, splendor or copiousness
glorious, glory, honor)
 
kabtzen
beggar
 
kaddachat
fever
 
Kaddish (alt. Kadish)
Prayer praising G‑d. This prayer is chanted at several points in a service. In addition, it is recited at least once at each service in memory of those who have died … Prayer of sanctification of G‑d’s name
 
kadosh
holy
 
kadoshim
holy ones
 
kaftan
coat
 
kahal
assembly
 
Kal Hamira
An ancient Hebrew prayer spoken at the ritual cleansing of leaven.
 
Kalat Bereshit
Literally, bride of Genesis; the woman called to recite or chant the blessings over the first section of the Torah on Simchat Torah
 
kallah
(alt. kalah) bride … conclave or retreat (pl. kallot)
 
kamtzan
miser
 
kana’ut
(alt. kanous) zeal
 
kannai
zealot
 
kanous
(alt. kana’ut) zeal
 
Kaparah
expiation … ceremony of transferring sinfulness to a scapegoat just before Yom Kippur (pl. Kaparot, Kapparot)
 
Kaporet
the covering over the Holy Ark in the Sanctuary
 
kapparah
place or kapporet medium of wrath-propitiating blood atonement sacrifice
 
kaptzen
poor person
 
kar
cold
 
kara
Old Hebrew word for “Scripture”
 
Karaite
The name “Karaite” means Hebrew Scripturalist (from the old Hebrew “Kara” meaning Scripture). Karaite Jews, or as some prefer the more precise term Karaite Israelites, are Jews/Israelites who live by the Hebrew Scriptures without addition or subtraction. “Karaite Jew” is not an ethnic designation.
 
Karaite Judaism
Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish religious movement characterized by the recognition of the written Torah alone as its supreme authority in halakha and theology. Karaites maintain that all of the divine commandments handed down to Moses by God were recorded in the written Torah without additional Oral Law or explanation. It is distinct from mainstream Rabbinic Judaism, which considers the Oral Torah, as codified in the Talmud and subsequent works, to be authoritative interpretations of the Torah. As a result, Karaite Jews do not accept as binding the written collections of the oral tradition in the Midrash or Talmud.
 
When interpreting the Torah, Karaites strive to adhere to the plain or most obvious meaning (peshat) of the text; this is not necessarily the literal meaning, but rather the meaning that would have been naturally understood by the ancient Israelites when the books of the Torah were first written. By contrast, Rabbinic Judaism relies on the legal rulings of the Sanhedrin as they are codified in the Midrash, Talmud, and other sources to indicate the authentic meaning of the Torah.[b] Karaite Judaism holds every interpretation of the Torah to the same scrutiny regardless of its source, and teaches that it is the personal responsibility of every individual Jew to study the Torah, and ultimately decide personally its correct meaning. Karaites may consider arguments made in the Talmud and other works without exalting them above other viewpoints.
 
Karath
to cut (off, down or asunder); by implication to destroy or consume; specifically to covenant (i.e. make an alliance or bargain, originally by cutting flesh and passing between the pieces)
be chewed, covenant, cut (down or off), destroy, fail, feller, be freed, hew down, make a league (covenant), lose, perish, utterly, want  …  (alt. Karet)
“Being cut off” from the people; Biblical punishment which might become capital or consist of early natural death
 
karnayim
horns
 
karoz
herald
 
karpas
A green herb like parsley or a green vegetable such as celery or watercress, symbolizing spring; one of the symbolic foods used on the seder plate
 
kashefanut
sorcery; witchcraft
 
kashes
questions
 
kashrut
Jewish dietary laws
 
kat
sect
 
katatome
(Gk.) a cutting down (off), i.e. mutilation (ironically)
concision
 
katon
least
 
katsir
(alt. Katzir ) harvest
 
katuv
it is written
 
kavanah
lit. intentionality; referring to the spiritual attitude with which we approach worship
 
kavanat halev
the inner-directedness of the heart
 
kavod
glory
 
kavvanah
heartfelt direction; intention
 
kavvanah ra’ah
malice
 
kayits
summer
 
ke’arot
bowls
 
kedushah
(holiness) When the reader or cantor repeats the Amidah (standing prayer), the congregation rises for this antiphonal chant of a doxology from Bible verses proclaiming oneness and sanctity of the L‑rd … prayer of sanctification of G‑d’s Name added to the third benediction of the amidah prayer
 
kedushah
holiness; sanctity
 
Kedushat Hayom
the benediction concerning the “sanctity of the day” included in the amidah prayers on Sabbaths and Festivals
 
kefirah
heresy; denial
 
kehillah
congregation
 
kehunah
priesthood
 
Kehunah, Kehunah Gedolah
Priesthood in the Sanctuary, High Priesthood
 
keilim
faculties
 
kelalah
curse
 
kelevim
dogs
 
keli kodesh
holy vessel; minister
 
keli nivchar
chosen vessel
 
ken
yes
 
Ken ayin hara
(Yid., Kinna hurra) lit. “may there be no evil eye”
 
keneged
in opposition
 
kenut
sincerity
 
kerem
vineyard
 
Keren Yeshuah
Horn of Salvation
 
keriah
ritual tearing of a garment or a symbolic black ribbon as an expression of grief in conjunction with a death
 
kes
throne
 
keseder
constantly
 
kesher
conspiracy; plot
 
keshet be’anan
rainbow; Bereshit (Genesis) 9:16
 
keshi
stubbornness; hardness
 
kesil
fool (pl. kesilim)
 
kesut rosh
head covering
 
keta
section
 
ketan
under Bar Mitzvah (pl. katanim)
 
ketanim
small ones
 
keter
crown
 
Ketiva vachatima tovah
wishes of “good inscription” on Rosh haShanah
 
ketoret
incense
 
ketubah
(alt. kethubhoth) (lit. writing) traditional marriage contract, detailing duties of wife and husband, and providing money penalties for divorcement of wife … a second marriage contract (pl. ketubot)
 
Ketuvei HaShalichim
The Apostolic Writings, erroneously called the “New Testament”
 
Ketuvim
the Writings; third section of the Tanakh
 
ketz
end, end of days
 
ketzinim
officers
 
kevah
lit. fixed; referring to the fixed order of Jewish liturgy
 
kevalim
chains
 
kevarim
graves; tombs
 
kevasim; kevesim
sheep
 
kever
tomb
 
kevod hamet
(alt. kebod) honor due to the dead
 
khasidah
stork
 
Khumra
a prohibition or obligation in Jewish practice that exceeds the bare requirements of Halakha (Jewish law)]
 
ki hu zeh
a small amount
 
Ki Tetze
a portion in the Book of Deuteronomy
 
Ki Tisa
a portion in the Book of Exodus
 
kibbud
respect; honor
 
kibush hayetzer
self-control
 
Kiddush
(alt. Kidush) blessing recited or chanted over wine on Shabbat or festivals emphasizing their holiness … pour out first cup of wine / blessing of sanctification … by extension, a light meal after the wine. “Barukh atah Adonai Elohaynu melekh ha-olam, borei p’riy ha-gafen. (Amein) Blessed are You, Lord, our G-d, King of the Universe, who creates the fruit of the vine. (Amen)”
 
Kiddush Hachodesh
(alt. Kidush) the sanctification of the New Moon
 
Kiddush Levanah
(alt. Kidush) the blessing of sanctification over the monthly renewal of the moon
 
kiddushin
(alt. qiddushin, kedushin) lit. holiness; refers both to the wedding ceremony and to the state of matrimony
 
kikar
loaf
 
kina
jealousy; envy
 
kina
lament; funeral dirge
 
kinah
(lamentation) elegy in poetic (piyyut) structure recited on Jewish days of mourning (pl. kinot)
 
kinnui
secular name; see shem kodesh
 
kinderyohrn
(Yid.) childhood days
 
kiporah
covering atonement that covers sin
 
kippah
(alt. kippa, kipah) lit. covering or atonement; a “skullcap” worn by many Jews during prayer; the Yiddish term is yarmulke; many observant male Jews wear the kippa all the time, because we are encouraged to pray continually (Ps 72:15; Ps 122:6; Jer 29:7; Eph 6:18; 1Th 5:17)
 
Kisei Moshe
Chair of Moses
 
kishke
stuffed intestine … usually the stuffing is made of flour, onions, garlic and chicken fat. Today edible plastic is used instead of intestines. It is usually cooked in the cholent.
 
kishshuf
magic; sorcery (pl. kishufim)
 
Kislev
third month of Jewish year
 
kisot
thrones
 
Kisse Din
judgment seat
 
Kissei Kavod
Glorious Throne
 
kitel
(alt. kittel) long, white garment that is part of traditional Jewish burial clothes; worn by some worshipers on Yom Kippur as a reminder of mortality and a symbol of purity, and by some officiants at Rosh haShanah services and at the Passover Seder. Also worn by some grooms at their wedding
 
kitot
sects
 
Kitvei Hakodesh
Holy Books
 
klaf
hand-written scroll placed in a mezuzah, containing Deuteronomy 6:4-9; 11:13-21
 
Klal Yisrael
Nation of Israel
 
klalah
curse
 
klap
blow
 
klapei
concerning
 
klei kodesh
holy vessels; ministers
 
kleir
deliberating
 
klezmer
musician
 
kluhr
obvious
 
kluhr
pure
 
ko’ach
power
 
kodashim kalim
sacrifices of minor sanctity
 
kodem
preceding
 
kodesh
holy, sacred
 
Kodesh HaKodashim
Holy of Holies, or Most Holy Place; the area of the Tabernacle and Temple in which the Ark of the Covenant resided … see also HaKodesh
the Holy Place
 
kofer
ransom; pedut
 
koferim ba-ikkarim
deniers of fundamentals
 
kohanim gedolim
(alt. Cohanim Gedolim) the higher order of Priests
 
Kohelet
the Scroll of Ecclesiastes
 
kohen
(alt. cohen) descendant of the ancient priestly class, the progeny of Aaron; a priest (pl. kohanim, cohanim)
 
Kohen Gadol
(alt. Kohen haGadol, Cohen haGadol, Cohen Gadol) the High Priest (pl. kohanim gedolim)
 
kokhav
star (pl. kokhavim; kochavim)
 
kol ayin
every eye
 
kol basar
all flesh
 
kol davar
everything
 
kol etz
every tree
 
kol gadol
loud voice
 
kol hanivrah
all creation
 
kol melo
all the plentitude
 
Kol Nidrei
(alt. Nidrey) lit. vows; prayer that begins the Yom Kippur eve service; the entire service is often called the Kol Nidrei service … a prayer and announcement of repeal of vows recited upon the advent of the Day of Atonement
 
kol poalei resha
all workers of evil
 
kol sheker
every falsehood
 
kolot
sounds
 
komah
short of stature
 
korban
dedicated to God; sacrifice
 
korban chai
living sacrifice
 
korbanot
sacrifices
 
korech
matzah and bitter herb sandwich
 
korem
vineyard proprietor
 
koremim
vine-keepers
 
kos
cup; little owl
 
kosher
(alt. kasher, kashrut) ritually fit for use … permitted
 
kotz
thorn; splinter
 
kotzerim
harvesters
 
kozvim
liars
 
krav
battle
 
kri
the traditional pronunciation of words in the Torah
 
kri’ah
calling
 
kri’ah betzibbur
congregational public reading
 
krovey mishpachot
relatives
 
krovim
relatives
 
krum
deviant
 
kvatter / kvatterin
godfather / godmother; those who carry the baby into the B’ris (circumcision) ceremony
 
kviusdik
constant
 

Use this “Jump Bar” to directly to any letter of the AlephBet
A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z
Appendix   Liturgy & Worship   Pronunciation   [More]

Page last updated on Saturday, 13 February 2021 01:46 PM
(Updates are generally minor formatting or editorial changes.
Major content changes are identified as "Revisions”)