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A Glossary of Unfamiliar Terms
Compiled from numerous source documents
Ari Levitt

Ten Commandments Tablets
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Abbreviations Used In This Glossary

abbr. = abbreviated

alt. = alternate

Ar. = Aramaic

esp. = especially

Gr. = Greek

Heb. = Hebrew

lit. = literally

n. = noun

pl. = plural

pron. = pronounced

prop. = properly

sg. = singular

usu. = usually

v. = verb

Yid. = Yiddish

Transliteration/Pronunciation GuideBooks of the Bible
Proper NamesTribes of IsraelThe Mishnah

For more Hebrew words and phrases, you might
enjoy John Parsons’

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Terms Related To
Liturgy and Worship

Bracha (pl. brachot)
Blessing — the rabbis say that we are to say at least 100 brachot daily
The Yiddish word meaning “pray” is “daven,” which ultimately comes from the same Latin root as the English word “divine” and emphasizes the One to whom prayer is directed.
Service held at the end of Shabbat during the half-hour between sunset and when the first three stars appear
Intention of the heart — necessary to fulfill the mitzvah of proper prayer
Evening prayer service at sunset — the time of the evening sacrifice
Special prayer book for high holy days
Originally an early afternoon (approx 3:00) prayer service at the time of the early afternoon sacrifice; now held just before Ma'ariv; lasts about 20 minutes
The quorum necessary to recite certain prayers, consisting of ten adult Jewish men (who have completed bar Mitzvah)
Abraham pleaded for 10 righteous men
10 Spies came back
In Communal Worship
The minyan is the minimum “community” for public worship
There are 3 times for daily prayer in modern orthodoxy
Certain prayers require a minyan
Additional Shabbat morning service held immediately following Sharharit
The morning prayer service — regulated by numerous rabbinic rules
Held at the hour of the morning sacrifice
Prayer book — each movement has their own
Prayer shawl — an outer garment with tzit-zit; worn by both men and women during the 2nd Temple Period. Women are no longer required to wear a tallit, but in many congregations they are permitted to do so
Tallit Katan
“Small Tallit” — an undergarment with tzit-zit worn to fulfill the mitzvah of tzit-zit
The “Oral Law” — originally “Oral Tradition”
Consists of the Mishna and the Gemara
Of the two Talmuds (Jerusalem and Babylonian), the Babylonian is considered more authoritative because at the time of its development, the “more influential” rabbis lived in Babylon
Philacteries — worn by most Jewish men only during morning prayers; were probably worn all the time during the 2nd Temple Period
Knotted fringes worn at the corners of the garments; also, the 613 fringes of a tallit corresponding to the 613 Mitzvot

Originally posted on Shabbat, 11 July 2020

Use this “Jump Bar” to directly to any letter of the AlephBet
A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z
Appendix   Liturgy & Worship   Pronunciation   [More]

Page last updated on Saturday, 13 February 2021 01:46 PM
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