The Third Temple  The Center for
Messianic Learning 

Unapologetically Pro-Torah
Unashamedly Pro-Israel
Irrevocably Zionist
“… out of Tziyon will go forth Torah, the word of ADONAI from Yerushalayim.”
(Isaiah 2:3)
Jew and Gentile (Synagogue and Church), one in Messiah. (Ephesians 2:14)
“For He is our peace, Who made both one, and broke down the middle wall of partition, …”

If your life is not in jeopardy for what you believe, you’re probably on the wrong side!
“Indeed, all who want to live a godly life united with the Messiah Yeshua will be persecuted.” (2Tim 3:12)
It is what you actually believe that determines how you walk out your faith, “but avoid stupid controversies, genealogies, quarrels and fights about the Torah; because they are worthless and futile.” (Titus 3:9)

Like this page? Share it. MeWe Logo ParlerLogo WimKin Logo CloutHub Others:Bookmark and Share

Please Note: Absolutely nothing on this website should be taken as anti-Church. I am not anti-anything or anyone. I am only pro-Torah and pro-Truth (see “Philosophy”), but sometimes the Truth upsets our long-held beliefs. I know it certainly upset mine! For example, see “Why Isn’t My Theology Consistent Throughout the Website?”

© Copyright and Permissions ©

Except where otherwise indicated, all content of this website
Copyright ©1983,1985,1993-2023 Dr. Rickard (Ari) Levitt-Sawyer.
All rights reserved.

Please Report Any Copyright Infringement

I have made a sincere effort to appropriately provide credit for all material that is not my own intellectual property. If you find any copyrighted information on this website that you feel I have used without proper permission and credit, please contact me immediately so we may correct the unintentional transgression.

In accordance with the “fair use” provisions of Title 17 US Code, section 107 (17USC107), some material on this web site is provided without permission from the copyright owner, only for the permitted purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research as permitted under the “fair use” provisions of federal copyright laws. Except for the same “fair use” purposes, these materials may not be distributed further without permission of the copyright owner. If you feel that I have inadvertently infringed upon your copyright, please please contact me and I will immediately remove that material from the site.

Copyright Provisions

All information and materials on this web site are copyrighted, and are subject to the permission for use as specified on this page. Specific additional copyright information is posted on applicable pages.

No portion of any document or other material on this web site may be reproduced in any form or translated into any language without the express written permission of the copyright holder except as specified under Permitted Uses, below.

A sincere effort has been made to locate sources and obtain permission where necessary for the quotations and graphics used in all documents and pages on this site. To the best of our knowledge and belief, all other materials are in the public domain. However, in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. section 107, any copyrighted material contained herein for which we have been unable to obtain publication permission is reproduced herein without profit or payment, as is provided for the purpose of non-profit research and education only, and is reprinted under the Fair Use doctrine of international copyright law.

Scripture Versions Copyrights

In all Scripture versions quoted, out of deep respect for HaShem, I have taken the liberty of capitalizing pronouns that refer to Deity, whether or not they are capitalized in the original.

CJB: Unless otherwise indicated, all Scripture quotations are taken from the Complete Jewish Bible by David H. Stern. Copyright © 1998. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Messianic Jewish Publishers, 6120 Day Long Lane, Clarksville, MD 21029.

AMP: Scripture quotations marked AMP are taken from the Amplified® Bible, Copyright © 2015 by The Lockman Foundation. Used by permission.
   Scripture quotations marked AMPC are taken from the Amplified® Bible, Copyright © 1954, 1958, 1962, 1964, 1965, 1987 by The Lockman Foundation. Used by permission.

BSB: Scripture quotations marked BSB are taken from The Holy Bible, Berean Standard Bible, BSB, Copyright © 2016, 2020 by Bible Hub. Used by Permission. All Rights Reserved Worldwide. A formal license to use this version online was obtained from // on Saturday, October 1, 2022. The Holy Bible, Berean Standard Bible, BSB is produced in cooperation with Bible Hub, Discovery Bible,, and the Berean Bible Translation Committee. The various Berean Bible Versions may be found at these websites:
   // - Berean Bible Homepage
   // - Berean Interlinear Bible
   // - Berean Literal Bible
   // - Berean Standard Bible
   // - Berean Annotated Bible
   // - Majority Standard Bible
Versions in multiple formats are available for free downloading at

The Berean Bible and Majority Bible texts are officially placed into the public domain as of April 30, 2023. See terms and conditions.

CSB/HCSB: Scripture quotations marked CSB or HCSB have been taken from the Christian Standard Bible®, Copyright © 2017 by Holman Bible Publishers. Used by permission. Christian Standard Bible® and CSB® are federally registered trademarks of Holman Bible Publishers.

DNLT: Scripture quotations marked DLNT are from the Disciples’ Literal New Testament: Serving Modern Disciples by More Fully Reflecting the Writing Style of the Ancient Disciples, Copyright © 2011 Michael J. Magill. All Rights Reserved. Published by Reyma Publishing.

ESV: Scripture quotations marked ESV are from The ESV® Bible (The Holy Bible, English Standard Version®), copyright © 2001 by Crossway, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers. Used by permission. All rights reserved.

HNV: Scripture quotations marked HNV are taken from the Hebrew Names Version of the World English Bible, a Modern English update of the American Standard Version. This translation is in the Public Domain, so feel free to copy.

MSG: Scripture quotations marked MSG are taken from THE MESSAGE, copyright © 1993, 2002, 2018 by Eugene H. Peterson. Used by permission of NavPress. All rights reserved. Represented by Tyndale House Publishers, Inc.

NAS/NASB: Scripture quotations marked NAS or NASB are taken from the New American Standard Bible®, Copyright © 1960, 1962, 1963, 1968, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1975, 1977, 1995 by The Lockman Foundation, La Habra, Calif. All rights reserved. Used by permission.

NASB95: Scripture quotations marked NASB95 are taken from the New American Standard Bible®, 1995 Update, Copyright © 1960, 1971, 1977, 1995 by The Lockman Foundation. All rights reserved.

NCV: Scripture quotations marked NCV are taken from the New Century Version. Copyright © 1987, 1988, 1991 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved.

NIV: Scripture quotations marked NIV are taken from the Holy Bible, New International Version®, NIV®. Copyright © 1973, 1978, 1984, 2011 by Biblica, Inc.™ Used by permission of Zondervan. All rights reserved worldwide.

I only quote from the NIV for comparison with other, actually reliable translations. As the “translators” have worked very hard to produce a “politically correct” and “gender-friendly” document, I agree with those who refer to this particular work as the “Non-Inspired Version” or “Nearly Inflammable Version.” (So I'm Not Interested [in this] Version.)

NLT: Scripture quotations marked NLT are from Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

WMB: Scripture quotations marked WMB are from the World Messianic Bible, a Public Domain translation of the Holy Bible into modern English as spoken among Messianic Jews. It has also been called the World English Bible: Messianic Edition and the Hebrew Names Version.

YLT: Scripture quotations marked YLT are from 1898 Young's Literal Translation by Robert Young, an extremely literal translation that attempts to preserve the tense and word usage as found in the original Greek and Hebrew writings. It is in the public domain.

RLS: Scripture quotations that are identified as my own (RLS) or marked “literal” are my own attempt at translation or paraphrase and should not be considered authoritative. Upon occasion, I have felt that a different translation of a word or phrase better represents the original. In these cases the changed text is enclosed in [square brackets].


Maps are from Created using BibleMapper 3.0. Additional data from

Commentary Copyrights

Some notes and comments in my Paraphrase and Commentary of the whole Bible are taken directly or derived from The Complete Jewish Study Bible, by Rabbi Barry A. Rubin (ed.), copyright 2016 by Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, Massachusetts. Used by permission. All rights reserved.” When quoted directly they are identified by (CJSB).

Permitted Uses

These materials may not be reproduced electronically or “mirrored” on another website except as provided herein. They may be downloaded to your computer and printed for your personal use, they may be mirrored on your website, and they may be reproduced on paper for your personal and/or group study as long as the following conditions are met:

 1. If reproduced for any reason, they must be reproduced exactly “as is,” in their entirety, including all footnotes, references, and copyright markings.

 2. If reproduced for group study, they must be distributed at no cost to the recipient beyond the reasonable and actual cost of reproduction.

 3. They may not be reproduced in any form whatsoever, including electronic, for any form of profit.

 4. They may be copied (mirrored) on other web sites, as long as the source is clearly indicated and there is an active hyperlink to my original page. Links to individual pages are welcomed as long as they are not contained in frames.

There are a few reasons why I feel it necessary to impose these restrictions.

First of all, as with all academic endeavors, a portion of the material I have used in my teaching ministry is the copyrighted intellectual property of others who have generously granted permission for me to use it, and their rights need to be protected as well as do mine.

Second, from time to time some who have disagreed with my conclusions and opinions as presented in these materials have reprinted part of the materials, quoted me out of context, and have distorted what I have actually said so that it appeared that I said something quite different. All those who read my work have the right to determine for themselves exactly what I have said and the context in which I have said it.

Finally, these materials are the product of many years of personal labor. I have never received a salary from any church or school in which I have taught most of this material. I have never made any form of profit from my website. I have never made a profit on nor charged anyone for this information, and I certainly don’t expect anyone else to charge for it. Most of this information is directly related to the interpretation and application of the Word of God, and His Word is not for sale.

Permission to Quote

If you would like to have a record for your files of permission to use this material in accordance with the terms specified above, please contact me and let me know what material you want to use and how you plan to use it.

Page last updated on Wednesday, 03 May 2023 11:27 AM
(Updates are generally minor formatting or editorial changes.
Major content changes are identified as "Revisions”)

Anxiously awaiting Mashiach’s return

Blue Letter Bible Search Tool

Range Options:

e.g. Gen;Psa-Mal;Rom 3-9