The Center for
Messianic Learning 

Unapologetically Pro-Torah
Unashamedly Pro-Israel
Irrevocably Zionist
“… out of Tziyon will go forth Torah, the word of ADONAI from Yerushalayim.”
(Isaiah 2:3)
Jew and Gentile (Synagogue and Church), one in Messiah. (Ephesians 2:14)
“For He is our peace, Who made both one, and broke down the middle wall of partition, …”

If your life is not in jeopardy for what you believe, you’re probably on the wrong side!
“Indeed, all who want to live a godly life united with the Messiah Yeshua will be persecuted.” (2Tim 3:12)
It is what you actually believe that determines how you walk out your faith, “but avoid stupid controversies, genealogies, quarrels and fights about the Torah; because they are worthless and futile.” (Titus 3:9)

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Please Note: Nothing on this website should be taken as anti-Church. I am not anti-anything or anyone. I am only pro-Torah, pro-Truth, and pro-Grace. Sometimes the Truth upsets our long-held beliefs. Why isn’t my theology consistent throughout this website?

[Explanations of rabbinic citations are HERE]

Developing a
Systematic Messianic Theology

“The purpose of careful theological formulations is not to put barriers in the way of people who are seeking salvation, but to define clearly the truths upon which genuine [Biblical] faith rests, so that people will not be misled by false doctrines.”[Bowman]

Six Major Epochs of the Future

It is not my intent to provide here either a detailed or a chronological commentary on either the Book of Daniel or the Book of the Revelation, but only to try to create a broad overview of key events.[1] I believe that eschatology, the theology of future events, has four clear, though poorly defined, areas of concern, though the order of their occurrence, and the specific events that are to occur in each of these epochs are matters of great debate throughout both Messianic Judaism and Christianity. The primary areas of concern are these:

• The resurrection and judgment of the dead

• The Tribulation, or Time of Jacob’s Trouble

• The return and earthly reign of Messiah

• The eternal state

I believe these four concerns can be divided into six epochs:

  1. Current Events Leading to the Anti-Messiah
    1. The Apostasy
    2. The Rise of Anti-Messiah’s Confederacy
    3. The Restoration of the Temple
  2. The Rise and Reign of the Anti-Messiah
    1. Satan Cast Down
    2. The Temple Rebuilt
    3. The Man of Sin Revealed (Abomination of Desolation)
    4. People in Judah Flee
    5. The Deliverance of the Faithful Jewish Remnant
    6. The Great Tribulation (Time of Jacob’s Trouble)
      1. The Beast from the Sea
      2. The Beast from the Earth
      3. The 144,000 Witnesses
      4. The Two Witnesses
      5. Redemption of the Multitude
    7. The Day of ADONAI
  3. The Return of Messiah
    1. Messiah’s Coming in the Atmosphere
    2. The Resurrection of the Righteous Dead
    3. The Ingathering of the Righteous Living
    4. Messiah’s Return to Earth in Wrath
      1. Six Bowls of Wrath
      2. Har Megiddo (Armageddon)
      3. Seventh Bowl of Wrath
  4. The Reign of Messiah
    1. Satan Bound
    2. The First Resurrection
  5. The Rebellion Against Messiah
    1. Satan Released from the Pit
      1. Gog and Magog
      2. The Fifth Trumpet: the Bottomless Pit
      3. The Sixth Trumpet: Army from the East
    2. Satan Judged
    3. Second Resurrection and Great White Throne
  6. The Redemption of Earth by Messiah
    1. New Heaven and New Earth
    2. New Jerusalem — the Lamb’s Bride
    3. The Eternal State
      1. The River and the Tree of Life

1. Current Events Leading to the Anti-Messiah

I believe that there are three significant areas of concern that we are currently facing which are necessary to understand before we delve into the details of the future.

1a. The Apostasy

Don’t let anyone deceive you in any way. For the Day will not come until after the Apostasy [or rebellion] has come and the man who separates himself from Torah[2] has been revealed, the one destined for doom. (2Thess. 2:3)

The Spirit clearly says that in latter times some people will turn away from the faith. They will pay attention to spirits that deceive and to the teaching of demons., (1Tim 4:1)

I will heal their faithlessness [מְשׁ֣וּבָתָ֔ם (meshubah), turning away, turning back, apostasy, backsliding]; I will love them freely, for my anger has turned from them. (Hosea 14:4)

Rav Sha'ul clearly says to the Thessalonians and to Timothy that there will be a time of apostasy, a falling away from (or openly rebelling against) the true faith that was taught by Yeshua and the Emissaries. But Hosea says that ultimately God will heal that apostasy. I believe that “the Church” is that very apostasy, beginning with the establishment of the Roman State Religion in 325 CE and continuing to the present. I have explained in some considerable detail why I believe that the Church is the fulfillment of Rav Sha'ul’s prediction in my article “Is the Rapture for Real?” Furthermore, I believe that the resurgence of Messianic Judaism starting in 1967 is the beginning of that cure. (And that’s pretty much the theme of this entire website.)


1b. The Rise of Anti-Messiah’s Confederacy

The Book of the Revelation (Rev 17) says that there will be a beast with “seven heads and ten horns” come against Jerusalem. For a long time, classic Christian theology has held that this will be a ten-nation confederacy to arise out of a revived Roman Empire, based upon the idea that Rome is a city that is built on seven hills and the reference in Revelation 17:18; 17:9 CSB: “18And the woman you saw is the great city that has royal power over the kings of the earth.” and “9The seven heads are seven mountains on which the woman is seated. They are also seven kings: ” However, they ignore Rev 17:10 CSB: “10Five have fallen, one is, the other has not yet come, and when he comes, he must remain for only a little while.

Who are the seven kings? Which five of those seven kings have fallen? It the passage is talking about Rome, we have a problem. At the time this letter was written, Rome had had ten (not five) emperors who had died: Augustus (27 BCE-17 CE),Tiberius (14-37 CE), Caligula (aka Gaius, 37-41 CE), Claudius (41-54 CE), and Nero (54-68 CE), Galba (68-69 CE), Otho (3 months in 69 CE), Vitellius (11 months in 69 CE, concurrent with Otho), Vespasian (69-79 CE), Titus (79-81 CE). One was currently reigning (Domitian (81-96 CE). But what about just one more king was coming to reign for just a little while? Rome ruled over most of the known world until 1453!

Until the Protestant Reformation, the Roman Church held total control over virtually all of the area that was once the Roman Empire, “ruling over all the kings of the earth.” In any test of accuracy, of any part of the statement (or interpretation) is false, the entire statement is rendered false. So John’s statement cannot literally be referring to Rome. Several commentators feel that John is referring not to kings, but to kingdoms, which makes more sense, but still does not quite fit in my estimation, because their answers are all rooted in supersessionism.

Islamic Calphate of the 7th-9th Centuries
Islamic Calphate of the 7th-9th Centuries

Throughout the Bible all the place names that are associated with the war with “Gog and Magog” and the “Battle of Armageddon” are lands that are currently Islamic nations. The current activities of ISIS and its related idologies throughout the Middle East would seem to clearly indicate that the Islamic nations are in the process of reiving the Islamic Caliphate which will be lead by a man known as the Mahdi, or Twelfth Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi. In fact, there are several Islamic leaders who have stated that they have frequent meetings with the Mahdi, and have openly said that they are in the process of building the caliphate. The language used in the Qur'an to describe this individual is identical to that used in the Bible to describe the Anti-Messiah (Antichrist).

ISIS is presently actively destroying the very presence of all non-Muslim religions throughout the Middle East, burning, crucifying, and beheading Christians everywhere they go. The only reason they are oppressing Christians and not Jews also is that most of the Jews have already fled to Israel from those Muslim lands. ISIS is openly and totally dedicated to the absolute annihilation of Israel, just as the Anti-Messiah will be.

It is therefore my considered opinion [just an opinion] that the Anti-Messiah is the Mahdi, and that his confederacy that will come against Jerusalem is the Islamic Caliphate.


1c. The Restoration of the Temple

The Temple Institute currently has completed fabrication of all of the implements and garments needed for Levitical service in the Temple, and Kohenim [Priests] and Levi'im [Levites] have been training in the sacred rituals for several years. The cornerstone has already been cut in accordance with the Torah’s requirements, and presently in storage. The only thing still needed in order to dedicate the Temple is the ashes of a red heifer, and the Institute is working very hard to breed an acceptable kosher animal in Israel and in the USA.

There are those who claim that the Temple cannot be rebuilt as long as the mosque known as the Dome of the Rock (which I refer to as the abomination of desolation, Dan 11:31; 12:11; Matt 24:15; Mark 13:14) still stands on Mount Moriah. While Temple Mount is obviously the preferred location for the Temple, it is not absolutely the only place that the Temple may be erected (though I suspect Israel will never choose a different site). Furthermore, all that would be required for the destruction of the mosque is for one Israeli Air Force pilot to launch a single missile or bomb.

That leader will make firm an agreement with many people for seven years. He will stop the offerings and sacrifices after three and one-half years. A destroyer will do terrible things until the ordered end comes to the destroyed city. (Dan 9:27)

There is the outside possibility that the peace treaty Daniel spoke of will provide for the Temple to be erected on Mount Moriah next to the Dome of the Rock. Some refer to this location as the “Compromise Temple.”

Whatever conditions permit the Temple to be restored, Anti-Messiah will allow the offering and sacrifices to be conducted for three and one-half years before declaring himself to be a god.


2. The Rise and Reign of the Anti-Messiah

I believe that Satan knows his time is short and, although not omniscient, he is painfully aware of the future that awaits him. His goal is to take with him as many of HaShem’s precious human souls as he possibly can, because he knows that HaShem greives the loss of even one single soul. He knows the best way to hurt HaShem is to hurt those who He loves. In his last desperate attempt, he will create a counterfeit “trinity” of the Anti-Messiah, the Beast, and the False Prophet who will establish a one-world government and a false one-world religion. Those who submit to the Anti-Messiah will be given some sort of mark of loyalty. Anyone who refuses to submit and take the loyalty mark will be denied the right to buy or sell, and will ultimately be executed (most often by beheading). Anti-Messiah will either make or confirm a seven-year treaty with Israel offering them “peace and safety” and allowing the Holy Temple to be rebuilt. Halfway through those seven years, Anti-Messiah will enter the Sanctuary and demand to be worshipped as god. When Israel refuses to worship him, he brings Temple worship to a halt and brings upon Israel (primarily) the worse persecution in all of human history. (Scripture references and commens follow.)


2a. Satan Cast Down
7Next there was a battle in heaven - Mikha'el and his angels fought against the dragon, and the dragon and his angels fought back. 8But it was not strong enough to win, so that there was no longer any place for them in heaven. 9The great dragon was thrown out, that ancient serpent, also known as the Devil and Satan [the Adversary], the deceiver of the whole world. He was hurled down to the earth, and his angels were hurled down with him. 10Then I heard a loud voice in heaven saying, “Now have come God's victory, power and kingship, and the authority of his Messiah; because the Accuser of our brothers, who accuses them day and night before God, has been thrown out! 11They defeated him because of the Lamb's blood and because of the message of their witness. Even when facing death they did not cling to life. 12Therefore, rejoice, heaven and you who live there! But woe to you, land and sea, for the Adversary has come down to you, and he is very angry, because he knows that his time is short!” 13When the dragon saw that he had been hurled down to the earth, he went in pursuit of the woman who had given birth to the male child. 14But the woman was given the two wings of the great eagle, so that she could fly to her place in the desert, where she is taken care of for a season and two seasons and half a season, away from the serpent's presence. 15The serpent spewed water like a river out of its mouth after the woman, in order to sweep her away in the flood; 16but the land came to her rescue - it opened its mouth and swallowed up the river which the dragon had spewed out of its mouth. 17The dragon was infuriated over the woman and went off to fight the rest of her children, those who obey God's commands and bear witness to Yeshua. ” (Rev. 12:7-17)


2b. The Temple Rebuilt

I believe the Scriptures make it clear that before the Anti-Messiah (Antichrist) declares himself to be a god, there must be a functioning Temple in Jerusalem, because he will make the sacrifices and offerings to stop.

He will make a strong covenant with leaders for one week [שְׁבוּעַ shabua,a period of seven (days, years), heptad; week so 7 years]. For half of the week he will put a stop to the sacrifice and the grain offering. On the wing of detestable things the desolator will come and continue until the already decreed destruction is poured out on the desolator. (Dan 9:27)

So he will make (or confirm) a seven-year covenant with the leaders of Israel and Islam that allows the Temple to be rebuilt and the Levitical sacrifices to resume, but after half of that time (three and a half years) he will “put a stop to the sacrifice and the grain offering.”

It is possible, however, that these four prophecies were either fulfilled or “pre-filled” by the Romans.[3] Around 40 CE, Emperor Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus (Caligula, “little boots”) attempted to force a statue of himself to be erected in the Temple. This led directly to the rebellion that ultimately resulted in the destruction of the Temple, the sack of Jerusalem, and the dispersion of Israel into the nations thirty years later in 70 CE.

Now Caius Caesar did so grossly abuse the fortune he had arrived at, as to take himself to be a god, and to desire to be so called also, and to cut off those of the greatest nobility out of his country. He also extended his impiety as far as the Jews. Accordingly he sent Petronius with an army to Jerusalem to place his statues in the temple, and commanded him that, in case the Jews would not admit of them, he should slay those that opposed it, and carry all the rest into captivity.[4]

It may be that this event that was “prefilled.” It is also possible (I think very likely) that the Anti-Messiah will fulfill these prophecies a second time.

So when you see the abomination that causes desolation, spoken of by the prophet Daniel, standing in the holy place (let the reader understand) (Matt. 24:15 HCSB)

He will oppose himself to everything that people call a god or make an object of worship; he will put himself above them all, so that he will sit in the Temple of God and proclaim that he himself is God. (2Thess 2:4)

Since Daniel’s description (Dan. 11:45) of the Lawless One [the Man Without (or Against) Torah] does not fit with the siege of Rome, he is referring to a later siege. The primary fulfillment of this prophecy is considered by most to have been the campaign against Israel by the Syrian king Antiocus Epiphanes (the Maccabean war, ca. 175 to 164 BCE). It may possibly happen again as part of Anti-Messiah’s campaign, and even yet again when Satan lays siege to Jerusalem at the end of the Messianic Kingdom.

Finally, when he [the Lawless One] pitches the tents of his palace [establishes the seat of his government] between the seas and the mountain of the holy Glory [Temple Mount; Tel Aviv sits between the Mediterranean Sea and Jerusalem], he will come to his end, with no one to help him. (Dan. 11:45)

Yochanan’s vision is about events in his future. Since he didn’t write the Revelation until about 90 CE, his letter cannot refer to either the Jewish revolt of 40-70 CE or to the fall of Jerusalem in 70 CE. But it is clear that the Temple in Jerusalem was seen in his vision.

I was given a measuring rod like a stick and told, “Get up, and measure the Temple of God and the altar, and count how many people are worshipping there! But the court outside the Temple, leave that out; don't measure it; because it has been given to the Goyim [Gentiles], and they will trample over the holy city for forty-two months.” (Rev. 11:1-2)

See also “The Third Temple


2c. The Man of Sin Revealed (Abomination of Desolation)

Daniel provides us with a summary timeline of Anti-Messiah’s reign:

24Seventy weeks are decreed about your people and your holy city — to bring the rebellion to an end, to put a stop to sin, to wipe away injustice, to bring in everlasting righteousness, to seal up vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most holy place. 25Know and understand this: From the issuing of the decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem until Messiah the Prince will be seven weeks and 62 weeks. It will be rebuilt with a plaza and a moat, but in difficult times. 26After those 62 weeks the Messiah will be cut off and will have nothing. The people of the coming prince will destroy the city and the sanctuary. The end will come with a flood, and until the end there will be war; desolations are decreed. 27He will make a firm covenant with many for one week but in the middle of the week he will put a stop to sacrifice and offering. And the abomination of desolation will be on a wing of the temple until the decreed destruction is poured out on the desolator. (Dan 9:24-27, HCSB)

Verse 24: “Seventy weeks.” The Hebrew word translated “weeks” is שָׁבֻעִ֨ים (šā·ḇu·‘îm), sevens, and the prophetic year is 360 days. Each “week” is a week of years, or seven years. So the total “seventy weeks” of years is 490 years decreed by God to “to bring the [Israel’s] rebellion [against God] to an end, to put a stop to sin, to wipe away injustice, to bring in everlasting righteousness, to seal up vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most holy place.”

Verse 25: Jerusalem will be rebuilt, but it will be in difficult times, under Roman oppression for most of the time. The decree to rebuild Jerusalem was issued on the first day of the “month Nisan, in the twentieth year of King Artaxerxes” (i.e., 445 BCE). (Neh 2:1)

The prophecy states that 69 weeks of years (173,880 days using the 360 day prophetic year) after the command goes forth to restore and rebuild the city of Jerusalem the Messiah will come. If we count forward 173,880 days from March 14th 445 B.C. we arrive at April 6th 32 A.D. [Source: “Confirming the Prophetic Date of 445 B.C.” quoting from The Creator Beyond Time and Space by Chuck Missler accessed Sept. 7, 2015]

Now take the 476 years in this prophecy and simply start counting from March 14, 445 B.C. (when the command to rebuild the city Jerusalem and its wall was given) and you end on the exact year (even the very day) Jesus (Yeshua) rode “triumphantly” into Jerusalem (Palm Sunday), being praised as King and Messiah by thousands upon thousands of the Jewish people who had gathered from all over for the Passover Holidays. Honored, yet lowly, riding on a donkey — exactly as another prophet, the prophet Zechariah, said He would ... [Source: “Mathematical Bible Prophecy” mathprophecy1.html accessed Sep. 7, 2015]

Verse 26: A “week” later Yeshua was murdered (“cut off”) and had nothing (left no children). Thirty-eight years later in 70 CE “the people of the coming prince,” General Titus, destroyed “the city and the sanctuary.” The people of Israel were scattered among the nations (the Diaspora) until Israel was restored to the Land in 1948.

Verse 27: We have completed 69 weeks of Daniel’s prophecy. At this point the prophetic clock abruptly stops with an additional “week” of 7 years until God brings the rebellion to an end, puts a stop to sin, wipes away injustice, brings in everlasting righteousness, seals up (ends) vision and prophecy, and anoints the most holy place. That remaining seven years constitutes the duration of the Tribulation.

Verse 28: When the prophetic clock begins ticking again, the “the coming prince” either makes or “confirms” (enforces) a covenant, apparently a peace treaty, with Israel for seven years, the final “week” of Daniel’s prophecy. This treaty permits the resumption of Levitical worship, which requires a restored Temple. “In the middle of the week,” or after three and one-half years, “he will put a stop to sacrifice and offering.” The Hebrew text of the rest of the sentence is obscure, but there are two alternate translations: “And the desolator will be on the wing of abominations,” or “And the desolator will come on the wings of monsters (or of horror).” Can “the wings of monsters” refer to aerial combat like we have seen so often on television newscasts since the “war on terror” began?

1Let no one in any way deceive you, for it will not come unless the 2apostasy comes first, and the 3man of lawlessness [literally “without (or against) Torah”] is revealed, the son of destruction, 4who opposes and exalts himself above 5every so-called god or object of worship, so that he takes his seat in the temple of God, 6displaying himself as being God. (2Thess. 2:3-4, NAS)

When he causes the sacrifices to be stopped, the Anti-Messiah takes his place in the Most Holy Place, or perhaps establishes the Most Holy Place as his throne room, thus “displaying himself as God.”

So when you see the abomination that causes desolation, spoken of by the prophet Daniel, standing in the holy place (let the reader understand) (Matt. 24:15, HCSB)

Then the one who embodies separation from Torah will be revealed, the one whom the Lord Yeshua will slay with the breath of His mouth and destroy by the glory of His coming. When this man who avoids Torah comes, the Adversary will give him the power to work all kinds of false miracles, signs and wonders. (2Thess. 2:8-9)

There was given to him [the Lawless One] a mouth speaking arrogant words and blasphemies, and authority to act for forty-two months was given to him. And he opened his mouth in blasphemies against God, to blaspheme His name and His Tabernacle; that is, those who dwell in heaven.[6] (Rev. 13:5-6, NAS)

11From the time the daily sacrifice is abolished and the abomination of desolation is set up, there will be 1,290 days. 12Blessed is the one who waits for and reaches 1,335 days. 13But as for you, go on your way to the end; you will rest, then rise to your destiny at the end of the days. (Dan 12:11-13, HCSB)

From the time that the Anti-Messiah causes the daily sacrifices to stop and declares himself to be God, there remain 1,290 days (3.53 years) until his ultimate defeat. Apparently after his defeat there will be a period of 45 days (1,335-1,290 days) before King Messiah officially takes His throne.


2d. People in Judah Flee
15“So when you see the abomination that causes devastation spoken about through the prophet Dani'el standing in the Holy Place” (let the reader understand the allusion), 16“that will be the time for those in Y'hudah to escape to the hills. 17If someone is on the roof, he must not go down to gather his belongings from his house; 18if someone is in the field, he must not turn back to get his coat. 19What a terrible time it will be for pregnant women and nursing mothers! 20Pray that you will not have to escape in winter or on Shabbat. (Matt 24:15-20)

This prophecy that Yeshua gave was literally fulfilled when Titus destroyed Jerusalem in 70 CE. It may very well be fulfilled again when the Anti-Messiah is revealed.

You will flee by My mountain valley, for the valley of the mountains will extend to Azal. You will flee as you fled from the earthquake in the days of Uzziah king of Judah. Then the LORD my God will come and all the holy ones with Him. (Zech 14:5, HCSB)

1Now a great sign was seen in heaven — a woman [Israel] clothed with the sun, under her feet the moon, and on her head a crown of twelve stars. 2She was pregnant and about to give birth [to Messiah], and she screamed in the agony of labor. [the slaughter of the innocents, Matt 2:16-18?] 3Another sign was seen in heaven there was a great red dragon with seven heads and ten horns, and on his heads were seven royal crowns. 4Its tail swept a third of the stars out of heaven and threw them down to the earth. [a third of the angels fell with Lucifer] It stood in front of the woman [Israel] about to give birth [to Messiah], so that it might devour the child the moment it was born. [Herod, (Matt. 2:1-18)] 5She gave birth to a Son [Yeshua], a male Child, the One Who will rule all the nations with a staff of iron. But her Child was snatched up to God and His throne; [the Ascension] 6and she fled into the desert, where she has a place prepared by God so that she can be taken care of for 1,260 days. (Rev. 12:1-6)

Many interpreters believe that those in Israel will take refuge in Petra, Jordan, for this three and one-half years. It is a very large valley totally surrounded by high peaks, with the only land access a very narrow cleft that is in some places only about fifteen feet wide; it is thus easily defended from land assaults. If you look at the pictures you will see there are numerous rooms carved out of the solid rock that could be utilized for dwellings. These would also provide significant protection from aerial attack. It is likely, though, that HaShem will provide some sort of supernatural protection either in addition to, or in place of, natural protection.


2e. Deliverance of the Faithful Jewish Remnant
Now at that time Michael,[7] the great prince who stands guard over the sons of your people, will arise. And there will be a time of distress such as never occurred since there was a nation until that time; and at that time your people, everyone who is found written in the book,[8] will be rescued. (Dan. 12:1)

The Hebrew word translated as “rescued” is מָלַט, malat, which means to slip away, escape, deliver, save, be delivered. The Scriptures are silent about how that escape is to be provided. Perhaps it is by fleeing into the wilderness.

5She [Israel] gave birth to a Son, a male child [Yeshua], the One Who will rule all the nations with a staff of iron. But her child was snatched up to God and His throne[the Ascension]; 6and she fled into the desert [Petra?], where she has a place prepared by God so that she can be taken care of for 1,260 days. [three and one-half 360-day prophetic years] (Rev. 12:5-6)

23At that time, if someone says to you, “Look! Here's the Messiah!” or, “There he is!” don’t believe him. 24For there will appear false Messiahs and false prophets performing great miracles — amazing things! — so as to fool even the chosen, if possible. 25There! I have told you in advance! 26So if people say to you, “Listen! He's out in the desert!” don't go; or, “Look! He’s hidden away in a secret room!” don't believe it. 27For when the Son of Man does come, it will be like lightning that flashes out of the east and fills the sky to the western horizon. 28Wherever there’s a dead body, that’s where you find the vultures. (Matt. 24:23-28)

By this the Messiah shows His desire for the chosen ones to be protected.

13But we have to keep thanking God for you always, brothers whom the Lord loves, because God chose you as firstfruits for deliverance by giving you the holiness that has its origin in the Spirit and the faithfulness that has its origin in the truth. 14He called you to this through our Good News, so that you could have the glory of our Lord Yeshua the Messiah. 15Therefore, brothers, stand firm; and hold to the traditions you were taught by us, whether we spoke them or wrote them in a letter. (2Thess. 2:13-15)

9For God has not intended that we should experience his fury, but that we should gain deliverance through our Lord Yeshua the Messiah, 10Who died on our behalf so that whether we are alive or dead, we may live along with Him. (1Thess. 5:9-10)

This is a later point made by Rav Sha'ul out of chronology to affirm that God will protect His chosen ones.

Everyone living on earth will worship it [the Man Mithout Torah] except those whose names are written in the Book of Life belonging to the Lamb slaughtered before the world was founded. (Rev. 13:8)

"If anyone is meant for captivity, into captivity he goes! If anyone is to be killed with the sword, with the sword he is to be killed!" This is when God's holy people must persevere and trust! (Rev. 13:10)

12This is when perseverance is needed on the part of God’s people, those who observe His commands and exercise Yeshua's faithfulness. 13Next I heard a voice from heaven saying, "Write: 'How blessed are the dead who die united with the Lord, from now on!' 'Yes,' says the Spirit, 'now they may rest from their efforts, for the things they have accomplished follow along with them.'" (Rev. 14:12-13)

Then I heard another voice out of heaven say: "My people, come out of her! so that you will not share in her sins, so that you will not be infected by her plagues," (Rev. 18:4)

They defeated him because of the Lamb's blood and because of the message of their witness. Even when facing death they did not cling to life. (Rev. 12:11)

But the woman [Israel] was given the two wings of the great eagle, so that she could fly to her place in the desert, where she is taken care of for a season and two seasons and half a season, away from the serpent's presence. (Rev. 12:14)


2f. The Great Tribulation (Time of Jacob’s Trouble)

At the midway point of the seven-year Tribulation, the Anti-Messiah (dare I say Mahdi?) has declared himself to be god and demanded to be worshipped. Obviously, Israel rejects the offer, so the Man Without Torah — the Lawless One — unleashes his rage.

Virtually every Christian I know (even “Cultural Christians,” those who self-identify as “Christian” simply because they were born in America and embrace no other religion) expects the Rapture to protect them from all of this, but as I explain HERE, I no longer believe in the Christian concept of the Rapture. Whether or not the wrath of Anti-Messiah reaches Europe and the Western Hemisphere remains to be seen, since the Scriptures are totally and absolutely silent about the Western World. I’m looking at all of this future with an eye toward an Islamic Caliphate led by a nuclear-equipped Iran (or something very similar). I believe that what we are seeing from Radical Islam right now (2021) is typical of what we can expect from the Biblical Tribulation. I may very well be totally wrong. Or I may actually be correct. We really can’t depend on the Scriptures to tell us what is going to happen in the Gentile nations of the Western Hemisphere or even Europe. The Scriptures are the record of God’s dealing with His chosen people Israel, and those Goyim (Gentiles) who choose to affiliate with Israel, and they have absolutely nothing at all to say about the Gentile nations outside of the Middle East.

Now at that time Michael[7], the great prince who stands guard over the sons of your people, will arise. And there will be a time of distress such as never occurred since there was a nation until that time; and at that time your people, everyone who is found written in the book, will be rescued. (Dan. 12:1)

Again, the Hebrew word translated as “rescued” is מָלַט, malat, which means to slip away, escape, deliver, save, be delivered. The Scriptures are silent about how that escape is to be provided. Perhaps it is by fleeing into the wilderness.

For there will be trouble then worse than there has ever been from the beginning of the world until now, and there will be nothing like it again! Indeed, if the length of this time had not been limited, no one would survive; but for the sake of those who have been chosen, its length will be limited. (Matt. 24:21-22)

9When this man who avoids Torah comes, the Adversary will give him the power to work all kinds of false miracles, signs and wonders. 10He will enable him to deceive, in all kinds of wicked ways, those who are headed for destruction because they would not receive the love of the truth that could have saved them. 11This is why God is causing them to go astray, so that they will believe the Lie.[GN] 12The result will be that all who have not believed the truth, but have taken their pleasure in wickedness, will be condemned. (2Thess. 2:9-12)


2f-i. The Beast from the Sea
1and I saw a beast come up out of the sea, with ten horns and seven heads. On its horns were ten royal crowns and on its heads blasphemous names. 2The beast which I saw was like a leopard, but with feet like those of a bear and a mouth like the mouth of a lion. To it the dragon gave its power, its throne and great authority. 3One of the heads of the beast appeared to have received a fatal wound, but its fatal wound was healed, and the whole earth followed after the beast in amazement. 4They worshipped the dragon, because he had given his authority to the beast; and they worshipped the beast, saying, "Who is like the beast? Who can fight against it?" 5It was given a mouth speaking arrogant blasphemies; and it was given authority to act for forty-two months. 6So it opened its mouth in blasphemies against God to insult His name and His Sh'khinah, and those living in heaven; 7it was allowed to make war on God's holy people and to defeat them; and it was given authority over every tribe, people, language and nation. 8Everyone living on earth will worship it except those whose names are written in the Book of Life belonging to the Lamb slaughtered before the world was founded. 9Those who have ears, let them hear! 10"If anyone is meant for captivity, into captivity he goes! If anyone is to be killed with the sword, with the sword he is to be killed!" This is when God's holy people must persevere and trust! (Rev. 13:1-10)

Islamic Terrorist HeadbandVerse 1: The “beast” in verses 1-10 is the entire satanic confederacy, not an individual. In the Tanakh, “horn” often means king. This beast comes up out of the sea. In the Tanakh, the “sea” often refers to the “sea of humanity” and often refers to the Gentile nations. The angel in Daniel’s vision explains to Daniel that the the ten horns are ten kings (Dan 7:24). The ten royal crowns confirms that interpretation. “Seven heads” is a bit ambiguous, but since seven is the number of perfection and “head” frequently refers to authority or power, this may indicate that this confederation of ten Gentile “kings” holds perfect, or absolute, power and/or authority. If I am correct that this confederacy is the Islamic Caliphate, then “on its heads blasphemous names” may refer to the name of the demon Allah, who falsely claims to be the God of Abraham, and that of his “prophet” Mohammed that appear on the headband of many militant Islamic extremists. Or it may be the names of the Anti-Messiah and his f alse prophet.

Verse 2: The beast described here is a composite of three of animals from Daniel’s vision, which most scholars identify as Babylon (lion with eagle wings), Persia (bear), Greece (leopard), and Rome (beast with 10 horns). Here is how the angel interpreted the fourth animal to Daniel.

23This is what he said: “The fourth animal will be a fourth kingdom on earth [Rome?]. It will be different from the other kingdoms; it will devour the whole earth, trample it down and crush it [as Rome certainly did]. 24As for the ten horns, out of this kingdom ten kings will arise; and yet another will arise after them. Now he will be different from the earlier ones, and he will put down three kings. 25He will speak words against the Most High and try to exhaust the holy ones of the Most High. He will attempt to alter the seasons and the law; and [the holy ones] will be handed over to him for a time [a year], times [two years] and half a time [half a year, for a total of three and one-half years]. 26But when the court goes into session, he will be stripped of his rulership, which will be consumed and completely destroyed. 27Then the kingdom, the rulership, and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven will be given to the holy people of the Most High [Israel]. Their kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all rulers will serve and obey them.” (Dan 7:23-27)

Because they identified the fourth beast as Rome, most Christian theologians identify the ten kings arising from the fourth kingdom as a ten-nation confederacy rising from the ashes of the Roman Empire, that is, ten nations which were at one time part of the empire, and “another will arise after them.” When the European Common Market was first formed, it consisted of ten nations, all of which had been part of the Roman Empire, so the natural interpretation at that time was that the Antichrist would come out of the Common Market.

However, reading Daniel 7:24 carefully, it does not say “another will arise out of them.” It says “another will arise after them.” While the Common Market interpretation may yet prove to be the case, in light of current events I feel that a ten-nation Islamic confederation forming the Caliphate, with the Mahdi arising to lead them, is much more likely. Whatever its true nature, this ten-nation confederacy will bring the Great Tribulation against Israel for three and one-half years.

“To it the dragon gave its power, its throne and great authority.” Throughout Scripture, Satan is identified as the serpent, that old dragon. This confederation will receive its power directly from Satan.

Verse 3. Again, many interpreters view the “fatal wound” to indicate the idea that while Rome has “died,” this confederacy would being it back to ”life.” I think it may mean that one of the nations of the confederacy will be have been defeated, and regained its power; perhaps Iraq or Iran? (In 2019, America is boasting that “ISIS has been defeated and Iran has been disarmed,” even though it is well known that Iran still has a nuclear capability.) Or it may mean that one of the leaders of one of these nations will be assassinated and resuscitated.

Verse 4“They worshipped the dragon, because he had given his authority to the beast; and they worshipped the beast, saying, ‘Who is like the beast? Who can fight against it?’” I'm going to go way out on a limb here, and nobody says you need to agree with me. Throughout the Qur'an, Allah claims to be the God of Abraham. He claims to be the one who created the world (Sura 2:29-38). He clams to have made a covenant with Israel (Sura 2:40). He claims it was he who led Israel out of Egypt. (Sura 2:47-71). And he claims to have given Israel the Torah (Surah 2:53). But whenever Allah describes himself, he provides a description that cannot possibly be the God of Abraham. Therefore, Allah is obviously a false god. The Bible, both the Tanakh and the Apostolic Writings make it clear that all false gods are actually demons. I believe that the demon Allah is either one of the highest-ranking demons, or more likely, the prince of demons, Lucifer himself. Allah’s attitude towards God’s chosen people certainly does not sound like HaShem, the God of Abraham. Let’s have a look at what the Koran says about non-Muslims:

  • Slay the unbelievers wherever you find them (2:191)
  • Make war on the infidels living in your neighborhood (9:123)
  • When opportunity arises, kill the infidels wherever you catch them (9:5)
  • Kill the Jews and the Christians if they do not convert to Islam or refuse to pay Jizya tax (9:29)
  • Any religion other than Islam is not acceptable (3:85)
  • The Jews and the Christians are perverts; fight them (9:30)
  • Maim and crucify the infidels if they criticize Islam. (5:33)
  • The infidels are unclean; do not let them into a mosque (9:28)
  • Punish the unbelievers with garments of fire, hooked iron rods, boiling water; melt their skin and bellies (22:19)
  • Do not hanker for peace with the infidels; behead them when you catch them (47:4)
  • The unbelievers are stupid; urge the Muslims to fight them (8:65)
  • Muslims must not take the infidels as friends (3:28)
  • Terrorize and behead those who believe in scriptures other than the Qur’an (8:12) [even though he claims to have given Moshe the Torah]
  • Muslims must muster all weapons to terrorize the infidels (8:60)

The very first verse of the Qur'an says, “All praise is due to Allah, the lord of the worlds.” 2Cor. 4:4 says that Satan is “the god of this world.” I rest my case.

Verses 5-6: Falsely claiming to be the God of Abraham certainly is blasphemy. Forty-two months is three and a half years.

Verse 7: Apparently Israel will not do too well against this confederation in combat. “… authority over every tribe, people, language and nation.” It would seem that this includes Europe and the Western Hemisphere.

Verse 8: Only those whose names have been written in the Lamb’s Book of Life before the foundation of the earth will not worship the beast.

Verse 9: Listen, then, if you have ears!

Verse 10: God’s chosen people must hang tough and trust God, whether we are destined to be taken captive, or killed with the sword. Remember that to be “absent from the body” is to be “at home with the Lord” (2Cor. 5:6-8).


2f-ii. The Beast from the Earth

11Then I saw another beast coming up out of the earth. It had two horns like those of a lamb, but it spoke like a dragon. 12It exercises all the authority of the first beast in its presence; and it makes the earth and its inhabitants worship the first beast, the one whose fatal wound had been healed. (Rev. 13:11-12)

Verse 11: “… two horns like a lamb.” Messiah is the Lamb of God; this beast is an individual who tries to look like Messiah, but speaks the message of Satan. This is the Anti-Messiah (Antichrist); perhaps the Mahdi?

Verse 12a: The Anti-Messiah “exercises all the authority of the first beast,” or controls the confederation.

Verse 12b: and it makes the earth and its inhabitants worship the first beast, the one whose fatal wound had been healed.

ISIS, the Islamic Caliphate, was declared dead, and was later proven to be very much alive and well. On December 21, 2019, posted an article, “ISIS ‘caliphate’ crumbled in 2019…” declaring the Caliphate to be dead. But by the time that Joe Biden pulled US troops out of Afghanistan in October 2021 the Taliban had taken total control of the country and become the de facto government. On October 12, 2021, CBN posted an article, “Taliban Sees US Pullout from Afghanistan as Fulfillment of End Times Islamic Prophecy About Jerusalem.” (Watch the video there.)

The Taliban and other radical Muslims see their takeover of Afghanistan not only as a military victory but as a fulfillment of Islamic prophecy. The Taliban Twitter page carried this message: “Black flags will arise from Khorasan and nothing will be able to return them.”
   Joel Richardson, the author of the best-selling book The Islamic Anti-Christ, explained why this Islamic prophecy is so important on CBN’s recent webinar, “Afghanistan: What’s Next After the US Pullout.”
   “This is very important. I haven’t heard this talked about in the mainstream media at all. But if we look at some of the main end-time prophecies within Islam. I mean, one of the biggest prophecies. There’s a prophecy that says armies carrying black flags will come from the area of the east or Khorasan,” said Richardson.
   Khorasan is an ancient land that includes modern northwestern Pakistan, eastern Iran, and all of Afghanistan. 
   It says an army will come from Khorasan carrying black flags and then it says this: ‘If you see them give them your allegiance. Even if you have to crawl over ice. Because this is the army of the Mahdi,’ or in English, you can just say the Mahdi, the vice-regent of Allah. So, this is one of their biggest end-time prophecies,” said Richardson.
   Sheikh Imran Hosein, a well-known Muslim expert on Islamic prophecies explained the US pullout in Afghanistan through this prophecy on his YouTube channel.
   “Afghanistan is the heart of Khorasan,” said Hosein. “What is happening in Afghanistan is validating the prophecy of Prophet Muhammad … that the Muslim armies designed to come out of Afghanistan, of Khorasan…no one will be able to stop it until it reaches Jerusalem.”
   The prophecy says Jerusalem will be the final goal of the army of the Mahdi when they plant their flags here on the Temple Mount.

An alternate interpretation might be that the first beast is the confederation, the leader of one of the nations in the confederation is assassinated and resuscitated, and after his resuscitation becomes the embodiment of that nation. This person may be the Anti-Messiah, and the second beast who looks like a messiah, is given the full authority of the Anti-Messiah and causes everyone to worship the Anti-Messiah. Since Yeshua, the true Messiah, was crucified, died, and resurrected, the “resurrection” of the Anti-Messiah (“his fatal wound healed”) may be part of the deception to make the world believe that he has the same power and authority as Yeshua. 

7He spoke with a loud voice: “Fear God and give Him glory, because the hour of His judgment has come. Worship the Maker of heaven and earth, the sea and springs of water."” 8A second angel followed, saying: “It has fallen, Babylon the Great has fallen, who made all nations drink the wine of her sexual immorality, which brings wrath.“ (Rev. 14:7).

Verse 7: In the midst of the Great Tribulation, the people of God are to honor Him and give Him glory, because He is bringing His judgment against the nations who have oppressed Israel.

Verse 8: Interpreters who think the confederation is the “revived Roman Empire” think that when Kefa (Peter) said “She who is Babylon, chosen with you” (1Pet 5:13), he was referring to the Messianic community in Rome, and calling Rome “Babylon” because it was so corrupt and evil. They therefore think that this verse is saying that Rome has fallen. Some go so far as to say it means that the “harlot of Babylon” (Rev. 17:3-6) is the Roman Church and the Vatican has fallen. I don't see any reason not to think that Kefa was actually referring to a Messianic community in Babylon, about 60 miles south of what is now Baghdad, Iraq. Saddam Hussein had every intention of restoring the ancient city and making it his capital. It is not unreasonable that Babylon may be restored under the Caliphate, and may even become its capital city.

The phrase “… wine of her sexual immorality” may also be translated as “wine of her passionate immorality.” Can this be referring to the rampant pedophilia and bestiality that Islam is noted for? Or perhaps it is simply referring to the overall immorality of Islam in general.

9Another angel, a third one, followed them and said in a loud voice, “If anyone worships the beast and its image and receives the mark on his forehead or on his hand, 10he will indeed drink the wine of God’s fury poured undiluted into the cup of his rage. He will be tormented by fire and sulfur before the holy angels and before the Lamb, 11and the smoke from their tormenting goes up forever and ever. They have no rest, day or night, those who worship the beast and its image and those who receive the mark of its name.” (Rev. 14:9-11)

There are so many opinions as to what constitutes the “mark of the beast” that I’m not even going to speculate as to what the mark may be. Some are terribly concerned that they will accidentally receive the mark and be eternally lost. God is not capricious! The “mark” is apparently given to those who make a conscious choice to receive it as a sign of loyalty to, and worship of, the Anti-Messiah. It may very well be, however, that the penalty for refusing to worship the beast and take his mark is death.


2f-iii. The 144,000 Witnesses
1After this, I saw four angels standing at the four corners of the earth, holding back the four winds of the earth, so that no wind would blow on the land, on the sea or on any tree. 2I saw another angel coming up from the east with a seal from the living God, and he shouted to the four angels who had been given power to harm the land and the sea, 3"Do not harm the land or the sea or the trees until we have sealed the servants of our God on their foreheads!" 4I heard how many were sealed — 144,000 from every tribe of the people of Isra'el: 5From the tribe of Y'hudah 12,000 were sealed from the tribe of Re'uven 12,000 from the tribe of Gad, 12,000 6from the tribe of Asher 12,000 from the tribe of Naftali 12,000 from the tribe of M'nasheh 12,000 7from the tribe of Shim'on 12,000 from the tribe of Levi 12,000 from the tribe of Yissakhar 12,000 8from the tribe of Z'vulun 12,000 from the tribe of Yosef 12,000 from the tribe of Binyamin 12,000 (Rev.7:1-8)

Those who take the “mark of the beast” receive a mark in their hand or on their forehead. Those 144,00 Witnesses receive the mark of HaShem on their foreheads (v. 3). They are all Israelites from each of the twelve tribes, 12,000 from each tribe (v.4; so there are clearly no “lost” tribes). I cannot help but wonder if these 144,000 witnesses come directly from Modern Messianic Judaism.[18] (Just a thought!)

1Then I looked, and there was the Lamb standing on Mount Tziyon; and with him were 144,000 who had His name and his Father's name written on their foreheads. 2I heard a sound from heaven like the sound of rushing waters and like the sound of pealing thunder; the sound I heard was also like that of harpists playing on their harps. 3They were singing a new song before the throne and before the four living beings and the elders, and no one could learn the song except the 144,000 who have been ransomed from the world. 4These are the ones who have not defiled themselves with women, for they are virgins; they follow the Lamb wherever he goes; they have been ransomed from among humanity as firstfruits for God and the Lamb; 5on their lips no lie was found - they are without defect. (Rev 14:1-5)

The Mark of HaShem consists of the name of the Lamb (Yeshua) and the name of His Father (v.1). Interesting that ISIS wears the name of Muhammad and his father Allah on their foreheads (picture above).


2f-iv. The Two Witnesses
1I was given a measuring rod like a stick and told, “Get up, and measure the Temple of God and the altar, and count how many people are worshipping there! 2But the court outside the Temple, leave that out; don't measure it; because it has been given to the Goyim, and they will trample over the holy city for forty-two months. 3Also I will give power to my two witnesses; and they will prophesy for 1,260 days, dressed in sackcloth.” 4These are the two olive trees and the two menorahs standing before the Lord of the earth. 5If anyone tries to do them harm, fire comes out of their mouth and consumes their enemies — yes, if anyone tries to harm them, that is how he must die. 6They have the authority to shut up the sky, so that no rain falls during the period of their prophesying; also they have the authority to turn the waters into blood and to strike the earth with every kind of plague as often as they want. 7When they finish their witnessing, the beast coming up out of the Abyss will fight against them, overcome them and kill them; 8and their dead bodies will lie in the main street of the great city whose name, to reflect its spiritual condition, is “S'dom” and “Egypt” — the city where their Lord was executed on a stake. 9Some from the nations, tribes, languages and peoples see their bodies for three-and-a-half days and do not permit the corpses to be placed in a tomb. 10The people living in the Land rejoice over them, they celebrate and send each other gifts, because these two prophets tormented them so. 11But after the three-and-a-half days a breath of life from God entered them, they stood up on their feet, and great fear fell on those who saw them. 12Then the two heard a loud voice from heaven saying to them, “Come up here!” And they went up into heaven in a cloud, while their enemies watched them. 13In that hour there was a great earthquake, and a tenth of the city collapsed. Seven thousand people were killed in the earthquake, and the rest were awestruck and gave glory to the God of heaven. 14The second woe has passed; see, the third woe is coming quickly. (Rev. 11:1-14)

Verse 2: The goyim will trample over the Holy City for 42 months, which is three and one-half years. Interesting that the Muslims, who are goyim, have had control of Temple Mount for a lot longer than 3 and one-half years.

Verse 3: The Two Witnesses will prophesy for 1,260 days, which is three and one-half years.

Verses 4 & 5: Nobody can harm the Two Witnesses; if anyone tries they are slain by the witnesses. Is “fire our of their mouth” literal, or does it figuratively refer to the power of their words?

Verse 6: Elijah “shut up the skies” so that no rain fell for three years (1Kings 17:1; 18:1,45). Moshe (Moses) “turn[ed] the waters into blood and [struck] the earth with every kind of plague” (Exod. 8-12, especially Exod. 7:17-20)

Image result for rainbow coalition in Israel
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Verses 7-10: After three and one-half years, the Beast slays the Two Witnesses and their bodies lie in the street of Jerusalem for three and one-half days, and everyone celebrates their death because they didn’t like to hear their immorality being exposed. Jerusalem, the city where Messiah was executed on a stake, is here called “Sodom and Egypt” because of its spiritual condition.

Verse 11: After three and one-half days, HaShem resurrects thee Two Witnesses and takes them bodily into His presence.


2f-v. Redemption of the Multitude
9After this, I looked; and there before me was a huge crowd, too large for anyone to count, from every nation, tribe, people and language. They were standing in front of the throne and in front of the Lamb, dressed in white robes and holding palm branches in their hands; 10and they shouted, "Victory to our God, who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb!" 11All the angels stood around the throne, the elders and the four living beings; they fell face down before the throne and worshipped God, saying, 12"Amen! "Praise and glory, wisdom and thanks, honor and power and strength belong to our God forever and ever! "Amen!" 13One of the elders asked me, "These people dressed in white robes - who are they, and where are they from?" 14"Sir," I answered, "you know." Then he told me, "These are the people who have come out of the Great Persecution. They have washed their robes and made them white with the blood of the Lamb. 15That is why they are before God's throne. "Day and night they serve him in his Temple; and the One who sits on the throne will put his Sh'khinah upon them. 16"They will never again be hungry, they will never again be thirsty, the sun will not beat down on them, nor will any burning heat. 17"For the Lamb at the center of the throne will shepherd them, will lead them to springs of living water, and God will wipe every tear from their eyes." (Rev.7:9-17)

The huge crowd, too numerous to count, “from every nation, tribe, people and language” “are the people who have come out of [not escaped] the Great Persecution.” Please note that it does not say they were “raptured” out of the earth and avoided that Persecution. This leaves open the possibility that they either survived the Great Persecution or were martyred and have been resurrected.

They stand before God’s throne, but it does not say that the throne is in “the third heaven.” I believe it is Yeshua’s throne in Jerusalem. Please note they are dressed in white robes and are waving palm branches. Are there palm trees in “the third heaven?”

Day and night they serve Him in His Temple; and the One who sits on the throne will put his Sh'khinah upon them.” The Levites who serve in HaShem’s Temple wear white robes and wave palm branches, and the Sh'khinah filled both the Tabernacle and the Temple until the people fell into apostasy. I believe that what is being described here is the service in the Millennial Temple, not in “heaven.”


2g. The Day of ADONAI (The His Wrath Poured Out; Sun and Moon Darkened)

But immediately following the trouble of those times, the sun will grow dark, the moon will stop shining, the stars will fall from the sky, and the powers in heaven will be shaken. (Matt. 24:29)

30I will show wonders in the sky and on earth - blood, fire and columns of smoke. 31The sun will be turned into darkness and the moon into blood before the coming of the great and terrible Day of ADONAI. 32At that time, whoever calls on the name of ADONAI will be saved. For in Mount Tziyon and Yerushalayim there will be those who escape, as ADONAI has promised; among the survivors will be those whom ADONAI has called. (Joel 2:30-32)

Notice that these events are apparently “immediately after the tribulation of those days.” I’m not at all sure how to interpret the phrase “the powers in heaven.” This term usually refers to the angelic beings who serve in Heaven, but I certainly won’t be dogmatic about it.

1"Blow the shofar in Tziyon! Sound an alarm on my holy mountain!" Let all living in the land tremble, for the Day of ADONAI is coming! It's upon us! 2a day of darkness and gloom, a day of clouds and thick fog; a great and mighty horde is spreading like blackness over the mountains. There has never been anything like it, nor will there ever be again, not even after the years of many generations. 3Ahead of them a fire devours, behind them a flame consumes; ahead the land is like Gan-'Eden, behind them a desert waste. From them there is no escape. 4They look like horses, and like cavalry they charge. 5With a rumble like that of chariots they leap over the mountaintops, like crackling flames devouring stubble, like a mighty horde in battle array. 6At their presence the peoples writhe in anguish, every face is drained of color. 7Like warriors they charge, they scale the wall like soldiers. Each one keeps to his own course, without getting in the other's way. 8They don't jostle each other, but stay on their own paths; they burst through defenses unharmed, without even breaking rank. 9They rush into the city, they run along the wall, they climb up into the houses, entering like a thief through the windows. 10At their advance the earth quakes, and the sky shakes, the sun and moon turn black, and the stars stop shining. 11ADONAI shouts orders to his forces - his army is immense, mighty, and it does what he says. For great is the Day of ADONAI,  fearsome, terrifying! Who can endure it? (Joel 2:1-11)

15“Oh no! The Day! The Day of ADONAI is upon us! As destruction from Shaddai it is coming! 16The food is cut off before our very eyes, also joy and gladness from the house of our God. 17The seed-grain is rotting in its furrows; the granaries are deserted, the barns in ruins; because the grain has withered. 18How the animals groan! The herds of cattle are perplexed, because they have no pasture. The flocks of sheep bear the punishment, too. 19ADONAI, I cry out to you! For the fire has consumed the pastures in the desert, and the flame set ablaze all the trees in the fields. 20Even the wild animals come to you, panting, because the streambeds have dried up, and fire has consumed the pastures in the desert.” (Joel 1:15-20)

9Here comes the Day of ADONAI, full of cruelty, rage and hot fury, to desolate the earth and destroy the sinners in it. 10For the stars, the constellations in the sky, will no longer give their light; the sun will be dark when it rises; and the moon will no longer shine. 11“I will punish the world for its evil and the wicked for their iniquity. I will end the arrogance of the proud and humble the insolence of tyrants. 12I will make humans rarer than gold, scarcer than Ofir's pure gold. 13This is why I will make the heavens tremble, and the earth will be shaken from its place at the wrath of ADONAI-Tzva'ot on the day of his fierce anger. (Isa 13:9-11)

Please note that the Day of ADONAI is directed toward the sinners and the wicked  for their evil, iniquity, arrogance, pride, insolennce, and tyranny.

15For the Day of ADONAI is near for all nations; as you did, it will be done to you; your dealings will come back on your own head. 16For just as you have drunk on my holy mountain, so will all the nations drink in turn; yes, they will drink and gulp it down and be as if they had never existed. 17But on Mount Tziyon there will be a holy remnant who will escape, and the house of Ya'akov will repossess their rightful inheritance. (Obad 1:15-17)

12Then I watched as He broke the sixth seal, and there was a great earthquake, the sun turned black as sackcloth worn in mourning, and the full moon became blood-red. 13The stars fell from heaven to earth just as a fig tree drops its figs when shaken by a strong wind. 14The sky receded like a scroll being rolled up, and every mountain and island was moved from its place. 15Then the earth’s kings, the rulers, the generals, the rich and the mighty - indeed, everyone, slave and free - hid himself in caves and among the rocks in the mountains, 16and said to the mountains and rocks, “Fall on us, and hide usk from the face of the One sitting on the throne and from the fury of the Lamb! 17For the Great Day of their fury has come, and who can stand?” (Rev. 6:12-17)

I think that this portion is chronologically out of place in the Book of Revelation, since the seals seem to be an overview of the coming events. It rushes to the end when Messiah is about to come.


3. The Return of Messiah

The following passages of Scripture speak of the future return of Yeshua HaMashiach to earth, are presented here in approximate chronological order, and are from a blend of four main scriptural sources: Daniel 12 (supported by other prophets), Matthew 24, Rav Sha'ul’s chronology in his letters to the Thessalonians (which tracks with Messiah’s chronology), and the book of Revelation, which is generally chronological, but which contains flashes backward and forward in time.

See also “Three Major View of the Millennium

3a. Messiah's Coming in the Atmosphere
       (Sound of the Shofar and Voice of the Archangel)

12On that day ADONAI will beat out the grain between the Euphrates River and the Vadi of Egypt; and you will be gathered, one by one, people of Isra'el! 13On that day a great shofar will sound. Those lost in the land of Ashur will come, also those scattered through the land of Egypt; and they will worship ADONAI on the holy mountain in Yerushalayim. (Isa 27:12-13)

10Here comes Adonai ELOHIM with power, and his arm will rule for him. Look! His reward is with Him, and his recompense is before Him. 11He is like a shepherd feeding His flock, gathering His lambs with his arm, carrying them against His chest, gently leading the mother sheep." (Isa 40:10-11)

Then a Redeemer will come to Tziyon, to those in Ya'akov who turn from rebellion.” So says ADONAI. (Isa 59:20)

30“Then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky, all the tribes of the Land will mourn, and they will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven with tremendous power and glory. 31He will send out his angels with a great shofar; and they will gather together his chosen people from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other. (Matt. 24:30-31)

16For the Lord himself will come down from heaven with a rousing cry, with a call from one of the ruling angels, and with God’s shofar; those who died united with the Messiah will be the first to rise; 17then we who are left still alive will be caught up with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air; and thus we will always be with the Lord. (1Thes. 4:16-17)

11Next I saw heaven opened, and there before me was a white horse. Sitting on it was the One called Faithful and True, and it is in righteousness that He passes judgment and goes to battle. 12His eyes were like a fiery flame, and on His head were many royal crowns. And he had a name written which no one knew but Himself. 13He was wearing a robe that had been soaked in blood, and the name by which He is called is, “THE WORD OF GOD.*14The armies of heaven,[9] clothed in fine linen, white and pure, were following him on white horses. 15And out of his mouth comes a sharp sword with which to strike down nations — “He will rule them with a staff of iron.’ It is he who treads the winepress from which flows the wine of the furious rage of ADONAI, God of heaven's armies. (Rev.19:11-15)

* In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. … The Word became a human being and lived with us, and we saw his Sh'khinah, the Sh'khinah of the Father’s only Son, full of grace and truth. (John 1:1,14)


3b. The Resurrection of the Righteous Dead

Many[10] of those sleeping in the dust of the earth will awaken, some to everlasting life and some to everlasting shame and abhorrence. (Dan. 12:2)

He will send out His angels with a great shofar; and they will gather together His chosen people [Israel] from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other. (Matt. 24:31)[11]

13Now, brothers, we want you to know the truth about those who have died; otherwise, you might become sad the way other people 14do who have nothing to hope for. For since we believe that Yeshua died and rose again, we also believe that in the same way God, through Yeshua, will take with him those who have died. 15When we say this, we base it on the Lord's own word: we who remain alive when the Lord comes will certainly not take precedence over those who have died. 16For the Lord himself will come down from heaven with a rousing cry, with a call from one of the ruling angels, and with God's shofar; those who died united with the Messiah will be the first to rise; 17then we who are left still alive will be caught up with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air; and thus we will always be with the Lord. (1Thess. 4:13-17)

4Then I saw thrones, and those seated on them received authority to judge. And I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded for testifying about Yeshua and proclaiming the Word of God, also those who had not worshipped the beast or its image and had not received the mark on their foreheads and on their hands. They came to life and ruled with the Messiah for a thousand years. 5(The rest of the dead did not come to life until the thousand years were over.) This is the first resurrection. 6Blessed and holy is anyone who has a part in the first resurrection; over him the second death has no power. On the contrary, they will be cohanim of God and of the Messiah, and they will rule with him for the thousand years.
(Rev. 20:4-6)


3c. The Ingathering of the Righteous Living

Although most of the Church teaches that these prophecies refer to a “Rapture of the Church,” I believe they may actually be referring to a physical airlift, which would have been difficult for the prophets to describe, since they had never seen an airplane. More about that airlift here.

He will send out his angels with a great shofar; and they will gather together his chosen people from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other. (Matt. 24:31)

then we who are left still alive will be caught up with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air; and thus we will always be with the Lord. (2Thes. 4:17)

6Then I heard what sounded like the roar of a huge crowd, like the sound of rushing waters, like loud peals of thunder, saying, “Halleluyah! ADONAI, God of heaven's armies, has begun his reign! 7Let us rejoice and be glad! Let us give Him the glory! For the time has come for the wedding of the Lamb, and his Bride has prepared herself…” (Rev. 19:6-7)

The angel said to me, “Write: ‘How blessed are those who have been invited to the wedding feast of the Lamb!’” Then he added, “These are God’s very words.” (Rev. 19:9)


3d. Messiah’s Return to Earth in Wrath

3Then ADONAI will go out and fight against those nations, fighting as on a day of battle. 4On that day His feet will stand on the Mount of Olives, which lies to the east of Yerushalayim; and the Mount of Olives will be split in half from east to west, to make a huge valley. Half of the mountain will move toward the north, and half of it toward the south. (Zech 14:3-4)

48But if that servant is wicked and says to himself, “My master is taking his time”'; 49and he starts beating up his fellow servants and spends his time eating and drinking with drunkards; 50then his master will come on a day the servant does not expect, at a time he doesn’t know; 51and he will cut him in two and put him with the hypocrites, where people will wail and grind their teeth! (Matt. 24:48-51)

6For it is justice for God to pay back trouble to those who are troubling you[12], 7and to give rest along with us to you who are being troubled, when the Lord Yeshua is revealed from heaven with His mighty angels 8in a fiery flame. Then He will punish those who don’t know God, that is, those who don’t listen to the Good News of our Lord Yeshua and obey it. 9They will suffer the just penalty of eternal 10destruction, far away from the face of the Lord and the glory of His might. That Day, when He comes to be glorified by His holy people and admired by all who have trusted, you will be among them, because you trusted our witness to you. (2 Thes. 1:6-10)

14The armies of heaven,[13] clothed in fine linen, white and pure, were following Him on white horses. 15And out of His mouth comes a sharp sword with which to strike down nations — “He will rule them with a staff of iron.” It is He who treads the winepress from which flows the wine of the furious rage of ADONAI, God of heaven’s armies. 16And on His robe and on His thigh He has a name written: KING OF KINGS AND LORD OF LORDS. 17Then I saw an angel standing in the sun, and he cried out in a loud voice to all the birds that fly about in mid-heaven, “Come, gather together for the great feast God is giving,…” (Rev. 19:14-17)

19I saw the beast and the kings of the earth and their armies gathered together to do battle with the Rider of the horse and his army. 20But the beast was taken captive, and with it the false prophet who, in its presence, had done the miracles which he had used to deceive those who had received the mark of the beast and those who had worshipped his image. The beast and the false prophet were both thrown alive into the lake of fire that burns with sulfur. 21The rest were killed with the sword that goes out of the mouth of the Rider on the horse, and all the birds gorged themselves on their flesh. (Rev. 19:19-21)


3d-i. Six Bowls of Wrath
1I heard a loud voice from the sanctuary say to the seven angels, "Go, and pour out on the earth the seven bowls of God's fury!" 2So the first one went and poured his bowl onto the earth, and disgusting and painful sores appeared on all the people who had the mark of the beast and worshipped its image. 3The second one poured out his bowl into the sea, and it became like the blood of a dead person, and every living thing in the sea died. 4The third one poured out his bowl into the rivers and springs of water, and they turned to blood. 5Then I heard the angel of the waters say, "O HaKadosh, the One who is and was, you are just in these judgments of yours. 6They poured out the blood of your people and your prophets, so you have made them drink blood. They deserve it!" 7Then I heard the altar say, "Yes, ADONAI, God of heaven's armies, your judgments are true and just!" 8The fourth one poured out his bowl on the sun, and it was permitted to burn people with fire. 9People were burned by the intense heat; yet they cursed the name of God, who had the authority over these plagues, instead of turning from their sins to give him glory. 10The fifth one poured out his bowl on the throne of the beast, and its kingdom grew dark. People gnawed on their tongues from the pain, 11yet they cursed the God of heaven because of their pains and sores, and did not turn from their sinful deeds. 12The sixth one poured out his bowl on the great river Euphrates, and its water dried up, in order to prepare the way for the kings from the east. (Rev. 16:1-12)


3d-ii. Har Megiddo (Armageddon)
13And I saw three unclean spirits that looked like frogs; they came from the mouth of the dragon, from the mouth of the beast and from the mouth of the false prophet. 14They are miracle-working demonic spirits which go out to the kings of the whole inhabited world to assemble them for the War of the Great Day of ADONAI-Tzva'otYHVH of Armies. 15("Look! I am coming like a thief! How blessed are those who stay alert and keep their clothes clean, so that they won't be walking naked and be publicly put to shame!") 16And they gathered the kings to the place which in Hebrew is called Har Megiddo. (Rev 16:13-16)


3d-iii. Seventh Bowl of Wrath
17The seventh one poured out his bowl on the air, and a loud voice came out of the Temple from the throne, saying, "It is done!" 18There were flashes of lightning, voices and peals of thunder; and there was a massive earthquake, such as has never occurred since mankind has been on earth, so violent was the earthquake. 19The great city was split into three parts, the cities of the nations fell, and God remembered Bavel the Great and made her drink the wine from the cup of his raging fury. 20Every island fled, and no mountains were to be found. 21And huge seventy-pound hailstones fell on people from the sky. But the people cursed God for the plague of hail, that it was such a terrible plague. (Rev. 16:17-21)

Verse 17: As he died on the cross, Yeshua shouted, “It is finished!” Greek Τετέλεσται (Tetelestai), to bring to an end, complete, fulfill; properly, to complete (consummate), i.e. finish (qualitatively) the necessary process – with the results "rolling-over" to the next level (phase) of consummation. This root (tel-) means "reaching the end (aim)."
   But here we hear the voice shoutling, “It is done!” Greek γίνομαι (ginomai), to come into being, to happen, to become; properly, to emerge, become, transitioning from one point (realm, condition) to another.


4. The Reign of Messiah

I believe Adonai Yeshua HaMashiach will return to the earth just as He went, in Person and in the body in which He was crucified, now glorified, coming on the clouds of heaven, and with power and great glory to introduce the Millennial Kingdom, to bind HaSatan and place him in the abyss, to lift the curse which now rests on the whole creation, to fully restore a reunited Israel to her own land and to give to her the realization of God’s covenant promises, to bring the whole world to the knowledge of God, and to personally and bodily reign over the whole earth for a thousand years. I believe that in His glorified body, Adonai Yeshua HaMashiach will proudly bear the marks of His sacrifice as an eternal “badge of honor.”

I believe that all who died “in Messiah” (that is, having trusted HaShem for eternal life through the Messiah, whether before or after the Cross) will be resurrected and be given glorified bodies like His, and that they will actively participate in the “management” of the Kingdom.

I believe that Holy Temple will be rebuilt in Jerusalem, that the priesthood and the sacrifices will be restored, and it will be from the Temple that HaMashiach will reign over a restored Israel. I believe that King David will literally rule as co-regent with Mashiach, and that Avraham will be “governor” (or similar) over the entire promised land from the Nile to the Euphrates. I believe that Israel will be recognized as the center of earth’s government and a “light to the nations,” and that all the peoples of all the nations will come “up to Jerusalem” to observe all the Feasts of Adonai under the tutelage of Israel.


4a. Satan Bound
1Next I saw an angel coming down from heaven, who had the key to the Abyss and a great chain in his hand. 2He seized the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is the Devil and Satan [the Adversary], and chained him up for a thousand years. 3He threw him into the Abyss, locked it and sealed it over him; so that he could not deceive the nations any more until the thousand years were over. After that, he has to be set free for a little while. (Rev. 20:1-3)


4b. The First Resurrection
4Then I saw thrones, and those seated on them received authority to judge. And I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded for testifying about Yeshua and proclaiming the Word of God, also those who had not worshipped the beast or its image and had not received the mark on their foreheads and on their hands. They came to life and ruled with the Messiah for a thousand years. 5(The rest of the dead did not come to life until the thousand years were over.) This is the first resurrection. 6Blessed and holy is anyone who has a part in the first resurrection; over him the second death has no power. On the contrary, they will be cohanim of God and of the Messiah, and they will rule with him for the thousand years. (Rev. 20:4-6)


5. The Rebellion Against Messiah

I believe that following the release of HaSatan at the end of the , he will deceive the nations of the earth and gather them to battle against Messiah and His saints, and against Jerusalem, and they will be destroyed by fire from heaven 

5a.  Satan Released from the Pit
7When the thousand years are over, the Adversary will be set free from his prison 8and will go out to deceive the nations in the four quarters of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them for the battle. Their number is countless as the sand on the seashore; 9and they came up over the breadth of the Land and surrounded the camp of God's people and the city he loves. But fire came down from heaven and consumed them. 10The Adversary who had deceived them was hurled into the lake of fire and sulfur, where the beast and the false prophet were; and they will be tormented day and night forever and ever. (Rev. 20:7-10)


5a-i. Gog and Magog
1The word of ADONAI came to me: 2“Human being, turn your face toward Gog [Turkestan] (of the land of Magog [Turkey?]), chief prince of Meshekh and Tuval;[14] and prophesy against him. 3Say that Adonai ELOHIM says, ‘I am against you, Gog, chief prince of Meshekh and Tuval. 4I will turn you around, put hooks in your jaws and bring you out with all your army, horses and horsemen, all completely equipped, a great horde with breastplates and shields, all wielding swords. 5Paras [Persia], Ethiopia and Put [Libya?] are with them, all with breastplates and helmets; 6Gomer [northern shores of the Black Sea] with all its troops; the house of Togarmah [southwest Armenia] in the far reaches of the north, with all its troops - many peoples are with you. 7Prepare yourself, get ready, you and all your crowd gathered around you; and take charge of them. 8After many days have passed, you will be mustered for service; in later years you will invade the land which has been brought back from the sword, gathered out of many peoples, the mountains of Isra'el. They had been lying in ruins for a long time, but now Isra'el has been extracted from the peoples and all of them are living there securely. 9You will come up like a storm, you will be like a cloud covering the land - you and all your troops, and many other peoples with you.’ 10“Adonai ELOHIM says: ‘When that day comes, thoughts will well up in your mind, and you will devise a sinister scheme. 11You will say, “I am going to invade this land of unwalled villages; I will take by surprise these people who are at peace, living securely, all in places without walls, bars or gates. 12I will seize the spoil and take the plunder.” You will attack the former ruins that are now inhabited and come against the people gathered from the nations, who have acquired livestock and other wealth and are living in the central parts of the land. 13Sh'va, D'dan and all the leading merchants of Tarshish will ask you, “Have you come to seize spoil? Have you assembled your hordes to loot; to carry off silver, gold, livestock and other wealth; to take much plunder?’” 14“Therefore, human being, prophesy! Tell Gog that Adonai ELOHIM says this: ‘Won't you be aware of it when my people Isra'el are living in security? 15You will choose just that time to come from your place in the far reaches of the north, you and many peoples with you, all of them on horseback, a huge horde, a mighty army; 16and you will invade My people Isra'el like a cloud covering the land. This will be in the acharit-hayamim [Last Days or End Times]; and I will bring you against My land, so that the Goyim will know Me when, before their eyes, I am set apart as holy through you, Gog.’” (Ezek 38:1-16)


5a-ii. The Fifth Trumpet: the Bottomless Pit
1The fifth angel sounded his shofar; and I saw a star that had fallen out of heaven onto the earth, and he was given the key to the shaft leading down to the Abyss. 2He opened the shaft of the Abyss, and there went up smoke from the shaft like the smoke of a huge furnace; the sun was darkened, and the sky too, by the smoke from the shaft. 3Then out of the smoke onto the earth came locusts, and they were given power like the power scorpions have on earth. 4They were instructed not to harm the grass on the earth, any green plant or any tree, but only the people who did not have the seal of God on their foreheads. 5The locusts were not allowed to kill them, only to inflict pain on them for five months; and the pain they caused was like the pain of a scorpion sting. 6In those days people will seek death but will not find it; they will long to die, but death will elude them. 7Now these locusts looked like horses outfitted for battle. On their heads were what looked like crowns of gold, and their faces were like human faces. 8They had hair like women's hair, and their teeth were like those of lions. 9Their chests were like iron breastplates, and the sound their wings made was like the roar of many horses and chariots rushing into battle. 10They had tails like those of scorpions, with stings; and in their tails was their power to hurt people for five months. 11They had as king over them the angel of the Abyss, whose name in Hebrew is “Abaddon” and in our language, “Destroyer.” 12The first woe has passed, but there are still two woes to come. (Rev. 9:1-12)


5a-iii. The Sixth Trumpet: Army from the East
13The sixth angel sounded his shofar, and I heard a voice from the four horns of the gold altar before God, 14saying to the sixth angel, the one with the shofar, “Release the four angels that are bound at the great river Euphrates!” 15And they were released. These four angels had been kept ready for this moment, for this day and month and year, to kill a third of mankind; 16and the number of cavalry soldiers was two hundred million! - I heard the number. 17Here is how the horses looked in the vision: the riders had breastplates that were fire-red, iris-blue and sulfur-yellow; the horses' heads were like lions' heads; and from their mouths issued fire, smoke and sulfur. 18It was these three plagues that killed a third of mankind - the fire, smoke and sulfur issuing from the horses' mouths. 19For the power of the horses was in their mouths - and also in their tails, for their tails were like snakes with heads, and with them they could cause injury. 20The rest of mankind, those who were not killed by these plagues, even then did not turn from what they had made with their own hands - they did not stop worshipping demons and idols made of gold, silver, bronze, stone, and wood, which cannot see or hear or walk. 21Nor did they turn from their murdering, their involvement with the occult and with drugs, their sexual immorality, or their stealing. (Rev. 9:13-21)


5b. Satan Judged

HaSatan will then be cast into the lake of fire, where the Beast and the False Prophet live in eternal torment.  

5c. Second Resurrection and Great White Throne

All of the unrighteous dead will then be resurrected to stand before the Great White Throne, where the books of their lives will be opened and they will be judged according to their deeds. But regardless of their deeds, “since not one was found ever having been written in the Book of Life, he was cast into the lake of fire” (Rev 20:15, literal), where they will experience eternal conscious torment.

11Next I saw a great white throne and the One sitting on it. Earth and heaven fled from His presence, and no place was found for them. 12And I saw the dead, both great and small, standing in front of the throne. Books were opened; and another book was opened, the Book of Life; and the dead were judged from what was written in the books, according to what they had done. 13The sea gave up the dead in it; and Death and Sh'ol gave up the dead in them; and they were judged, each according to what he had done. 14Then Death and Sh'ol were hurled into the lake of fire. This is the second death—the lake of fire. 15Anyone whose name was not found written in the Book of Life was hurled into the lake of fire. (Rev 20:11-15)


6. The Redemption of Earth by Messiah

The elements of the earth will then be dissolved with a great rushing sound (2 Pet 3:10) and HaShem will create a completely new heaven and earth (Rev 21:1). The new Jerusalem will come down out of the sky (Rev 21:2) and will be the eternal dwelling place for all (and only) those whose names are written in the Lamb’s Book of Life, where they will enjoy eternal fellowship with HaShem and with one another (Rev 21:3-4.) Having fulfilled His redemptive mission, Adonai Yeshua HaMashiach will then hand over the kingdom to HaShem the Father (1Cor 15:23-24). Although Scripture seems to be silent on the matter, I like to think that King Yeshua will continue to reign over the redeemed earth in the Olah Haba, either physically in person or through a designated regent.


6a. New Heaven and New Earth

10However, the Day of the Lord will come “like a thief.” On that Day the heavens will disappear with a roar, the elements will melt and disintegrate, and the earth and everything in it will be burned up. 11Since everything is going to be destroyed like this, what kind of people should you be? You should lead holy and godly lives, 12as you wait for the Day of God and work to hasten its coming. That Day will bring on the destruction of the heavens by fire, and the elements will melt from the heat; 13but we, following along with his promise, wait for new heavens and a new earth, in which righteousness will be at home. 14Therefore, dear friends, as you look for these things, do everything you can to be found by him without spot or defect and at peace. 15And think of our Lord's patience as deliverance, just as our dear brother Sha'ul also wrote you, following the wisdom God gave him. 16Indeed, he speaks about these things in all his letters. They contain some things that are hard to understand, things which the uninstructed and unstable distort, to their own destruction, as they do the other Scriptures. 17But you, dear friends, since you know this in advance, guard yourselves; so that you will not be led away by the errors of the wicked and fall from your own secure position. 18And keep growing in grace and knowledge of our Lord and Deliverer, Yeshua the Messiah. To him be the glory, both now and forever! Amen. (2Pet 3:10-18)

1Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the old heaven and the old earth had passed away, and the sea was no longer there. 2Also I saw the holy city, New Yerushalayim, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared like a bride beautifully dressed for her husband. 3I heard a loud voice from the throne say, “See! God’s Sh'khinah is with mankind, and he will live with them. They will be His people, and He Himself, God-with-them, will be their God. 4He will wipe away every tear from their eyes. There will no longer be any death; and there will no longer be any mourning, crying, or pain; because the old order has passed away.” 5Then the One sitting on the throne said, “Look! I am making everything new!” Also he said, “Write, ‘These words are true and trustworthy!’” 6And He said to me, “It is done! I am the 'A' and the 'Z,' the Beginning and the End. To anyone who is thirsty I myself will give water free of charge from the Fountain of Life. 7He who wins the victory will receive these things, and I will be his God, and he will be my son. 8But as for the cowardly, the untrustworthy, the vile, the murderers, the sexually immoral, those involved with the occult and with drugs, idol-worshippers, and all liars — their destiny is the lake burning with fire and sulfur, the second death.” 9One of the seven angels having the seven bowls full of the seven last plagues approached me and said, “Come! I will show you the Bride, the Wife of the Lamb.” (Rev 21:1-9)


6b. New Jerusalem — the Lamb’s Bride

I find it incredibly interesting that the angel tells Yochanan that he will be shown the Wife of the Lamb (verse 9), and then he is immedialy shown the New Jerusalem which is “prepared like a bride” (verse 2). So is New Jerusalem the Bride?[15]

10He carried me off in the Spirit to the top of a great, high mountain and showed me the holy city, Yerushalayim, coming down out of heaven from God. 11It had the Sh'khinah of God, so that its brilliance was like that of a priceless jewel, like a crystal-clear diamond. 12It had a great, high wall with twelve gates; at the gates were twelve angels; and inscribed on the gates were the names of the twelve tribes of Isra'el. 13There were three gates to the east, three gates to the north, three gates to the south and three gates to the west. 14The wall of the city was built on twelve foundation-stones, and on these were the twelve names of the twelve emissaries of the Lamb. 15The angel speaking with me had a gold measuring-rod with which to measure the city, its gates and its wall. 16The city is laid out in a square, its length equal to its width. With his rod he measured the city at 1,500 miles,[16] with length, width and height the same. 17He measured its wall at 216 feet by human standards of measurement, which the angel was using. 18The wall was made of diamond and the city of pure gold resembling pure glass. 19The foundations of the city wall were decorated with all kinds of precious stones-the first foundation stone was diamond, the second sapphire, the third chalcedony, the fourth emerald, 20the fifth sardonyx, the sixth carnelian, the seventh chrysolite, the eighth beryl, the ninth topaz, the tenth chrysoprase, the eleventh turquoise and the twelfth amethyst. 21The twelve gates were twelve pearls, with each gate made of a single pearl. The city's main street was pure gold, transparent as glass. 22I saw no Temple in the city, for ADONAI, God of heaven's armies, is its Temple, as is the Lamb. 23The city has no need for the sun or the moon to shine on it, because God's Sh'khinah gives it light, and its lamp is the Lamb. 24The nations will walk by its light, and the kings of the earth will bring their splendor into it. 25Its gates will never close, they stay open all day because night will not exist there, 26and the honor and splendor of the nations will be brought into it. 27Nothing impure may enter it, nor anyone who does shameful things or lies; the only ones who may enter are those whose names are written in the Lamb's Book of Life. (Rev 21:10-27)


6c. The Eternal State

I believe in the bodily resurrection of all humanity, the righteous to eternal life in the Kingdom, and the unrighteous to judgment and everlasting punishment. I believe that the souls of the redeemed are at death “absent from the body and … at home with the Lord”[17] (2Cor. 5:6-8) until the first resurrection, when spirit and body are reunited to be glorified forever with the Lord. I believe that the souls of unbelievers remain in Sheol (Rev. 20:13) after death in conscious punishment and torment until the second resurrection when, with soul and body reunited, they shall appear at the Great White Throne Judgment, and shall be cast into the Lake of Fire, not to be annihilated, but to suffer everlasting conscious punishment and torment.


6c-i. The River and the Tree of Life
1Next the angel showed me the river of the water of life, sparkling like crystal, flowing from the throne of God and of the Lamb. 2Between the main street and the river was the Tree of Life producing twelve kinds of fruit, a different kind every month; and the leaves of the tree were for healing the nations - 3no longer will there be any curses. The throne of God and of the Lamb will be in the city, and his servants will worship him; 4they will see his face, and his name will be on their foreheads. 5Night will no longer exist, so they will need neither the light of a lamp nor the light of the sun, because ADONAI, God, will shine upon them. And they will reign as kings forever and ever. 6Then he said to me, “These words are true and trustworthy: ADONAI, God of the spirits of the prophets, sent His angel to show His servants the things that must happen soon. 7Look! I am coming very soon. Blessed is the person who obeys the words of the prophecy written in this book!” 8Then I, Yochanan, the one hearing and seeing these things, when I heard and saw them, I fell down to worship at the feet of the angel showing them to me. 9But he said to me, “Don’t do that! I am only a fellow-servant with you and your brothers, the prophets and the people who obey the words in this book. Worship God!” (Rev. 22:1-9)



  1. For a verse-by-verse commentary on the Book of Revelation go HERE. Explore and enjoy!! [RETURN]

  2. Most versions say “man of lawlessness,” “man of sin,” or something similar. [RETURN]

  3. There is a principle of Bible interpretation related to the interpretation of prophecy called the “rule of dual fulfillment” or “dual prophecy.” This is the idea that some prophecies in the Bible have both a short-term and long-term fulfilment. In brief, this principle says that from the viewpoint of the prophet, the event he predicts may have a first or partial fulfillment and then have an additional, later fulfillment. The earlier fulfillment is sometimes referred to as a pre-fillment. For a fuller discussion of this concept, see “The Dual Fulfillment of Prophecy” on the Sound Docrine Ministries website, accessed 29 September 2019. [RETURN]

  4. Flavius Josephus, Antiquities, 15, 403 ff. [RETURN]

  5. Literally, Moshe and the Prophets, the Scriptures. The Hebrew Scriptures, called the Tanakh, were divided into three sections, the Torah (also called Moshe, or Moses), the Prophets, and the Writings. For a listing of books in each of thse sections, go here. [RETURN]

  6. … those who dwell in heaven. The angelic beings, not the righteous dead. There is nothing in all of Scripture to support the idea that the righteous dead go to the “third heaven,” the Throne of HaShem (or any other heaven, for that matter.) [RETURN]

  7. Michael. Hebrew: lakym (Miyka'el, "who is like God") The chief archangel who is described as the one who stands in time of conflict for the children of Israel. [RETURN]

  8. The Book of Life. [RETURN]

  9. Please note that “the armies of heaven” refers to the angelic army, not the host of “resurrected saints.” [RETURN]

10. “Many (not all) of those sleeping in the dust of the earth will awaken,” [RETURN]

11. This passage is referring to the ingathering of Israel in the Last Days, not to the “rapture of the Church.” “He will send out His angels with a great shofar; and they will gather together His chosen people from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.” Nowhere in Scripture is “the Church” ever referred to as HaShem’s “chosen people;” this term always refers to Israel. The phrases “from the four winids” and “from one end of heaven to the other” are both Hebrew idioms equal to the English idiom “from the four corners of the earth.” [RETURN]

12. World leaders need to learn that HaShem does not take kindly to those who abuse His people. For ADONAI-Tzva'ot has sent me on a glorious mission to the nations that plundered you, and this is what He says: “Anyone who injures you injures the very pupil of my eye.” (Zech 2:8) I will bless those who bless you, but I will curse anyone who curses you; and by you all the families of the earth will be blessed. (Gen 12:3) ADONAI your God will put all these curses on your enemies, on those who hated and persecuted you; (Deut 30:7) [RETURN]

13. See Note 9, above. [RETURN]

14. Some expositors hold that the the ancient place-names “Meshekh” and “Tuval” correspond to the modern Russian cities of Moscow and Tobolsk, and suppose that Russian will send a vast army against Israel during the Tribulation period. [RETURN]

 15. Although I taught it for over 35 years, at no place in all of Scripture is “the Church” referred to as the “Bride of Christ.” That idea is a Roman Catholic invention that has been adopted by the Protestant Church as one of the “traditions of men.” New Jerusalem is said to be adorned as a bride (Rev. 21:2); the Lamb has a bride (Rev. 19:7-8; Rev 21:9); “the Spirit and the Bride” invite all to come partake of the “water of life” (Rev. 22:17). In the prophets, God often speaks of Israel by comparing Israel or Zion to a bride (e.g., Isa. 49:13-23; Isa. 62:5; Jer. 2:32). The preponderence of Scriptural evidence suggests that Israel, not the Church, is the Lamb’s bride. Those who come to God through the Messiah are adopted or “grafted” into the Commonwealth of Israel, and thereby, through that adoption, become participants and joint-heirs to the Covenants, the Promises, and the Land. [RETURN]

16. Just for reference, the diameter of the moon is 2,158.8 miles. So at 1,500 miles on a side, New Jerusalem is approximately 70% the size of the moon! Some interpreters feel that the city will come down out of the heavens and permanently hover above the present city of Jerusalem. I’m really anxious to see how that works! [RETURN]

17. Since I no longer believe in the Christian concept of heaven (explained here), I do not believe that the souls of the dead righteous are in the Third Heaven (HaShem’s throne room) or somewhere else off in “Gloryland” or in the “Sweet Bye and Bye.” I believe the Scripture is absolutely true that the righteons dead are “absent from the body and … at home with the Lord” (2Cor. 5:6-8). I just haven’t figured out yet how that works. We must consider that wherever HaShem is, it has to be outside of the space/time continuum that He created. Therefore, if the righteous dead are with HaShem, they also have to be outside the space/time continuum as well. If they are outside of the space/time continuum at the moment of death, can it be that at the very instant a righteous person takes their last breath they are resurrected in the Millennial Kingdom in Jerusalem? [RETURN]

18. I believe that the modern Messianic Judaism Movement, which spontaneously arose in three locales across the United States in 1967 just at the time Israel retook possession of Temple Mount for the first time in 1,997 years, may very well be the beginning of the fulfillment of the prophecy of the 144,000 witnesses. However, Messianic Judaism is not presenting the “Christian Gospel” as the Churcfh expects them to; Messianic Judaism is presenting the message of Kingdom living in the present, the restoration and ultimate redemption of Israel, the ingrafting of the Gentiles, and the establishment of Messiah’s literal, physical, earthly Kingdom. [RETURN]

Page originally posted on Sunday, 31 January 2021

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Anxiously awaiting Mashiach’s return