The Third Temple  The Center for
Messianic Learning 

Unapologetically Pro-Torah
Unashamedly Pro-Israel
Irrevocably Zionist
“… out of Tziyon will go forth Torah, the word of ADONAI from Yerushalayim.”
(Isaiah 2:3)
Jew and Gentile (Synagogue and Church), one in Messiah. (Ephesians 2:14)
“For He is our peace, Who made both one, and broke down the middle wall of partition, …”

If your life is not in jeopardy for what you believe, you’re probably on the wrong side!
If you don’t believe Genesis 1-11, how can you possibly believe John 3:16?
“Indeed, all who want to live a godly life united with the Messiah Yeshua will be persecuted.” (2Tim 3:12)
It is what you actually believe that determines how you walk out your faith, “but avoid stupid controversies, genealogies, quarrels and fights about the Torah; because they are worthless and futile.” (Titus 3:9)

Please Note: Absolutely nothing on this website should be taken as anti-Church or anti-Rabbinic. I am not anti-anything or anti-anyone. I am only pro-Torah and pro-Truth (see “Philosophy”), but sometimes the Truth upsets our long-held beliefs. I know it certainly upset mine! For example, see “Why Isn’t My Theology Consistent Throughout the Website?”

Developing a
Systematic Messianic Theology

“The purpose of careful theological formulations is not to put barriers in the way of people who are seeking salvation, but to define clearly the truths upon which genuine [Biblical] faith rests, so that people will not be misled by false doctrines.” [Bowman]

“It must be clearly and unequivocally stated that theology cannot save you. Only faith in Messiah Yeshua can save you. Theology can only give you sound doctrine.” [RLS]

Unless otherwise specified, throughout the Theology section of my website I use the term “Torah” in the wider sense of including the entire body of inspired Scripture: both the Tanakh and the Apostolic Writings. I personally do not consder any other so-called “sacred writings” either inspired by God or authoritative for the Believer’s walk of faith. Thus, I do not consider the Mishnah (the “Oral Torah”) as part of Torah. You should make up your own mind.

[Explanations of rabbinic citations are HERE]

The Attributes of God

Rabbi Ira Eisenstein (adapted)

Ole English capital letter WWe cannot actually picture goodness. It is not a being; it is a force, like electricity. Nobody ever actually saw electricity, but we can see and feel what electricity does. If we have an electric heater and connect it, we get heat. We get to know what electricity is by what it does. In the same way, we get to know what God is by what God makes us do: when people are, so to speak, connected with God, they do good things. We call those people godly people, and their acts, godly acts. Whenever this force is active, we say that God has exercised influence and power.

The Sages teach there are 13 attributes of God, based on Exodus 34:6-7:

6יְהוָ֥ה  (ADONAI) passed before him and proclaimed: “יְהוָ֥ה! יְהוָ֥ה is God, merciful and compassionate, slow to anger, rich in grace and truth; 7showing grace to the thousandth generation, forgiving offenses, crimes and sins; yet not exonerating the guilty, but causing the negative effects of the parents’ offenses to be experienced by their children and grandchildren, and even by the third and fourth generations.”
The Thirteen Attributes of God in the Machzor[1]

“YHVH, YHVH, a God compassionate and gracious, slow to anger, abounding in kindness and faithfulness, extending kindness to the thousandth generation, bearing iniquity, transgression and sin, and acquitting. … Pardon our iniquity and our sin, and take us for Your own!”

Unpacking the 13 Attributes (one version):

  1. YHVH - I am God before people sin
  2. YHVH - I am God after people sin if they repent
  3. El - (All-powerful) God
  4. Rahum - Compassionate
  5. VeHanun - Gracious
  6. Erekh Apayim - Slow to anger
  7. Verav Hesed - Abounding in lovingkindness
  8. Ve’emet - And in truth
  9. Notzer hesed La’alafim - Maintaining lovingkindness for 1,000 generations
  10. Nosei avon - Forgiving premeditated sins
  11. Va’fesha - sins committed in rebellion
  12. Va’hata’ah - sins made by mistake
  13. Venakeh - acquitting the penitent.
    (R. Tam, RH 17b, adapted by Max Arzt, Justice and Mercy)

  1. The machzor is the prayer book used by Jews on the High Holy Days of Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur. Many Jews also make use of specialized machzorim on the three pilgrimage festivals of Passover, Shavuot, and Sukkot. The machzor is a specialized form of the siddur, which is generally intended for use in weekday and Shabbat services. [BACK]

Originally posted on Wednesday, 24 November 2021

Page last updated on Tuesday, 26 September 2023 01:32 PM
(Updates are generally minor formatting or editorial changes.
Major content changes are identified as "Revisions”)

Anxiously awaiting Mashiach’s return

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