The Third Temple  The Center for
Messianic Learning 

Unapologetically Pro-Torah
Unashamedly Pro-Israel
Irrevocably Zionist
“… out of Tziyon will go forth Torah, the word of ADONAI from Yerushalayim.”
(Isaiah 2:3)
Jew and Gentile (Synagogue and Church), one in Messiah. (Ephesians 2:14)
“For He is our peace, Who made both one, and broke down the middle wall of partition, …”

If your life is not in jeopardy for what you believe, you’re probably on the wrong side!
If you don’t believe Genesis 1-11, how can you possibly believe John 3:16?
“Indeed, all who want to live a godly life united with the Messiah Yeshua will be persecuted.” (2Tim 3:12)
It is what you actually believe that determines how you walk out your faith, “but avoid stupid controversies, genealogies, quarrels and fights about the Torah; because they are worthless and futile.” (Titus 3:9)

Please Note: Absolutely nothing on this website should be taken as anti-Church or anti-Rabbinic. I am not anti-anything or anti-anyone. I am only pro-Torah and pro-Truth (see “Philosophy”), but sometimes the Truth upsets our long-held beliefs. I know it certainly upset mine! For example, see “Why Isn’t My Theology Consistent Throughout the Website?”

Developing a
Systematic Messianic Theology

“The purpose of careful theological formulations is not to put barriers in the way of people who are seeking salvation, but to define clearly the truths upon which genuine [Biblical] faith rests, so that people will not be misled by false doctrines.” [Bowman]

“It must be clearly and unequivocally stated that theology cannot save you. Only faith in Messiah Yeshua can save you. Theology can only give you sound doctrine.” [RLS]

Unless otherwise specified, throughout the Theology section of my website I use the term “Torah” in the wider sense of including the entire body of inspired Scripture: both the Tanakh and the Apostolic Writings. I personally do not consder any other so-called “sacred writings” either inspired by God or authoritative for the Believer’s walk of faith. Thus, I do not consider the Mishnah (the “Oral Torah”) as part of Torah. You should make up your own mind.

[Explanations of rabbinic citations are HERE]

God’s Eternal Covenants With Israel

Adapted in part from
accessed 30 August 2016. Used with permission.[1]

When there was a covenant between a stronger and lesser kingdom, it [was] referred to as Suzerain (superior king)/Vassal (lesser king) covenant. In these agreements, autonomy within their own borders is retained, and there was an alliance in wars and protection. If the vassal had issue with another vassal, they would bring it before the suzerain. This is the case in Gen 1:26-28, the Father created Adam to be the vassal king of the garden in Eden, and to colonize this world. …
   The Suzerain would keep one copy of the covenant and the vassal would keep one copy of the covenant. This can be seen with the giving of the Torah, and the reason there were 2 tablets. Typically the most widely used rite was that of cutting the bodies of animals in halves and placing them in two rows with enough space between for the two parties of the treaty to walk side by side, as with the Avrahamic covenant, but this isn’t seen until after the fall of Adam and death (separation) was brought into the world. As they walked between the pieces, they were vowing to each other, “May what has happened to these animals, happen to me if I break this covenant with you.” This is why … Avraham was put to a deep sleep. It was a one-sided covenant, to which, if Avraham or his descendant break, [the] incarnate Yeshua would have this done to Him.[2]

God structured His relationship with Israel around covenants. A covenant normally is defined as an agreement or contract between two parties. An examination of the covenants God made with Israel reveals they were decidedly one-sided. Put another way they were unilateral covenants, sovereign declarations. Even the Mosaic Covenant, which is viewed as conditional, in the final analysis, turns out to be unconditional, i.e., sovereignly established, because its provisions will be fulfilled through the New Covenant. Therefore, the best way to view these covenants is as promises.

God made five eternal and irrevocable covenants with Israel, as follows:

The Scriptures teach these covenants were given to Israel alone (cf. Rom 9:1-5, Eph 2:11-12). The Scriptures declare national Israel will exist forever and God will never forsake the nation (Isa 14:1; Isa 59:20-21; Isa 61:8-9; Jer 31:35-37; Ezek 16:59-63; Hos 2:16-23). God established a particular relationship with Abraham and with his descendants forever. Gentiles would be blessed by being united to Israel and through participating in the Abrahamic Covenant (i.e. Gen 12:3). Thus, all the covenants that God made with Israel remain now and forever in full force!


Rabbi Greg Hershberg briefly teaches on the covenants

  1. From that website: “©2002 Don Samdahl. Anyone is free to reproduce this material and distribute it, but it may not be sold.” Much in the original article was based on anti-Semitic Replacement Theology and other gross errors of Church interpretation, but much of it was solid and the outline was too good to not be of very good use. [BACK]

  2. Hudsom, Brian Keith. “The Suzerain/Vassal Covenants,”, accessed 05 May 2022. [BACK]

Originally posted on Friday, 03 December 2021
Revised on Tuesday, 10 May 2022

Page last updated on Tuesday, 26 September 2023 01:32 PM
(Updates are generally minor formatting or editorial changes.
Major content changes are identified as "Revisions”)

Anxiously awaiting Mashiach’s return

Blue Letter Bible Search Tool

Range Options:

e.g. Gen;Psa-Mal;Rom 3-9